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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429058/effects-of-genome-duplication-on-phenotypes-and-industrial-applications-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#1
Ke Zhang, Ya-Hong Fang, Ke-Hui Gao, Yang Sui, Dao-Qiong Zheng, Xue-Chang Wu
Polyploidy is common in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, but the physiological and phenotypic effects of ploidy changes have not been fully clarified. Here, isogenic diploid, triploid, and tetraploid S. cerevisiae strains were constructed from a haploid strain, CEN.PK2-1C. Stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performance of the four euploid strains were compared. Each euploid strain had strengths and weaknesses in tolerance to certain stressors, and no single strain was tolerant of all stressors. The diploid had higher ethanol production than the other strains in normal fermentation medium, while the triploid strain showed the fastest fermentation rate in the presence of inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysate...
April 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427346/karyotypic-evolution-of-the-medicago-complex-sativa-caerulea-falcata-inferred-from-comparative-cytogenetic-analysis
#2
Feng Yu, Haiqing Wang, Yanyan Zhao, Ruijuan Liu, Quanwen Dou, Jiangli Dong, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy plays an important role in the adaptation and speciation of plants. The alteration of karyotype is a significant event during polyploidy formation. The Medicago sativa complex includes both diploid (2n = 2× = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 2× = 32) subspecies. The tetraploid M. ssp. sativa was regarded as having a simple autopolyploid origin from diploid ssp. caerulea, whereas the autopolyploid origin of tetraploid ssp. falcata from diploid form ssp. falcata is still in doubt...
April 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424725/a-genome-scale-analysis-of-the-pin-gene-family-reveals-its-functions-in-cotton-fiber-development
#3
Yuzhou Zhang, Peng He, Zuoren Yang, Gai Huang, Limin Wang, Chaoyou Pang, Hui Xiao, Peng Zhao, Jianing Yu, Guanghui Xiao
The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein, the most important polar auxin transporter, plays a critical role in the distribution of auxin and controls multiple biological processes. However, characterizations and functions of this gene family have not been identified in cotton. Here, we identified the PIN family in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium raimondii. This gene family was divided into seven subgroups. A chromosomal distribution analysis showed that GhPIN genes were evenly distributed in eight chromosomes and that the whole genome and dispersed duplications were the main duplication events for GhPIN expansion...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421329/characterization-of-two-tt2-type-myb-transcription-factors-regulating-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-tetraploid-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum
#4
Nan Lu, Marissa Roldan, Richard A Dixon
Two TT2-type MYB transcription factors identified from tetraploid cotton are involved in regulating proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, providing new strategies for engineering condensed tannins in crops. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites involved in stress resistance in plants, and are health supplements that help to reduce cholesterol levels. As one of the most widely grown crops in the world, cotton provides the majority of natural fabrics and is a supplemental food for ruminant animals...
April 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419145/apomixis-frequency-under-stress-conditions-in-weeping-lovegrass-eragrostis-curvula
#5
Juan Manuel Rodrigo, Diego Carlos Zappacosta, Juan Pablo Selva, Ingrid Garbus, Emidio Albertini, Viviana Echenique
To overcome environmental stress, plants develop physiological responses that are triggered by genetic or epigenetic changes, some of which involve DNA methylation. It has been proposed that apomixis, the formation of asexual seeds without meiosis, occurs through the temporal or spatial deregulation of the sexual process mediated by genetic and epigenetic factors influenced by the environment. Here, we explored whether there was a link between the occurrence of apomixis and various factors that generate stress, including drought stress, in vitro culture, and intraspecific hybridization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417908/cytokinesis-failure-leading-to-chromosome-instability-in-v-src-induced-oncogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Yuji Nakayama, Shuhei Soeda, Masayoshi Ikeuchi, Keiko Kakae, Naoto Yamaguchi
v-Src, an oncogene found in Rous sarcoma virus, is a constitutively active variant of c-Src. Activation of Src is observed frequently in colorectal and breast cancers, and is critical in tumor progression through multiple processes. However, in some experimental conditions, v-Src causes growth suppression and apoptosis. In this review, we highlight recent progress in our understanding of cytokinesis failure and the attenuation of the tetraploidy checkpoint in v-Src-expressing cells. v-Src induces cell cycle changes-such as the accumulation of the 4N cell population-and increases the number of binucleated cells, which is accompanied by an excess number of centrosomes...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415765/stable-aneuploid-tumors-cells-are-more-sensitive-to-ttk-inhibition-than-chromosomally-unstable-cell-lines
#7
Marion A A Libouban, Jeroen A D M de Roos, Joost C M Uitdehaag, Nicole Willemsen-Seegers, Sara Mainardi, Jelle Dylus, Jos de Man, Bastiaan Tops, Jules P P Meijerink, Zuzana Storchová, Rogier C Buijsman, René H Medema, Guido J R Zaman
Inhibition of the spindle assembly checkpoint kinase TTK causes chromosome mis-segregation and tumor cell death. However, high levels of TTK correlate with chromosomal instability (CIN), which can lead to aneuploidy. We show that treatment of tumor cells with the selective small molecule TTK inhibitor NTRC 0066-0 overrides the mitotic checkpoint, irrespective of cell line sensitivity. In stable aneuploid cells NTRC 0066-0 induced acute CIN, whereas in cells with high levels of pre-existing CIN there was only a small additional fraction of cells mis-segregating their chromosomes...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415725/stat3-positive-tumor-cells-contribute-to-vessels-neoformation-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#8
Simona Ruggieri, Roberto Tamma, Nicoletta Resta, Francesco Albano, Nicoletta Coccaro, Daria Loconte, Tiziana Annese, Mariella Errede, Giorgina Specchia, Rebecca Senetta, Paola Cassoni, Domenico Ribatti, Beatrice Nico
With the aim of elucidating the relationship between Stat3 expression and tumor vessels abnormalities in the PCNLs, in this study we evaluated Stat3 and pStat3 expression by Real-time PCR and by immunohistochemistry in biopsy sections from PCNSL patients. Correlations of the expression levels with the presence of aberrant vessels were analyzed by confocal laser microscopy analysis, using FVIII as endothelial cell marker, CD133 and nestin as cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, CD20 as tumor cell marker, and Stat3...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414099/molecular-evolution-of-the-plastid-genome-during-diversification-of-the-cotton-genus
#9
Zhiwen Chen, Corrinne E Grover, Pengbo Li, Yumei Wang, Hushuai Nie, Yanpeng Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Fang Liu, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Xiaoyan Cai, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F Wendel, Jinping Hua
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome duringdiversification, chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) from 6 D-genome and 2 G-genome species of Gossypium (G. armourianum D2-1, G. harknessii D2-2, G. davidsonii D3-d, G. klotzschianum D3-k, G. aridum D4, G. trilobum D8, and G. australe G2, G. nelsonii G3) were newly reported here...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413121/characterisation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-terminal-differentiation-in-a-maximally-proliferative-human-epithelial-tissue-lessons-from-the-human-hair-follicle-matrix
#10
Talveen S Purba, Lars Brunken, Michael Peake, Asim Shahmalak, Asuncion Chaves, Enrique Poblet, Ralf Paus
Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2)) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression...
April 2, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398545/evolutionary-dynamics-of-mixed-ploidy-populations-in-an-annual-herb-dispersal-local-persistence-and-recurrent-origins-of-polyploids
#11
Martin Certner, Eliška Fenclová, Pavel Kúr, Filip Kolár, Petr Koutecký, Anna Krahulcová, Jan Suda
Background and Aims: Despite the recent wealth of studies targeted at contact zones of cytotypes in various species, some aspects of polyploid evolution are still poorly understood. This is especially the case for the frequency and success rate of spontaneous neopolyploidization or the temporal dynamics of ploidy coexistence, requiring massive ploidy screening and repeated observations, respectively. To fill this gap, an extensive study of spatio-temporal patterns of ploidy coexistence was initiated in the widespread annual weed Tripleurospermum inodorum (Asteraceae)...
April 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396924/non-introgressive-genome-chimerisation-by-malsegregation-in-autodiploidised-allotetraploids-during-meiosis-of-saccharomyces-kudriavzevii-x-saccharomyces-uvarum-hybrids
#12
Edina Karanyicz, Zsuzsa Antunovics, Z Kallai, M Sipiczki
Saccharomyces strains with chimerical genomes consisting of mosaics of the genomes of different species ("natural hybrids") occur quite frequently among industrial and wine strains. The most widely endorsed hypothesis is that the mosaics are introgressions acquired via hybridisation and repeated backcrosses of the hybrids with one of the parental species. However, the interspecies hybrids are sterile, unable to mate with their parents. Here, we show by analysing synthetic Saccharomyces kudriavzevii x Saccharomyces uvarum hybrids that mosaic (chimeric) genomes can arise without introgressive backcrosses...
April 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388880/a-prospective-comparison-of-urovysion-fish-and-urine-cytology-in-bladder-cancer-detection
#13
Hugh J Lavery, Boriana Zaharieva, Andrew McFaddin, Nyla Heerema, Kamal S Pohar
BACKGROUND: UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (uFISH) was reported to have superior sensitivity to urine cytology. However uFISH studies are limited by varying definitions of what is considered a positive result, absence of histopathology and small sample size. The aim of our study was to better determine the performance characteristics of uFISH and urine cytology by overcoming some of the deficiencies of the current literature. METHODS: Intraoperative bladder wash cytology and uFISH were collected prospectively on all patients...
April 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388556/remote-reprogramming-of-hepatic-circadian-transcriptome-by-breast-cancer
#14
Hiroaki Hojo, Sora Enya, Miki Arai, Yutaka Suzuki, Takashi Nojiri, Kenji Kangawa, Shinsuke Koyama, Shinpei Kawaoka
Cancers adversely affect organismal physiology. To date, the genes within a patient responsible for systemically spreading cancer-induced physiological disruption remain elusive. To identify host genes responsible for transmitting disruptive, cancer-driven signals, we thoroughly analyzed the transcriptome of a suite of host organs from mice bearing 4T1 breast cancer, and discovered complexly rewired patterns of circadian gene expression in the liver. Our data revealed that 7 core clock transcription factors, represented by Rev-erba and Rorg, exhibited abnormal daily expression rhythm in the liver of 4T1-bearing mice...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388409/derivation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-with-in%C3%A2-vivo-embryonic-and-extraembryonic-potency
#15
Yang Yang, Bei Liu, Jun Xu, Jinlin Wang, Jun Wu, Cheng Shi, Yaxing Xu, Jiebin Dong, Chengyan Wang, Weifeng Lai, Jialiang Zhu, Liang Xiong, Dicong Zhu, Xiang Li, Weifeng Yang, Takayoshi Yamauchi, Atsushi Sugawara, Zhongwei Li, Fangyuan Sun, Xiangyun Li, Chen Li, Aibin He, Yaqin Du, Ting Wang, Chaoran Zhao, Haibo Li, Xiaochun Chi, Hongquan Zhang, Yifang Liu, Cheng Li, Shuguang Duo, Ming Yin, Huan Shen, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Hongkui Deng
Of all known cultured stem cell types, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) sit atop the landscape of developmental potency and are characterized by their ability to generate all cell types of an adult organism. However, PSCs show limited contribution to the extraembryonic placental tissues in vivo. Here, we show that a chemical cocktail enables the derivation of stem cells with unique functional and molecular features from mice and humans, designated as extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells, which are capable of chimerizing both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues...
April 6, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382045/genome-wide-identification-of-the-mikc-type-mads-box-gene-family-in-gossypium-hirsutum-l-unravels-their-roles-in-flowering
#16
Zhongying Ren, Daoqian Yu, Zhaoen Yang, Changfeng Li, Ghulam Qanmber, Yi Li, Jie Li, Zhao Liu, Lili Lu, Lingling Wang, Hua Zhang, Quanjia Chen, Fuguang Li, Zuoren Yang
Cotton is one of the major world oil crops. Cottonseed oil meets the increasing demand of fried food, ruminant feed, and renewable bio-fuels. MADS intervening keratin-like and C-terminal (MIKC)-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in various plant developmental processes. Nevertheless, this gene family has not been characterized, nor its functions investigated, in cotton. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of MIKC-type MADS genes in the tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374843/the-crosstalk-between-target-of-rapamycin-tor-and-jasmonic-acid-ja-signaling-existing-in-arabidopsis-and-cotton
#17
Yun Song, Ge Zhao, Xueyan Zhang, Linxuan Li, Fangjie Xiong, Fengping Zhuo, Chaojun Zhang, Zuoren Yang, Raju Datla, Maozhi Ren, Fuguang Li
Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as an important regulator of cell growth, development and stress responses in most examined diploid eukaryotes. However, little is known about TOR in tetraploid species such as cotton. Here, we show that TORC1-S6K-RPS6, the major signaling components, are conserved and further expanded in cotton genome. Though the cotton seedlings are insensitive to rapamycin, AZD8055, the second-generation inhibitor of TOR, can significantly suppress the growth in cotton. Global transcriptome analysis revealed that genes associated with jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and transduction were significantly altered in AZD8055 treated cotton seedlings, suggesting the potential crosstalk between TOR and JA signaling...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374822/genome-wide-identification-of-membrane-bound-fatty-acid-desaturase-genes-in-gossypium-hirsutum-and-their-expressions-during-abiotic-stress
#18
Jiyu Feng, Yating Dong, Wei Liu, Qiuling He, M K Daud, Jinhong Chen, Shuijin Zhu
Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases (FADs) are of great importance and play multiple roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, 39 full-length FAD genes, based on database searches, were identified in tetraploid upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and were phylogenetically clustered into four subfamilies. Genomic localization revealed that 34 genes were mapped on 22 chromosomes, and five genes were positioned on the scaffold sequences. The FAD genes of G. hirsutum in the same subfamily had similar gene structures...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370696/micrornas-contribute-to-enhanced-salt-adaptation-of-the-autopolyploid-hordeum-bulbosum-compared-to-its-diploid-ancestor
#19
Beibei Liu, Genlou Sun
Several studies have shown that autopolyploid can tolerate abiotic stresses better than its diploid ancestor. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly known. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate the target gene expression post-transcriptionally and play a critical role in the response to abiotic stresses. Duplication of the whole genome can result in the expansion of miRNA families, and the innovative miRNA-target interaction is important for adaptive responses to various environments...
March 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367153/pentaploid-wheat-hybrids-applications-characterisation-and-challenges
#20
REVIEW
Sriram Padmanaban, Peng Zhang, Ray A Hare, Mark W Sutherland, Anke Martin
Interspecific hybridisation between hexaploid and tetraploid wheat species leads to the development of F1 pentaploid hybrids with unique chromosomal constitutions. Pentaploid hybrids derived from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum Desf.) crosses can improve the genetic background of either parent by transferring traits of interest. The genetic variability derived from bread and durum wheat and transferred into pentaploid hybrids has the potential to improve disease resistance, abiotic tolerance, and grain quality, and to enhance agronomic characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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