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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784668/centrosome-linker-induced-tetraploid-segregation-errors-link-rhabdoid-phenotypes-and-lethal-colorectal-cancers
#1
Andrea Remo, Erminia Manfrin, Pietro Parcesepe, Alberto Ferrarini, Hye Seung Han, Mickys Ugnius, Carmelo Laudanna, Michele Simbolo, Donatella Malanga, Duarte Mendes Oliveira, Elisabetta Baritono, Tommaso Colangelo, Lina Sabatino, Jacopo Giuliani, Enrico Molinari, Marianna Garonzi, Luciano Xumerle, Massimo Delledonne, Guido Giordano, Claudio Ghimenton, Fortunato Lonardo, Fulvio D'angelo, Federica Grillo, Luca Mastracci, Giuseppe Viglietto, Michele Ceccarelli, Vittorio Colantuoni, Aldo Scarpa, Massimo Pancione
Centrosome anomalies contribute to tumorigenesis but it remains unclear how they are generated in lethal cancer phenotypes. Here, it is demonstrated that human microsatellite instable (MSI) and BRAF(V600E) mutant colorectal cancers with a lethal rhabdoid phenotype are characterized by inactivation of centrosomal functions. A splice site mutation that causes an unbalanced dosage of rootletin (CROCC), a centrosomal-linker component required for centrosome cohesion and separation at the chromosome 1p36.13 locus, resulted in abnormally shaped centrosomes in rhabdoid cells from human colon tissues...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779163/discovering-simple-phenylboronic-acid-and-benzoxaborole-derivatives-for-experimental-oncology-phase-cycle-specific-inducers-of-apoptosis-in-a2780-ovarian-cancer-cells
#2
Mateusz Psurski, Agnieszka Łupicka-Słowik, Agnieszka Adamczyk-Woźniak, Joanna Wietrzyk, Andrzej Sporzyński
Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of simple phenylboronic acid and benzoxaborole derivatives as well as to provide preliminary insight into their mode of action in cancer cells in vitro. Methods The antiproliferative activity was assessed in five diverse cancer cell lines via the SRB method (sulforhodamine B) or MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method after 72 h of treatment. Further studies of the mechanism of action consisted of the influence of the compounds on cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction, which was assessed by flow cytometry, caspase-3 enzymatic activity, fluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis...
May 19, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777105/phenotypic-diversification-by-enhanced-genome-restructuring-after-induction-of-multiple-dna-double-strand-breaks
#3
Nobuhiko Muramoto, Arisa Oda, Hidenori Tanaka, Takahiro Nakamura, Kazuto Kugou, Kazuki Suda, Aki Kobayashi, Shiori Yoneda, Akinori Ikeuchi, Hiroki Sugimoto, Satoshi Kondo, Chikara Ohto, Takehiko Shibata, Norihiro Mitsukawa, Kunihiro Ohta
DNA double-strand break (DSB)-mediated genome rearrangements are assumed to provide diverse raw genetic materials enabling accelerated adaptive evolution; however, it remains unclear about the consequences of massive simultaneous DSB formation in cells and their resulting phenotypic impact. Here, we establish an artificial genome-restructuring technology by conditionally introducing multiple genomic DSBs in vivo using a temperature-dependent endonuclease TaqI. Application in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana generates strains with phenotypes, including improved ethanol production from xylose at higher temperature and increased plant biomass, that are stably inherited to offspring after multiple passages...
May 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775862/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-max2-ortholog-from-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l
#4
Tingting Cheng, Donghua Wang, Yongfeng Wang, Shumeng Zhang, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi, Fengli Sun
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a sustainable cellulosic energy crop with high biomass yield on marginal soils. Tillering, an important agronomic characteristic related to biomass production in gramineous plants, is regulated by complex interacting factors, such as plant hormones. Strigolactones (SLs) comprise a novel class of plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching. The MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)/DWARF 3 (D3)/RAMOSUS (RMS4) genes encode proteins involved in the SL signaling pathway in various plants...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770515/structural-variation-and-rates-of-genome-evolution-in-the-grass-family-seen-through-comparison-of-sequences-of-genomes-greatly-differing-in-size
#5
Jan Dvorak, Le Wang, Tingting Zhu, Chad M Jorgensen, Karin R Deal, Xiongtao Dai, Matthew W Dawson, Hans-Georg Müller, Ming-Cheng Luo, Ramesh K Ramasamy, Hamid Dehghani, Yong Q Gu, Bikram S Gill, Assaf Distelfeld, Katrien M Devos, Peng Qi, Frank M You, Patrick J Gulick, Patrick E McGuire
Homology was searched with genes annotated in the Aegilops tauschii pseudomolecules against genes annotated in the pseudomolecules of tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Brachypodium distachyon, sorghum, and rice. Similar searches were initiated with genes annotated in the rice pseudomolecules. Matrices of colinear genes and rearrangements in their order were constructed. Optical Bionano genome maps were constructed and used to validate rearrangements unique to the wild emmer and Ae. tauschii genomes. Most common rearrangements were short paracentric inversions and short intrachromosomal translocations...
May 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768506/genome-wide-classification-evolutionary-analysis-and-gene-expression-patterns-of-the-kinome-in-gossypium
#6
Jun Yan, Guilin Li, Xingqi Guo, Yang Li, Xuecheng Cao
The protein kinase (PK, kinome) family is one of the largest families in plants and regulates almost all aspects of plant processes, including plant development and stress responses. Despite their important functions, comprehensive functional classification, evolutionary analysis and expression patterns of the cotton PK gene family has yet to be performed on PK genes. In this study, we identified the cotton kinomes in the Gossypium raimondii, Gossypium arboretum, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense genomes and classified them into 7 groups and 122-24 subfamilies using software HMMER v3...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765588/dna-barcoding-a-taxonomically-complex-hemiparasitic-genus-reveals-deep-divergence-between-ploidy-levels-but-lack-of-species-level-resolution
#7
Xumei Wang, Galina Gussarova, Markus Ruhsam, Natasha de Vere, Chris Metherell, Peter M Hollingsworth, Alex D Twyford
DNA barcoding is emerging as a useful tool not only for species identification but also for studying evolutionary and ecological processes. Although plant DNA barcodes do not always provide species-level resolution, the generation of large DNA barcode data sets can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the generation of species diversity. Here, we study evolutionary processes in taxonomically complex British Euphrasia (Orobanchaceae), a group with multiple ploidy levels, frequent self-fertilization, young species divergence and widespread hybridization...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765383/fish-based-markers-enable-identification-of-chromosomes-derived-from-tetraploid-thinopyrum-elongatum-in-hybrid-lines
#8
Daiyan Li, Tinghui Li, Yanli Wu, Xiaohui Zhang, Wei Zhu, Yi Wang, Jian Zeng, Lili Xu, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Haiqin Zhang, Yonghong Zhou, Houyang Kang
Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum , which has superior abiotic stress tolerance characteristics, and exhibits resistance to stripe rust, powdery mildew, and Fusarium head blight, is a wild relative of wheat and a promising source of novel genes for wheat improvement. Currently, a high-resolution Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotype of tetraploid Th. elongatum is not available. To develop chromosome-specific FISH-based markers, the hexaploid Trititrigia 8801 and two accessions of tetraploid Th. elongatum were characterized by different repetitive sequences probes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755483/multiple-origins-and-nested-cycles-of-hybridization-result-in-high-tetraploid-diversity-in-the-monocot-prospero
#9
Tae-Soo Jang, John S Parker, Khatere Emadzade, Eva M Temsch, Andrew R Leitch, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss
Polyploidy is a major driving force in angiosperm evolution, but our understanding of establishment and early diversification processes following allo- vs. auto-polyploidy is limited. An excellent system to address such questions is the monocot plant Prospero autumnale , as it comprises several genomically and chromosomally distinct diploid cytotypes and their auto- and allotetraploid derivatives. To infer origins and evolutionary trajectories of the tetraploids, we use genome size data, in situ hybridization with parental genomic DNAs and specific probes (satDNA, rDNAs), as well as molecular-phylogenetic analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743970/cell-size-influences-the-reproductive-potential-and-total-lifespan-of-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast-as-revealed-by-the-analysis-of-polyploid-strains
#10
Renata Zadrag-Tecza, Magdalena Kwolek-Mirek, Małgorzata Alabrudzińska, Adrianna Skoneczna
The total lifespan of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be divided into two phases: the reproductive phase, during which the cell undergoes mitosis cycles to produce successive buds, and the postreproductive phase, which extends from the last division to cell death. These phases may be regulated by a common mechanism or by distinct ones. In this paper, we proposed a more comprehensive approach to reveal the mechanisms that regulate both reproductive potential and total lifespan in cell size context. Our study was based on yeast cells, whose size was determined by increased genome copy number, ranging from haploid to tetraploid...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743678/genome-sequence-of-the-progenitor-of-wheat-a-subgenome-triticum-urartu
#11
Hong-Qing Ling, Bin Ma, Xiaoli Shi, Hui Liu, Lingli Dong, Hua Sun, Yinghao Cao, Qiang Gao, Shusong Zheng, Ye Li, Ying Yu, Huilong Du, Ming Qi, Yan Li, Hongwei Lu, Hua Yu, Yan Cui, Ning Wang, Chunlin Chen, Huilan Wu, Yan Zhao, Juncheng Zhang, Yiwen Li, Wenjuan Zhou, Bairu Zhang, Weijuan Hu, Michiel J T van Eijk, Jifeng Tang, Hanneke M A Witsenboer, Shancen Zhao, Zhensheng Li, Aimin Zhang, Daowen Wang, Chengzhi Liang
Triticum urartu (diploid, AA) is the progenitor of the A subgenome of tetraploid (Triticum turgidum, AABB) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) wheat1,2 . Genomic studies of T. urartu have been useful for investigating the structure, function and evolution of polyploid wheat genomes. Here we report the generation of a high-quality genome sequence of T. urartu by combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-by-BAC sequencing, single molecule real-time whole-genome shotgun sequencing 3 , linked reads and optical mapping4,5 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743014/comprehensive-analyses-of-the-bes1-gene-family-in-brassica-napus-and-examination-of-their-evolutionary-pattern-in-representative-species
#12
Xiaoming Song, Xiao Ma, Chunjin Li, Jingjing Hu, Qihang Yang, Tong Wang, Li Wang, Jinpeng Wang, Di Guo, Weina Ge, Zhenyi Wang, Miaomiao Li, Qiumei Wang, Tianzeng Ren, Shuyan Feng, Lixia Wang, Weimeng Zhang, Xiyin Wang
BACKGROUND: The BES1 gene family, an important class of plant-specific transcription factors, play key roles in the BR signal pathway in plants, regulating various development processes. Until now, there has been no comprehensive analysis of the BES1 gene family in Brassica napus, and a cross-genome exploration of their origin, copy number changes, and functional innovation in plants was also not available. RESULTS: We identified 28 BES1 genes in B. napus from its two subgenomes (AA and CC)...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735370/generation-of-%C3%AE-solanine-free-hairy-roots-of-potato-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-of-the-st16dox-gene
#13
Masaru Nakayasu, Ryota Akiyama, Hyoung Jae Lee, Keishi Osakabe, Yuriko Osakabe, Bunta Watanabe, Yukihiro Sugimoto, Naoyuki Umemoto, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka, Masaharu Mizutani
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major food crop, while the most tissues of potato accumulates steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) α-solanine and α-chaconine. Since SGAs confer a bitter taste on human and show the toxicity against various organisms, reducing the SGA content in the tubers is requisite for potato breeding. However, generation of SGA-free potato has not been achieved yet, although silencing of several SGA biosynthetic genes led a decrease in SGAs. Here, we show that the knockout of St16DOX encoding a steroid 16α-hydroxylase in SGA biosynthesis causes the complete abolition of the SGA accumulation in potato hairy roots...
April 24, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734726/genomic-comparison-of-the-p-atpase-gene-family-in-four-cotton-species-and-their-expression-patterns-in-gossypium-hirsutum
#14
Wen Chen, Guo-Yang Si, Gang Zhao, Muhammad Abdullah, Ning Guo, Da-Hui Li, Xu Sun, Yong-Ping Cai, Yi Lin, Jun-Shan Gao
Plant P-type H⁺-ATPase (P-ATPase) is a membrane protein existing in the plasma membrane that plays an important role in the transmembrane transport of plant cells. To understand the variety and quantity of P-ATPase proteins in different cotton species, we combined four databases from two diploid cotton species ( Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum ) and two tetraploid cotton species ( G. hirsutum and G. barbadense ) to screen the P-ATPase gene family and resolved the evolutionary relationships between the former cotton species...
May 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734333/a-coupled-process-of-same-and-opposite-sex-mating-generates-polyploidy-and-genetic-diversity-in-candida-tropicalis
#15
Han Du, Qiushi Zheng, Jian Bing, Richard J Bennett, Guanghua Huang
Sexual reproduction is a universal mechanism for generating genetic diversity in eukaryotes. Fungi exhibit diverse strategies for sexual reproduction both in nature and in the laboratory. In this study, we report the discovery of same-sex (homothallic) mating in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis. We show that same-sex mating occurs between two cells carrying the same mating type (MTLa/a or α/α) and requires the presence of pheromone from the opposite mating type as well as the receptor for this pheromone...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726889/immediate-vs-evolutionary-consequences-of-polyploidy-on-clonal-reproduction-in-an-autopolyploid-plant
#16
Wendy E Van Drunen, Brian C Husband
Background and Aims: Clonal reproduction in polyploids is expected to exceed that in diploids, due to either the immediate direct effects of whole-genome duplication (WGD) or selection during establishment. The timing of polyploidy effects on clonality are largely unknown despite its hypothesized influence on polyploid success. This study tests the direction and timing of divergence in clonal traits in diploid and polyploid Chamerion angustifolium. Methods: Root bud production and biomass allocation patterns were compared between diploids and synthesized tetraploids (neotetraploids), and between neotetraploids and naturally occurring tetraploids grown in a common environment...
May 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722786/polymapr-linkage-analysis-and-genetic-map-construction-from-f1-populations-of-outcrossing-polyploids
#17
Peter M Bourke, Geert van Geest, Roeland E Voorrips, Johannes Jansen, Twan Kranenburg, Arwa Shahin, Richard G F Visser, Paul Arens, Marinus J M Smulders, Chris Maliepaard
Motivation: Polyploid species carry more than two copies of each chromosome, a condition found in many of the world's most important crops. Genetic mapping in polyploids is more complex than in diploid species, resulting in a lack of available software tools. These are needed if we are to realise all the opportunities offered by modern genotyping platforms for genetic research and breeding in polyploid crops. Results: polymapR is an R package for genetic linkage analysis and integrated genetic map construction from bi-parental populations of outcrossing autopolyploids...
May 2, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720823/-in-vitro-induction-and-generation-of-tetraploid-plants-of-sophora-tonkinensis-gapnep
#18
Kun Hua Wei, Jian Ping Xu, Lin Xuan Li, Jin Yuan Cai, Jian Hua Miao, Min Hui Li
Background: Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. is an important medical plant in China. Early researches of S. tonkinensis were focused on rapid propagation and quality analysis of in vitro tissue culture plantlet, and still no research focuses on the plant breeding of and there were no excellent varieties for artificial cultivation of S. tonkinensis . Objective: To set up a method to generate and select the best varieties of S. tonkinensis by polyploid breeding after induction by colchicine treatment...
April 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712735/uncoordinated-centrosome-cycle-underlies-the-instability-of-non-diploid-somatic-cells-in-mammals
#19
Kan Yaguchi, Takahiro Yamamoto, Ryo Matsui, Yuki Tsukada, Atsuko Shibanuma, Keiko Kamimura, Toshiaki Koda, Ryota Uehara
In animals, somatic cells are usually diploid and are unstable when haploid for unknown reasons. In this study, by comparing isogenic human cell lines with different ploidies, we found frequent centrosome loss specifically in the haploid state, which profoundly contributed to haploid instability through subsequent mitotic defects. We also found that the efficiency of centriole licensing and duplication changes proportionally to ploidy level, whereas that of DNA replication stays constant. This caused gradual loss or frequent overduplication of centrioles in haploid and tetraploid cells, respectively...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696298/mechanisms-origin-and-heredity-of-glu-1ay-silencing-in-wheat-evolution-and-domestication
#20
Guangbin Luo, Shuyi Song, Liru Zhao, Lisha Shen, Yanhong Song, Xin Wang, Kang Yu, Zhiyong Liu, Yiwen Li, Wenlong Yang, Xin Li, Kehui Zhan, Aimin Zhang, Dongcheng Liu
Allotetraploidization drives Glu-1Ay silencing in polyploid wheat. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene, Glu-1Ay, is always silenced in common wheat via elusive mechanisms. To investigate its silencing and heredity during wheat polyploidization and domestication, the Glu-1Ay gene was characterized in 1246 accessions containing diploid and polyploid wheat worldwide. Eight expressed Glu-1Ay alleles (in 71.81% accessions) and five silenced alleles with a premature termination codon (PTC) were identified in Triticum urartu; 4 expressed alleles (in 41...
April 25, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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