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Kahraman Gurcan, Fatih Demirel, Mehmet Tekin, Serap Demirel, Taner Akar
BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the important gene centers for many crop species. In this research, some ancient wheats such as tetraploid and diploid hulled wheats together with hexaploid tir wheats (Triticum aestivum ssp. leucospermum Korn.) landraces mainly adapted to harsh winter conditions of Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey were characterized at agro-morphological and molecular level. Totally 50 hulled wheat population from Kastamonu, Konya and Kayseri provinces and 15 tir wheats from Kars provinces of Turkey were in-situ collected for characterization in 2013...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Ramin Nikzad-Langerodi, Katharina Arth, Valerie Klatte-Asselmeyer, Sabine Bressler, Johannes Saukel, Gottfried Reznicek, Christoph Dobeš
(Acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content are important quality attributes of pharmacy grade valerian root (Valerianae radix). Traditional analysis of these quantities is time-consuming and necessitates (harmful) solvents. Here we investigated an application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for extractionless analysis of these quality attributes on a representative sample comprising 260 wild-crafted individuals covering the Central European taxonomic diversity of the Valeriana officinalis L...
November 9, 2017: Planta Medica
Mollee Dworkin, Shaojun Xie, Malay Saha, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Venu Kal Kalavacharla
BACKGROUND: Switchgrass is a crop with many desirable traits for bioenergy production. Plant genomes have high DNA methylation levels throughout genes and transposable elements and DNA methylation is known to play a role in silencing transposable elements. Here we analyzed methylomes in two switchgrass genotypes AP13 and VS16. AP13 is derived from a lowland ecotype and VS16, typically considered drought-tolerant, is derived from an upland ecotype, both genotypes are tetraploid (2n = 4× = 36)...
November 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
Iwan E Molgo, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
Determining the distribution of cytotypes across the geographic distribution of polyploid complexes can provide valuable information about the evolution of biodiversity. Here, the phytogeography of cytotypes in section Cuthbertia (Small, 1903) Hunt, 1986 is investigated. A total of 436 voucher specimens was georeferenced; 133 new specimens were collected. Based on flow cytometry data, DNA content of all cytotypes in section Cuthbertia was estimated. Utilizing chromosome counts and flow cytometric analysis, cytotype distribution maps were generated...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Hsiao-Hang Chung, Shu-Kai Shi, Bin Huang, Jen-Tsung Chen
This study developed an efficient and reliable system for inducing polyploidy in Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, a top-grade medicinal orchid. The resulting tetraploid gave a significant enhancement on various agronomic traits, including dry weight, fresh weight, shoot length, root length, leaf width, the size of stoma, and number of chloroplasts per stoma. A reduction of the ratio of length to width was observed in stomata and leaves of the tetraploid, and consequently, an alteration of organ shape was found...
November 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Stefania Mazzi, Larissa Lordier, Najet Debili, Hana Raslova, William Vainchenker
In mammals, platelets are produced in the blood by cytoplasmic fragmentation of megakaryocytes (MKs). Platelet production is thus dependent on both the MK number and size. During differentiation, MKs switch from a division by mitosis to polyploidization by endomitosis to increase their size. The endomitotic process includes several successive rounds of DNA replication with an entry in mitosis with a failure in late cytokinesis and a defect in karyokinesis. This leads to a giant cell with a modal ploidy at 16N and one multilobulated nucleus...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Hematology
Ping Wang, Karin Tremetsberger, Estrella Urtubey, Karl-Georg Bernhardt
Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers to study clonal growth and interspecific hybridization in the Patagonian and subantarctic plant Hypochaeris incana (Asteraceae) and its closest relatives. Methods and Results: We developed primers for microsatellite loci from 454 sequence reads of genomic DNA of H. incana. We tested them on individuals of H. acaulis, H. hookeri, H. incana, H. palustris, and H. tenuifolia. We selected 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci, which delivered clearly scorable fragments in most or all species...
October 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Sang-Goo Lee, Aleksei E Mikhalchenko, Sun Hee Yim, Alexei V Lobanov, Jin-Kyu Park, Kwang-Hwan Choi, Roderick T Bronson, Chang-Kyu Lee, Thomas J Park, Vadim N Gladyshev
Naked mole rats (NMRs) are exceptionally long-lived, cancer-resistant rodents. Identifying the defining characteristics of these traits may shed light on aging and cancer mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from NMR fibroblasts and their contribution to mouse-NMR chimeric embryos. Efficient reprogramming could be observed under N2B27+2i conditions. The iPSCs displayed a characteristic morphology, expressed pluripotent markers, formed embryoid bodies, and showed typical differentiation patterns...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
Chad Jorgensen, Ming-Cheng Luo, Ramesh Ramasamy, Mathew Dawson, Bikram S Gill, Abraham B Korol, Assaf Distelfeld, Jan Dvorak
Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is a progenitor of all cultivated wheat grown today. It has been hypothesized that emmer was domesticated in the Karaca Dağ region in southeastern Turkey. A total of 445 recombinant inbred lines of T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. 'Langdon' x wild emmer accession PI 428082 from this region was developed and genotyped with the Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphism Infinium assay. A genetic map comprising 2,650 segregating markers was constructed. The order of the segregating markers and an additional 8,264 co-segregating markers in the Aegilops tauschii reference genome sequence was used to compare synteny of the tetraploid wheat with the Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tansy Chia, Nikolai M Adamski, Benedetta Saccomanno, Andy Greenland, Alastair Nash, Cristobal Uauy, Kay Trafford
Our previous genetic analysis of a tetraploid wild wheat species, Aegilops peregrina, predicted that a single gene per haploid genome, Bgc-1, controls B-type starch granule content in the grain. To test whether bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has orthologous Bgc-1 loci, we screened a population of γ-irradiated bread wheat cv. Paragon for deletions of the group 4 chromosomes spanning Bgc-1. Suitable deletions, each encompassing ~600-700 genes, were discovered for chromosomes 4A and 4D. These two deletions are predicted to have 240 homoeologous genes in common...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yan Zhao, Jihong Xie, Quanwen Dou, Junjie Wang, Zhong Zhang
The genomes of five Agropyron Gaertner, 1770 species were characterized using all potential di- or trinucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs and four satellite DNA repeats as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. The sites of 5S and 45S rDNA were relatively conserved among the diploid and tetraploid species. A number of sites for the dinucleotide SSRs AC, AG, and pSc119.2 was detected in all investigated species except A. mongolicum Keng, 1938. Several different trinucleotide SSRs were identified in different tetraploid species...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Moeko Okada, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Hybrid abnormalities, severe growth abortion and grass-clump dwarfism, were found in the tetraploid wheat/Aegilops umbellulata hybrids, and the gene expression changes were conserved in the hybrids with those in other wheat synthetic hexaploids. Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., a diploid goatgrass species with a UU genome, has been utilized as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. Here, we examine the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon (Ldn) and various Ae. umbellulata accessions by conducting interspecific crossings...
October 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Kira S Zadesenets, Nikita I Ershov, Eugene Berezikov, Nikolay B Rubtsov
The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a hidden tetraploid. Its genome was formed by a recent whole genome duplication followed by chromosome fusions. Its karyotype (2n = 8) consists of a pair of large chromosomes (MLI1), which contain regions of all other chromosomes, and three pairs of small metacentric chromosomes. Comparison of MLI1 with metacentrics was performed by painting with microdissected DNA probes and fluorescent in situ hybridization of unique DNA fragments. Regions of MLI1 homologous to small metacentrics appeared to be contiguous...
October 30, 2017: Genes
Yariv Ben-Naim, Lidan Falach, Yigal Cohen
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is susceptible to downy mildew caused by the oomycete foliar pathogen Peronospora belbahrii. No resistant varieties of sweet basil are commercially available. Here, we report on the transfer of resistance gene Pb1 from the highly resistant tetraploid wild basil O. americanum var. americanum (PI 500945, 2n = 4x = 48) to the tetraploid susceptible O. basilicum 'Sweet basil' (2n = 4x = 48). F1 progeny plants derived from the interspecific hybridization PI 500945 × Sweet basil were resistant, indicating that the gene controlling resistance (Pb1) is dominant, but sterile due to the genetic distance between the parents...
October 30, 2017: Phytopathology
Christoph C F Schinkel, Bernhard Kirchheimer, Stefan Dullinger, Danny Geelen, Nico De Storme, Elvira Hörandl
Polyploidy is one of the most important evolutionary processes in plants. In natural populations, polyploids usually emerge from unreduced gametes which either fuse with reduced ones, resulting in triploid offspring (triploid bridge), or with other unreduced gametes, resulting in tetraploid embryos. The frequencies of these two pathways, and male versus female gamete contributions, however, are largely unexplored. Ranunculus kuepferi occurs with diploid, triploid and autotetraploid cytotypes in the Alps, whereby diploids are mostly sexual, while tetraploids are facultative apomicts...
2017: Plant Systematics and Evolution, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Systematik der Pflanzen
Katherine Domb, Danielle Keidar, Beery Yaakov, Vadim Khasdan, Khalil Kashkush
BACKGROUND: Natural populations of the tetraploid wild emmer wheat (genome AABB) were previously shown to demonstrate eco-geographically structured genetic and epigenetic diversity. Transposable elements (TEs) might make up a significant part of the genetic and epigenetic variation between individuals and populations because they comprise over 80% of the wild emmer wheat genome. In this study, we performed detailed analyses to assess the dynamics of transposable elements in 50 accessions of wild emmer wheat collected from 5 geographically isolated sites...
October 27, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Tian-Da Li, Gui-Hai Feng, Yu-Fei Li, Mei Wang, Jun-Jie Mao, Jia-Qiang Wang, Xin Li, Xue-Peng Wang, Bin Qu, Le-Yun Wang, Xin-Xin Zhang, Hai-Feng Wan, Tong-Tong Cui, Cong Wan, Lei Liu, Xiao-Yang Zhao, Bao-Yang Hu, Wei Li, Qi Zhou
Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be functionally assessed according to the developmental potency. Tetraploid complementation, through which an entire organism is produced from the pluripotent donor cells, is taken as the most stringent test for pluripotency. It remains unclear whether ESCs of other species besides mice can pass this test. Here we show that the rat ESCs derived under 2i (two small molecule inhibitors) conditions at very early passages are able to produce fertile offspring by tetraploid complementation...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wenjun Zhang, Shisheng Chen, Zewdie Abate, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Matthew N Rouse, Jorge Dubcovsky
The Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Ug99 race group is virulent to most stem rust resistance genes currently deployed in wheat and poses a threat to global wheat production. The durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) gene Sr13 confers resistance to Ug99 and other virulent races, and is more effective at high temperatures. Using map-based cloning, we delimited a candidate region including two linked genes encoding coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins designated CNL3 and CNL13...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
He-Ling Dong, Hong-Yuan Wu, You Fu, Meng Dai, Xiao-Chun Bai, Hong Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Rictor/mTORC2 in the formation of blood testis barrier (BTB), testicular development, and spermatogenesis. METHODS: Amh Cre positive mice homozygous for rictor loxP with Sertoli cell specific deletion of rictor were obtained by cross breeding Amh Cre mice with rictor loxP mice. The histology of the reproductive organs, seminiferous tubules and epididymis of the transgenic mice was observed with HE staining. The cell subgroups of the germ cells in the seminiferous tubule were detected by flow cytometry with propidium iodide labeling...
October 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Dei M Elurbe, Sarita S Paranjpe, Georgios Georgiou, Ila van Kruijsbergen, Ozren Bogdanovic, Romain Gibeaux, Rebecca Heald, Ryan Lister, Martijn A Huynen, Simon J van Heeringen, Gert Jan C Veenstra
BACKGROUND: Genome duplication has played a pivotal role in the evolution of many eukaryotic lineages, including the vertebrates. A relatively recent vertebrate genome duplication is that in Xenopus laevis, which resulted from the hybridization of two closely related species about 17 million years ago. However, little is known about the consequences of this duplication at the level of the genome, the epigenome, and gene expression. RESULTS: The X. laevis genome consists of two subgenomes, referred to as L (long chromosomes) and S (short chromosomes), that originated from distinct diploid progenitors...
October 24, 2017: Genome Biology
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