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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633349/colchicine-application-significantly-affects-plant-performance-in-the-second-generation-of-synthetic-polyploids-and-its-effects-vary-between-populations
#1
Zuzana Münzbergová
Background and Aims: Understanding the direct consequences of polyploidization is necessary for assessing the evolutionary significance of this mode of speciation. Previous studies have not studied the degree of between-population variation that occurs due to these effects. Although it is assumed that the effects of the substances that create synthetic polyploids disappear in second-generation synthetic polyploids, this has not been tested. Methods: The direct consequences of polyploidization were assessed and separated from the effects of subsequent evolution in Vicia cracca , a naturally occurring species with diploid and autotetraploid cytotypes...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629320/transcriptomic-changes-reveal-gene-networks-responding-to-the-overexpression-of-a-blueberry-dwarf-and-delayed-flowering-1-gene-in-transgenic-blueberry-plants
#2
Guo-Qing Song, Xuan Gao
BACKGROUND: Constitutive expression of the CBF/DREB1 for increasing freezing tolerance in woody plants is often associated with other phenotypic changes including dwarf plant and delayed flowering. These phenotypic changes have been observed when Arabidopsis DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) was overexpressed in A. thaliana plants. To date, the DDF1 orthologues have not been studied in woody plants. The aim of this study is to investigate transcriptomic responses to the overexpression of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) DDF1 (herein, VcDDF1-OX)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627438/genome-wide-identification-phylogeny-and-expression-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-genes-in-tetraploidized-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#3
Lin Chen, Chuanju Dong, Shengnan Kong, Jiangfan Zhang, Xuejun Li, Peng Xu
Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) are a group of signaling molecules known to play important roles during formation and maintenance of various organs, not only bone, but also muscle, blood and so on. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most intensively studied fish due to its economic and environmental importance. Besides, common carp had encountered an additional round of whole genome duplication (WGD) compared with many closely related diploid teleost, which make it one of the most important models for genome evolutionary studies in teleost...
June 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616577/caspase-2-in-mitotic-catastrophe-the-terminator-of-aneuploid-and-tetraploid-cells
#4
Ilio Vitale, Gwenola Manic, Maria Castedo, Guido Kroemer
Mitotic catastrophe is an oncosuppressive mechanism that targets cells experiencing defective mitoses via the activation of specific cell cycle checkpoints, regulated cell death pathways and/or cell senescence. This prevents the accumulation of karyotypic aberrations, which otherwise may drive oncogenesis and tumor progression. Here, we summarize experimental evidence confirming the role of caspase 2 (CASP2) as the main executor of mitotic catastrophe, and we discuss the signals that activate CASP2 in the presence of mitotic aberrations...
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614425/polyploidy-as-a-chromosomal-component-of-stochastic-noise-variable-scalar-multiples-of-the-diploid-chromosome-complement-in-the-invertebrate-species-girardia-schubarti-from-brazil
#5
E G F Benya, A M Leal-Zanchet, J Hauser
Chromosome stoichiometry, a form of genetic plasticity, specifically refers to variation in the standard diploid genomic composition of an individual or species. In the present work, freshwater planarians (Girardia schubarti) were analyzed to recognize variations in chromosomal stoichiometry especially of complete ploidal change between specimens, within specimens and between cells within specimens and any relations they might have with selected components of phenotypic plasticity. Homoploid polyploids for the group reached rational scalar multiples (e...
June 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605464/strand-specific-cpg-hemimethylation-a-novel-epigenetic-modification-functional-for-genomic-imprinting
#6
Iris Patiño-Parrado, Álvaro Gómez-Jiménez, Noelia López-Sánchez, José M Frade
Imprinted genes are regulated by allele-specific differentially DNA-methylated regions (DMRs). Epigenetic methylation of the CpGs constituting these DMRs is established in the germline, resulting in a 5-methylcytosine-specific pattern that is tightly maintained in somatic tissues. Here, we show a novel epigenetic mark, characterized by strand-specific hemimethylation of contiguous CpG sites affecting the germline DMR of the murine Peg3, but not Snrpn, imprinted domain. This modification is enriched in tetraploid cortical neurons, a cell type where evidence for a small proportion of formylmethylated CpG sites within the Peg3-controlling DMR is also provided...
June 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597440/efficient-and-heritable-transformation-of-phalaenopsis-orchids
#7
Hong-Xian Hsing, Yi-Jyun Lin, Chii-Gong Tong, Min-Jeng Li, Yun-Jin Chen, Swee-Suak Ko
BACKGROUND: Phalaenopsis orchid (Phal. orchid) is visually attractive and it is important economic floriculture species. Phal. orchids have many unique biological features. However, investigation of these features and validation on their biological functions are limited due to the lack of an efficient transformation method. RESULTS: We developed a heritable and efficient Agrobacterium- mediated transformation using protocorms derived from tetraploid or diploid Phal...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596585/tetraploid-embryonic-stem-cells-can-contribute-to-the-development-of-chimeric-fetuses-and-chimeric-extraembryonic-tissues
#8
Bingqiang Wen, Ruiqi Li, Keren Cheng, Enhong Li, Shaopeng Zhang, Jinzhu Xiang, Yanliang Wang, Jianyong Han
Our study examined the in vivo chimeric and survival capacities of chimeras created by injecting tetraploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) into diploid embryos. At 3.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and 4.5 dpc, the tetraploid ESCs were able to contribute to the inner cell mass (ICM) just as diploid ESCs tagged with GFP. At 6.5 dpc, 8.0 dpc and 10.5 dpc, the tetraploid ESCs manifested in the same location as the diploid ESCs. The GFP cells in the extraembryonic tissues and fetuses of tetraploid ESC chimeras were tetraploid as determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594698/short-term-effects-of-y-27632-a-rho-associated-protein-kinase-inhibitor-on-chromatin-supraorganization-and-dna-amount-in-epithelial-cells-of-the-rat-cornea-and-limbus
#9
Marcela Aldrovani, Alexandre A F Barros Sobrinho, Fernanda Santos Mairos, José Luiz Laus
PURPOSE: To assess the short-term effects of instilling Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho/Rho-associated protein kinases, on the chromatin supraorganization and DNA amount of corneal and limbal epithelial cells of healthy rats. METHODS: Longitudinal sections (7 μm) of enucleated eyes of healthy rats that received, by instillation, balanced salt solution with or without 10 mM of Y-27632 daily for 7 or 15 days, were subjected to the Feulgen reaction. Feulgen-stained nuclei of corneal and limbal epithelial cells were studied by microscopy and video image analysis to establish the nuclear size (area and perimeter), supraorganization of chromatin (texture and degrees of condensation), and the Feulgen-DNA amount...
July 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591168/exploiting-repetitive-sequences-and-bac-clones-in-festuca-pratensis-karyotyping
#10
Joanna Majka, Tomasz Książczyk, Agnieszka Kiełbowicz-Matuk, David Kopecký, Arkadiusz Kosmala
The Festuca genus is thought to be the most numerous genus of the Poaceae family. One of the most agronomically important forage grasses, Festuca pratensis Huds. is treated as a model plant to study the molecular mechanisms associated with tolerance to winter stresses, including frost. However, the precise mapping of the genes governing stress tolerance in this species is difficult as its karyotype remains unrecognized. Only two F. pratensis chromosomes with 35S and 5S rDNA sequences can be easily identified, but its remaining chromosomes have not been distinguished to date...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584067/crispr-cas9-targeted-mutagenesis-leads-to-simultaneous-modification-of-different-homoeologous-gene-copies-in-polyploid-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus
#11
Janina Braatz, Hans-Joachim Harloff, Martin Mascher, Nils Stein, Axel Himmelbach, Christian Jung
In polyploid species, altering a trait by random mutagenesis is highly inefficient due to gene redundancy. We have stably transformed tetraploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus) with a CRISPR-Cas9 construct targeting two ALCATRAZ (ALC) homoeologs. ALC is involved in valve margin development and, thus, contributes to seed shattering from mature fruits. Knocking out ALC would increase shatter resistance to avoid seed loss during mechanical harvest. We obtained a transgenic T1 plant with four alc mutant alleles by the use of a single target sequence...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558752/epigenomic-and-functional-analyses-reveal-roles-of-epialleles-in-the-loss-of-photoperiod-sensitivity-during-domestication-of-allotetraploid-cottons
#12
Qingxin Song, Tianzhen Zhang, David M Stelly, Z Jeffrey Chen
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is a pervasive evolutionary feature of all flowering plants and some animals, leading to genetic and epigenetic changes that affect gene expression and morphology. DNA methylation changes can produce meiotically stable epialleles, which are transmissible through selection and breeding. However, the relationship between DNA methylation and polyploid plant domestication remains elusive. RESULTS: We report comprehensive epigenomic and functional analyses, including ~12 million differentially methylated cytosines in domesticated allotetraploid cottons and their tetraploid and diploid relatives...
May 31, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558380/circulating-tumor-cells-as-a-biomarker-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#13
Han Liu, Bo Sun, Shengnan Wang, Congjin Liu, Yun Lu, Ding Li, Xingdang Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are valuable in both basic research and clinical application for cancer management. In the current study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of CTCs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: In total, 143 blood samples from 95 consecutively diagnosed PDAC patients and 48 healthy donors were collected. Combined data from immunostaining of CD45, DAPI and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 8 centromere (CEP8) probe were used to identify CTCs...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557997/how-genetic-variation-is-affected-by-geographic-environments-and-ploidy-level-in-erianthus-arundinaceus
#14
Jianbo Zhang, Jiajun Yan, Xiaoyun Shen, Dan Chang, Shiqie Bai, Yu Zhang, Jin Zhang
Erianthus arundinaceus is not only a candidate plant for sugarcane breeding programs, but also a potential bioenergy grass. Genetic variation that is affected by geographic environments and ploidy level is very important for the utilization of Erianthus arundinaceus. In this study, effects of geographic environments and ploidy level on genetic variation were studied through analyzing the genetic diversity, genetic similarity and cluster analysis of 46 E. arundinaceus materials from natural habitats in China by using 7 ISSRs and 15 SSRs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553297/agronomic-trait-variations-and-ploidy-differentiation-of-kiwiberries-in-northwest-china-implication-for-breeding
#15
Ying Zhang, Caihong Zhong, Yifei Liu, Qiong Zhang, Xiaorong Sun, Dawei Li
Polyploid plants often have higher biomass and superior crop qualities. Breeders therefore search for crop germplasm with higher ploidy levels; however, whether higher ploidy levels are associated with better performance remains unclear. Actinidia arguta and related species, whose commercialized fruit are referred to as kiwiberries, harbor a series of ploidy races in nature, offering an opportunity to determine the link between ploidy levels and agronomic traits. In the present study, we determined the ploidy levels of A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550605/high-throughput-snp-genotyping-of-modern-and-wild-emmer-wheat-for-yield-and-root-morphology-using-a-combined-association-and-linkage-analysis
#16
Stuart J Lucas, Ayten Salantur, Selami Yazar, Hikmet Budak
Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum Desf.) is a major world crop that is grown primarily in areas of the world that experience periodic drought, and therefore, breeding climate-resilient durum wheat is a priority. High-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping techniques have greatly increased the power of linkage and association mapping analyses for bread wheat, but as yet there is no durum wheat-specific platform available. In this study, we evaluate the new 384HT Wheat Breeders Array for its usefulness in tetraploid wheat breeding by genotyping a breeding population of F6 hybrids, derived from multiple crosses between T...
May 26, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545147/chromosome-divergence-during-evolution-of-the-tetraploid-clawed-frogs-xenopus-mellotropicalis-and-xenopus-epitropicalis-as-revealed-by-zoo-fish
#17
Martin Knytl, Ondřej Smolík, Svatava Kubíčková, Tereza Tlapáková, Ben J Evans, Vladimír Krylov
Whole genome duplication (WGD) generates new species and genomic redundancy. In African clawed frogs of the genus Xenopus, this phenomenon has been especially important in that (i) all but one extant species are polyploid and (ii) whole genome sequences of some species provide an evidence for genomic rearrangements prior to or after WGD. Within Xenopus in the subgenus Silurana, at least one allotetraploidization event gave rise to three extant tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) species-Xenopus mellotropicalis, X. epitropicalis, and X...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536982/cytogenetic-evidences-on-the-evolutionary-relationships-between-the-tetraploids-of-the-section-rhizomatosae-and-related-diploid-species-arachis-leguminosae
#18
Alejandra Marcela Ortiz, Germán Robledo, Guillermo Seijo, José Francisco Montenegro Valls, Graciela Inés Lavia
Rhizomatosae is a taxonomic section of the South American genus Arachis, whose diagnostic character is the presence of rhizomes in all its species. This section is of particular evolutionary interest because it has three polyploid (A. pseudovillosa, A. nitida and A. glabrata, 2n = 4x = 40) and only one diploid (A. burkartii, 2n = 2x = 20) species. The phylogenetic relationships of these species as well as the polyploidy nature and the origin of the tetraploids are still controversial. The present study provides an exhaustive analysis of the karyotypes of all rhizomatous species and six closely related diploid species of the sections Erectoides and Procumbentes by cytogenetic mapping of DAPI/CMA heterochromatin bands and 5S and 18-26S rDNA loci...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536588/a-novel-wheat-c-bzip-gene-tabzip14-b-participates-in-salt-and-freezing-tolerance-in-transgenic-plants
#19
Lina Zhang, Lichao Zhang, Chuan Xia, Lifeng Gao, Chenyang Hao, Guangyao Zhao, Jizeng Jia, Xiuying Kong
The group C-bZIP transcription factors (TFs) are involved in diverse biological processes, such as the regulation of seed storage protein (SSP) production and the responses to pathogen challenge and abiotic stress. However, our knowledge of the abiotic functions of group C-bZIP genes in wheat remains limited. Here, we present the function of a novel TabZIP14-B gene in wheat. This gene belongs to the group C-bZIP TFs and contains six exons and five introns; three haplotypes were identified among accessions of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536587/molecular-evidence-for-natural-hybridization-between-cotoneaster-dielsianus-and-c-glaucophyllus
#20
Mingwan Li, Sufang Chen, Renchao Zhou, Qiang Fan, Feifei Li, Wenbo Liao
Hybridization accompanied by polyploidization and apomixis has been demonstrated as a driving force in the evolution and speciation of many plants. A good example to study the evolutionary process of hybridization associated with polyploidy and apomixis is the genus Cotoneaster (Rosaceae), which includes approximately 150 species, most of which are polyploid apomicts. In this study, we investigated all Cotoneaster taxa distributed in a small region of Malipo, Yunnan, China. Based on the morphological characteristics, four Cotoneaster taxa were identified and sampled: C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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