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Christoph Rosche, Isabell Hensen, Susanne Lachmuth
Primary colonization in invasive ranges most commonly occurs in disturbed habitats, where anthropogenic disturbance may cause physical damage in plants. The tolerance to such damage may differ between cytotypes and among populations as a result of differing population histories (adaptive differentiation between ruderal vs. natural habitats). Moreover, founder populations often experience inbreeding depression, the effects of which may increase through physical damage due to inbreeding-environment interactions...
September 18, 2017: Plant Biology
Tom J de Jong, Karla Escobedo Quevedo, Karin C A M van der Veen-van Wijk, Mahmoud Moshgani
Crossings between the diploid wild Brassica rapa (AA, 2n=20) and the tetraploid cultivar B. napus (AACC, 2n=38) can readily be made. Backcrosses to the wild B. rapa (BC1 ) produce aneuploids with variable chromosome numbers between 20 and 29. How does survival and performance relate to DNA content of plants? Growth of the BC1 plants was measured in the lab. One plant in the F1 self-pollinated spontaneously and produced abundant F2 seeds that were also examined. The number of C-chromosomes was estimated from DNA-values obtained with flow cytometry...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biology
Anna Zaleśna, Maria Florek, Mariusz Rybacki, Maria Ogielska
We studied water frogs from a complex composed of two species: Pelophylax lessonae (Camerano, 1882) (genome LL, 2n = 26) and P. ridibundus (Pallas, 1771) (RR, 2 = 26), and their natural hybrid P. esculentus (Fitzinger, 1843) of various ploidy and genome composition (RL, 2n = 26, and RRL or RLL, 3n = 39). Tetraploids RRLL were found (4n = 52) in juveniles. We applied cytogenetic techniques: AgNO3, chromomycin A3, PI and fluorescent in situ hybridization with a 28S rDNA probe. Results obtained by silver staining corresponded well with those stained with CMA3, PI and FISH...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Jian-She Chen, Qi Gao, Hao Zhou, Yu-Song Huang, Mikinori Ogisu, Ming Cao
Aspidistra subrotata Y. Wan & C.C. Huang, 1987 is considered for the first time as a widespread polyploidy complex in the genus Aspidistra Ker Gawler, 1823 from limestone areas of Asia. The chromosome number of the tetraploid is 2n = 76 and the karyotype is formulated as 2n = 44 m + 8 sm + 24 st, while the chromosome number of the diploid is 2n = 38 and the karyotype formula 2n = 22 m + 4 sm + 12 st. In our studies, diploids occupy broader geographical and environmental niche spaces than tetraploids. Although the leaf-shape of Aspidistra subrotata varies quantitatively between and within diploid and/or tetraploid population(s), no obvious discontinuity in the width of leaf has been observed...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Sangrong Sun, Jinpeng Wang, Jigao Yu, Fanbo Meng, Ruiyan Xia, Li Wang, Zhenyi Wang, Weina Ge, Xiaojian Liu, Yuxian Li, Yinzhe Liu, Nanshan Yang, Xiyin Wang
Grass genomes are complicated structures as they share a common tetraploidization, and particular genomes have been further affected by extra polyploidizations. These events and the following genomic re-patternings have resulted in a complex, interweaving gene homology both within a genome, and between genomes. Accurately deciphering the structure of these complicated plant genomes would help us better understand their compositional and functional evolution at multiple scales. Here, we build on our previous research by performing a hierarchical alignment of the common wheat genome vis-à-vis eight other sequenced grass genomes with most up-to-date assemblies, and annotations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Matthew P Hirakawa, Darius E Chyou, Denis Huang, Aaron R Slan, Richard J Bennett
Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that is a frequent cause of mucosal and systemic infections in humans. This species exhibits an unusual parasexual cycle in which mating produces tetraploid cells that undergo a non-meiotic program of concerted chromosome loss to return to a diploid or aneuploid state. In this work, we used a multipronged approach to examine the capacity of parasex to generate diversity in C. albicans First, we compared the phenotypic properties of 32 genotyped progeny and observed wide-ranging differences in fitness, filamentation, biofilm formation and virulence...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
Johanna Sigl-Glöckner, Michael Brecht
In many species, polyploidy, in which an increase in nuclear DNA content is accompanied by an increase in cell size, contributes to cellular diversity. In the rat visual cortex, most neurons are small and homogeneous in size, while layer 5 cells are heterogeneous, containing some very large neurons. To measure DNA content, we quantified nuclear chromocenters and integrated DNA/DAPI fluorescence. The results suggest that most cortical neurons, non-neuronal cells, parvalbumin-positive interneurons, and large entorhinal layer 2 stellate projection neurons are diploid...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
Maria Sulli, Giuseppe Mandolino, Monica Sturaro, Chiara Onofri, Gianfranco Diretto, Bruno Parisi, Giovanni Giuliano
After wheat and rice, potato is the third most important staple food worldwide. A collection of ten tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum) and diploid (S. phureja and S. chacoense) genotypes with contrasting carotenoid content was subjected to molecular characterization with respect to candidate carotenoid loci and metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Irrespective of ploidy and taxonomy, tubers of these genotypes fell into three groups: yellow-fleshed, characterized by high levels of epoxy-xanthophylls and xanthophyll esters and by the presence of at least one copy of a dominant allele of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase 2 (CHY2) gene; white-fleshed, characterized by low carotenoid levels and by the presence of recessive chy2 alleles; and orange-fleshed, characterized by high levels of zeaxanthin but low levels of xanthophyll esters, and homozygosity for a Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (ZEP) recessive allele...
2017: PloS One
Sana Tounsi, Kaouthar Feki, Dorsaf Hmidi, Khaled Masmoudi, Faiçal Brini
Salt stress responses implicate a complex mechanism and differ from plant species to another. In this study, we analyzed the physiological, biochemical and molecular responses to salt stress of the diploid wheat (T. monococcum) and compared to the tetraploid wheat (T. durum). Our results showed that the diploid wheat cultivar (cv. Turkey) is relatively tolerant to different salt stress conditions than the tetraploid wheat cultivar (cv. Om Rabia3). This tolerance was manifested by significant germination, plant growth and uptake of water generating cell turgor and development...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Halise Busra Cagirici, Burcu Alptekin, Hikmet Budak
There is an urgent need for the improvement of drought-tolerant bread and durum wheat. The huge and complex genome of bread wheat (BBAADD genome) stands as a vital obstruction for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying drought tolerance. However, tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp., BBAA genome) is an ancestor of modern bread wheat and offers an important model for studying the drought response due to its less complex genome. Additionally, several wild relatives of tetraploid wheat have already shown a significant drought tolerance...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jun Xu, Guilin Wang, Jing Wang, Yongqing Li, Liangliang Tian, Xinyu Wang, Wangzhen Guo
BACKGROUND: Lysin motif (LysM)-containing proteins are important pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in plants, which function in the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and in the defense against pathogenic attack. To date, the LysM genes have not been systematically analyzed in cotton or effectively utilized for disease resistance. RESULTS: Here, we identified 29, 30, 60, and 56 LysM genes in the four sequenced cotton species, diploid Gossypium raimondii, diploid G...
September 4, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Gina M Pham, Linsey Newton, Krystle Wiegert-Rininger, Brieanne Vaillancourt, David S Douches, C Robin Buell
Relative to homozygous diploids, the presence of multiple homologs or homeologs in polyploids affords greater tolerance to mutations that can impact genome evolution. In this study, we describe sequence and structural variation in the genomes of six accessions of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid, and their impact on the transcriptome. Sequence diversity was high with a mean SNP rate of approximately 1 per 50 bases suggestive of high levels of allelic diversity...
September 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Atul S Hande, Ishwarappa S Katageri, Mangesh P Jadhav, Sateesh Adiger, Savita Gamanagatti, Kethireddy Venkata Padmalatha, Gurusamy Dhandapani, Mogilicherla Kanakachari, Polumetla Ananda Kumar, Vanga Siva Reddy
BACKGROUND: Cotton fibre is a single cell and it is one of the best platforms for unraveling the genes express during various stages of fibre development. There are reports devoted to comparative transcriptome study on fiber cell initiation and elongation in tetraploid cultivated cotton. However, in the present investigation, comparative transcriptome study was made in diploid cultivated cotton using isogenic fuzzy-lintless (Fl) and normal fuzzy linted (FL) lines belong to Gossypium arboreum, diploid species at two stages, 0 and 10 dpa (days post anthesis), using Affymetrix cotton GeneChip genome array...
August 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
Øivind Andersen, Chunxia Xu, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Katrine Hånes Kirste, Ingun Naeve, Maren Mommens, Helge Tveiten
Egg yolk proteins are mainly derived from vitellogenin (Vtg), and serve as essential nutrients during early development in oviparous organisms. Vertebrate Vtgs are predominantly synthesized in the liver of maturing females, and are internalized by the oocyte after binding to specific surface receptors (VtgR). Here we clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Vtgs, including the teleost VtgC, which lacks phosvitin, and investigate the repertoire of Vtgs and VtgRs in the tetraploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
D J Lightfoot, D E Jarvis, T Ramaraj, R Lee, E N Jellen, P J Maughan
BACKGROUND: Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, with the potential to help alleviate malnutrition and food security concerns, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the developing world. Here, we present a reference-quality assembly of the amaranth genome which will assist the agronomic development of the species...
August 31, 2017: BMC Biology
Vu Lan Anh, Yoshihiro Inoue, Soichiro Asuke, Trinh Thi Phuong Vy, Nguyen Tuan Anh, Shizhen Wang, Izumi Chuma, Yukio Tosa
Rmg8 and Rmg7 are genes for resistance to the wheat blast fungus (Pyricularia oryzae) located on 2B chromosome in hexaploid wheat and 2A chromosome in tetraploid wheat, respectively. AVR-Rmg8, an avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg8, was isolated from a wheat blast isolate through map-based strategy. The cloned fragment encoded a small protein containing a putative signal peptide. AVR-Rmg8 was recognized not only by Rmg8 but also by Rmg7, suggesting that these two resistance genes are equivalent to a single gene from the viewpoint of resistance breeding...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Julia Sánchez Vilas, John R Pannell
Increased phenotypic plasticity for a number of plant traits has been suggested as a possible reason for the success and spread of polyploids. One such trait is a plant's sex allocation (or gender), which influences its reproductive success directly as a function of the potentially heterogeneous mating prospects in the population. However, it is unknown how polyploidy per se might affect plasticity in a plant's sex allocation. Although there have been numerous comparisons between diploid and (usually) tetraploid taxa, we know very little about how elevated ploidy above the diploid level might affect plasticity...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
I Evelin Kovalsky, Juan M Roggero Luque, Gabriela Elías, Silvia A Fernández, Viviana G Solís Neffa
Triploids can play an important role in polyploid evolution. However, their frequent sterility is an obstacle for the origin and establishment of neotetraploids. Here we analyzed the microsporogenesis of triploids (x = 7) and the crossability among cytotypes of Turnera sidoides, aiming to test the impact of triploids on the origin and demographic establishment of tetraploids in natural populations. Triploids of T. sidoides exhibit irregular meiotic behavior. The high frequency of monovalents and of trivalents with non-convergent orientations results in unbalanced and/or non-viable male gametes...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Junki Lee, Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Hong-Il Choi, Sampath Perumal, Sang-Choon Lee, Van Binh Nguyen, Woojong Jang, Nam-Hoon Kim, Li-Zhi Gao, Tae-Jin Yang
Genome duplication and repeat multiplication contribute to genome evolution in plants. Our previous work identified a recent allotetraploidization event and five high-copy LTR retrotransposon (LTR-RT) families PgDel, PgTat, PgAthila, PgTork, and PgOryco in Panax ginseng. Here, using whole-genome sequences, we quantified major repeats in five Panax species and investigated their role in genome evolution. The diploids P. japonicus, P. vietnamensis, and P. notoginseng and the tetraploids P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were analyzed alongside their relative Aralia elata...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qiuxiang Luo, Mu Peng, Xiuli Zhang, Pei Lei, Ximei Ji, Wahsoon Chow, Fanjuan Meng, Guanyu Sun
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is an important phenomenon in plants because of its roles in agricultural and forestry production as well as in plant tolerance to environmental stresses. Tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a polyploid plant and a pioneer tree species due to its wide ranging adaptability to adverse environments. To evaluate the ploidy-dependent differences in leaf mitochondria between diploid and tetraploid black locust under salinity stress, we conducted comparative proteomic, physiological, biochemical and ultrastructural profiling of mitochondria from leaves...
August 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
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