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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342893/qtl-mapping-for-fiber-quality-and-yield-traits-based-on-introgression-lines-derived-from-gossypium-hirsutum-%C3%A3-g-tomentosum
#1
Ayaz Ali Keerio, Chao Shen, Yichun Nie, Muhammad Mahmood Ahmed, Xianlong Zhang, Zhongxu Lin
The tetraploid species Gossypium hirsutum is cultivated widely throughout the world with high yield and moderate fiber quality, but its genetic basis is narrow. A set of 107 introgression lines (ILs) was developed with an interspecific cross using G. hirsutumacc. 4105 as the recurrent parent and G. tomentosum as the donor parent. A specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) strategy was used to obtain high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. In total, 3157 high-quality SNP markers were obtained and further used for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fiber quality and yield traits evaluated in multiple environments...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339183/evolution-of-the-growth-hormone-prolactin-prolactin-2-and-somatolactin-family
#2
Daniel Ocampo Daza, Dan Larhammar
Growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), prolactin 2 (PRL2) and somatolactin (SL) belong to the same hormone family and have a wide repertoire of effects including development, osmoregulation, metabolism and stimulation of growth. Both the hormone and the receptor family have been proposed to have expanded by gene duplications in early vertebrate evolution. A key question is how hormone-receptor preferences have arisen among the duplicates. The first step to address this is to determine the time window for these duplications...
January 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338687/use-of-easy-measurable-phenotypic-traits-as-a-complementary-approach-to-evaluate-the-population-structure-and-diversity-in-a-high-heterozygous-panel-of-tetraploid-clones-and-cultivars
#3
Martin E Tagliotti, Sofia I Deperi, Maria C Bedogni, Ruofang Zhang, Norma C Manrique Carpintero, Joseph Coombs, David Douches, Marcelo A Huarte
BACKGROUND: Diversity in crops is fundamental for plant breeding efforts. An accurate assessment of genetic diversity, using molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), must be able to reveal the structure of the population under study. A characterization of population structure using easy measurable phenotypic traits could be a preliminary and low-cost approach to elucidate the genetic structure of a population. A potato population of 183 genotypes was evaluated using 4859 high-quality SNPs and 19 phenotypic traits commonly recorded in potato breeding programs...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335544/transposon-derived-small-rnas-triggered-by-mir845-mediate-genome-dosage-response-in-arabidopsis
#4
Filipe Borges, Jean-Sébastien Parent, Frédéric van Ex, Philip Wolff, German Martínez, Claudia Köhler, Robert A Martienssen
Chromosome dosage has substantial effects on reproductive isolation and speciation in both plants and animals, but the underlying mechanisms are largely obscure 1 . Transposable elements in animals can regulate hybridity through maternal small RNA 2 , whereas small RNAs in plants have been postulated to regulate dosage response via neighboring imprinted genes3,4. Here we show that a highly conserved microRNA in plants, miR845, targets the tRNAMet primer-binding site (PBS) of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in Arabidopsis pollen, and triggers the accumulation of 21-22-nucleotide (nt) small RNAs in a dose-dependent fashion via RNA polymerase IV...
January 15, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334256/differential-content-of-secondary-metabolites-in-diploid-and-tetraploid-cytotypes-of-siegesbeckia-orientalis-l
#5
Saroj Kumar Pradhan, Raghbir Chand Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Siegesbeckia orientalis L. is an annual herb widely distributed throughout the world and has many medicinal properties. In Chinese traditional system, it is popularly known as Xi-Xian and used for its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, two cytotypes (diploid and tetraploid) have been investigated for their secondary metabolites. The different plant parts have been explored in terms of total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH radical scavenging acitivity and total antioxidant capacity. Out of different plant parts, leaves have the maximum amount of secondary metabolites and antioxidant potential...
January 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328532/population-genomic-footprints-of-host-adaptation-introgression-and-recombination-in-coffee-leaf-rust
#6
Diogo Nuno Silva, Vítor Várzea, Octávio Salgueiro Paulo, Dora Batista
Coffee Leaf Rust, caused by Hemileia vastatrix (Hv), represents the biggest threat to coffee production worldwide and ranks amongst the most serious fungal diseases in history. Despite a recent series of outbreaks and emergence of hyper-virulent strains, the population evolutionary history and potential of this pathogen remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we used RADseq to generate ∼19,000 SNPs across a worldwide collection of 37 Hv samples. Contrarily to the longstanding idea that Hv represents a genetically unstructured and cosmopolitan species, our results reveal the existence of a cryptic species complex with marked host tropism...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324803/genetic-dissection-of-the-relationships-between-grain-yield-components-by-genome-wide-association-mapping-in-a-collection-of-tetraploid-wheats
#7
Giacomo Mangini, Agata Gadaleta, Pasqualina Colasuonno, Ilaria Marcotuli, Antonio M Signorile, Rosanna Simeone, Pasquale De Vita, Anna M Mastrangelo, Giovanni Laidò, Nicola Pecchioni, Antonio Blanco
Increasing grain yield potential in wheat has been a major target of most breeding programs. Genetic advance has been frequently hindered by negative correlations among yield components that have been often observed in segregant populations and germplasm collections. A tetraploid wheat collection was evaluated in seven environments and genotyped with a 90K SNP assay to identify major and stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain yield per spike (GYS), kernel number per spike (KNS) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW), and to analyse the genetic relationships between the yield components at QTL level...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324636/simple-sequence-repeat-ssr-genetic-linkage-map-of-d-genome-diploid-cotton-derived-from-an-interspecific-cross-between-gossypium-davidsonii-and-gossypium-klotzschianum
#8
Joy Nyangasi Kirungu, Yanfeng Deng, Xiaoyan Cai, Richard Odongo Magwanga, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Yuhong Wang, Zhenmei Zhang, Kunbo Wang, Fang Liu
The challenge in tetraploid cotton cultivars is the narrow genetic base and therefore, the bottleneck is how to obtain interspecific hybrids and introduce the germplasm directly from wild cotton to elite cultivars. Construction of genetic maps has provided insight into understanding the genome structure, interrelationships between organisms in relation to evolution, and discovery of genes that carry important agronomic traits in plants. In this study, we generated an interspecific hybrid between two wild diploid cottons, Gossypium davidsonii and Gossypium klotzschianum, and genotyped 188 F2:3 populations in order to develop a genetic map...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321878/asymmetric-reproductive-interference-the-consequences-of-cross-pollination-on-reproductive-success-in-sexual-apomictic-populations-of-potentilla-puberula-rosaceae
#9
Christoph Dobeš, Susanne Scheffknecht, Yulia Fenko, Dagmar Prohaska, Christina Sykora, Karl Hülber
Apomixis evolves from a sexual background and usually is linked to polyploidization. Pseudogamous gametophytic apomicts, which require a fertilization to initiate seed development, of various ploidy levels frequently co-occur with their lower-ploid sexual ancestors, but the stability of such mixed populations is affected by reproductive interferences mediated by cross-pollination. Thereby, reproductive success of crosses depends on the difference in ploidy levels of mating partners, that is, on tolerance of deviation from the balanced ratio of maternal versus paternal genomes...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321849/population-genomics-and-geographical-parthenogenesis-in-japanese-harvestmen-opiliones-sclerosomatidae-leiobunum
#10
Mercedes Burns, Marshal Hedin, Nobuo Tsurusaki
Naturally occurring population variation in reproductive mode presents an opportunity for researchers to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of sex. Asexual reproduction frequently assumes a geographical pattern, in which parthenogenesis-dominated populations are more broadly dispersed than their sexual conspecifics. We evaluate the geographical distribution of genomic signatures associated with parthenogenesis using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data from two Japanese harvestman sister taxa, Leiobunum manubriatum and Leiobunum globosum...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321819/the-induction-of-endoreduplication-and-polyploidy-by-elevated-expression-of-14-3-3%C3%AE
#11
Cecil J Gomes, Sara M Centuori, Michael W Harman, Charles W Putnam, Charles W Wolgemuth, Jesse D Martinez
Several studies have demonstrated that specific 14-3-3 isoforms are frequently elevated in cancer and that these proteins play a role in human tumorigenesis. 14-3-3γ, an isoform recently demonstrated to function as an oncoprotein, is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers; however, its role in promoting tumorigenesis remains unclear. We previously reported that overexpression of 14-3-3γ caused the appearance of polyploid cells, a phenotype demonstrated to have profound tumor promoting properties. Here we examined the mechanism driving 14-3-3γ-induced polyploidization and the effect this has on genomic stability...
November 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314007/chlorophyll-fluorescence-imaging-reveals-genetic-variation-and-loci-for-a-photosynthetic-trait-in-diploid-potato
#12
Aina E Prinzenberg, Marcela Víquez-Zamora, Jeremy Harbinson, Pim Lindhout, Sjaak van Heusden
Physiology and genetics are tightly interrelated. Understanding the genetic basis of a physiological trait such as the quantum yield of the photosystem II, or photosynthetic responses to environmental changes will benefit the understanding of these processes. By means of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging "CF", the quantum yield of photosystem II can be determined rapidly, precisely and non-invasively. In this article, the genetic control and variation in the steady-state quantum yield of PSII "ΦPSII " is analysed for diploid potato plants...
January 4, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307117/genetic-mapping-of-quantitative-trait-loci-for-tuber-cadmium-and-zinc-concentration-in-potato-reveals-associations-with-maturity-and-both-overlapping-and-independent-components-of-genetic-control
#13
Molla F Mengist, Sheila Alves, Denis Griffin, Joanne Creedon, Mike J McLaughlin, Peter W Jones, Dan Milbourne
Cd is a toxic metal, whilst Zn is an essential for plant and human health. Both can accumulate in potato tubers. We examine the genetic control of this process. The aim of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing tuber concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). We developed a segregating population comprising 188 F1 progeny derived from crossing two tetraploid cultivars exhibiting divergent tuber-Cd-accumulation phenotypes. These progeny were genotyped using the SolCap 8303 SNP array, and evaluated for Cd, Zn, and maturity-related traits...
January 6, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307114/genome-wide-investigation-and-expression-profiling-of-apx-gene-family-in-gossypium-hirsutum-provide-new-insights-in-redox-homeostasis-maintenance-during-different-fiber-development-stages
#14
Chengcheng Tao, Xiang Jin, Liping Zhu, Quanliang Xie, Xuchu Wang, Hongbin Li
Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a member of heme-containing peroxidases which catalyze the H2O2-dependent oxidation of a wide range of substrates in plants and animals. As is known, H2O2 acts as a signaling molecule in the regulation of fiber development. Our previous work reported that ascorbate peroxidase 1 (GhAPX1) was important for cotton fiber elongation. However, knowledge about APX gene family members and their evolutionary and functional characteristics in cotton is limited. Here, we report 26 GhAPX genes by genome-wide investigation of tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300760/biological-invasion-of-oxeye-daisy-leucanthemum-vulgare-in-north-america-pre-adaptation-post-introduction-evolution-or-both
#15
Sonja Stutz, Patrik Mráz, Hariet L Hinz, Heinz Müller-Schärer, Urs Schaffner
Species may become invasive after introduction to a new range because phenotypic traits pre-adapt them to spread and become dominant. In addition, adaptation to novel selection pressures in the introduced range may further increase their potential to become invasive. The diploid Leucanthemum vulgare and the tetraploid L. ircutianum are native to Eurasia and have been introduced to North America, but only L. vulgare has become invasive. To investigate whether phenotypic differences between the two species in Eurasia could explain the higher abundance of L...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299242/numerous-mitochondrial-dna-haplotypes-reveal-multiple-independent-polyploidy-origins-of-hexaploids-in-carassius-species-complex
#16
Xiao-Li Liu, Xi-Yin Li, Fang-Fang Jiang, Zhong-Wei Wang, Zhi Li, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Evolutionary trajectory and occurrence history of polyploidy have been extensively studied in plants, but they remain quite elusive in vertebrates. Here, we sampled and gathered 4,159 specimens of polyploid Carassius species complex including 1,336 tetraploids and 2,823 hexaploids from a large geographic scale (49 localities) across East Asia, and identified a huge number of 427 diverse haplotypes of mitochondrial control region, in which 74 haplotypes with total occurrence frequency up to 75.498% were shared by hexaploids and tetraploids...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299236/the-effects-of-elevated-co2-0-5-on-chloroplasts-in-the-tetraploid-black-locust-robinia-pseudoacacia-l
#17
Yuan Cao, Mingquan Jiang, Fuling Xu, Shuo Liu, Fanjuan Meng
Some ploidy plants demonstrate environmental stress tolerance. Tetraploid (4×) black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) exhibits less chlorosis in response to high CO 2 than do the corresponding diploid (2×) plants of this species. We investigated the plant growth, anatomy, photosynthetic ability, chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence, and antioxidase activities in 2× and 4× black locusts cultivated under high CO 2 (0.5%). Elevated CO 2 (0.5%) induced a global decrease in the contents of total chl, chl a, and chl b in 2× leaves, while few changes were found in the chl content of 4× leaves...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298834/genomic-imprinting-was-evolutionarily-conserved-during-wheat-polyploidization
#18
Guanghui Yang, Zhenshan Liu, Lulu Gao, Kuohai Yu, Man Feng, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Zhaorong Hu, Qixin Sun, Zhongfu Ni, Mingming Xin
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be differentially expressed depending on their parent-of-origin. To evaluate the evolutionary conservation of genomic imprinting and the effects of ploidy on this process, we investigated parent-of-origin-specific gene expression patterns in the endosperm of diploid (Aegilops spp.), tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat (Triticum spp.) at various stages of development via high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. We identified 91, 135, and 146 maternally or paternally expressed genes (MEGs or PEGs, respectively) in diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat, respectively, 52...
January 3, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297328/genes-wheat-frizzy-panicle-and-sham-ramification-2-independently-regulate-differentiation-of-floral-meristems-in-wheat
#19
Oxana B Dobrovolskaya, Yumiko Amagai, Karina I Popova, Alina E Dresvyannikova, Petr Martinek, Alexander A Krasnikov, Nobuyoshi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Inflorescences of wheat species, spikes, are characteristically unbranched and bear one sessile spikelet at a spike rachis node. Development of supernumerary spikelets (SSs) at rachis nodes or on the extended rachillas is abnormal. Various wheat morphotypes with altered spike morphology, associated with the development of SSs, present an important genetic resource for studies on genetic regulation of wheat inflorescence development. RESULTS: Here we characterized diploid and tetraploid wheat lines of various non-standard spike morphotypes, which allowed for identification of a new mutant allele of the WHEAT FRIZZY PANICLE (WFZP) gene that determines spike branching in diploid wheat Ttiticum monococcum L...
December 28, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297314/evolution-of-blue-flowered-species-of-genus-linum-based-on-high-throughput-sequencing-of-ribosomal-rna-genes
#20
Nadezhda L Bolsheva, Nataliya V Melnikova, Ilya V Kirov, Anna S Speranskaya, Anastasia A Krinitsina, Alexey A Dmitriev, Maxim S Belenikin, George S Krasnov, Valentina A Lakunina, Anastasiya V Snezhkina, Tatiana A Rozhmina, Tatiana E Samatadze, Olga Yu Yurkevich, Svyatoslav A Zoshchuk, Аlexandra V Amosova, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Olga V Muravenko
BACKGROUND: The species relationships within the genus Linum have already been studied several times by means of different molecular and phylogenetic approaches. Nevertheless, a number of ambiguities in phylogeny of Linum still remain unresolved. In particular, the species relationships within the sections Stellerolinum and Dasylinum need further clarification. Also, the question of independence of the species of the section Adenolinum still remains unanswered. Moreover, the relationships of L...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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