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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902976/centrosome-clustering-in-the-development-of-bovine-binucleate-trophoblast-giant-cells
#1
Karl Klisch, Elisabeth M Schraner, Alois Boos
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) are the characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. During their development, BNC pass through 2 acytokinetic mitoses and become binucleate with 2 tetraploid nuclei. In this study, we investigate the number and location of centrosomes in bovine BNC. Centrosomes typically consist of 2 centrioles surrounded by electron-dense pericentriolar material. Duplication of centrosomes is tightly linked to the cell cycle, which ensures that the number of centrosomes remains constant in proliferating diploid cells...
December 1, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902796/target-amplicon-sequencing-for-genotyping-genome-wide-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-identified-by-whole-genome-resequencing-in-peanut
#2
Kenta Shirasawa, Chikara Kuwata, Manabu Watanabe, Masanobu Fukami, Hideki Hirakawa, Sachiko Isobe
Genome-wide genotyping data regarding breeding materials are essential resources for improving breeding efficiency, especially in plants with complex genomes with a high degree of polyploidy. Several current breeding efforts in cultivated peanut ( L.), which has a tetraploid genome, are devoted to developing high oleic acid cultivars. Genetic maps for such breeding programs have been developed using simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers, the use of which requires time-consuming electrophoretic analyses. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology can overcome this technical hurdle...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898814/software-for-genome-wide-association-studies-in-autopolyploids-and-its-application-to-potato
#3
Umesh R Rosyara, Walter S De Jong, David S Douches, Jeffrey B Endelman
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are widely used in diploid species to study complex traits in diversity and breeding populations, but GWAS software tailored to autopolyploids is lacking. The objectives of this research were to (i) develop an R package for autopolyploids based on the + mixed model, (ii) validate the software with simulated data, and (iii) analyze a diversity panel of tetraploid potatoes. A unique feature of the R package, called GWASpoly, is its ability to model different types of polyploid gene action, including additive, simplex dominant, and duplex dominant...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893804/tgfbeta-induces-binucleation-polyploidization-in-hepatocytes-through-a-src-dependent-cytokinesis-failure
#4
Marco De Santis Puzzonia, Angela Maria Cozzolino, Germana Grassi, Francesca Bisceglia, Raffaele Strippoli, Giulia Guarguaglini, Franca Citarella, Benedetto Sacchetti, Marco Tripodi, Alessandra Marchetti, Laura Amicone
In all mammals, the adult liver shows binucleated as well as mononucleated polyploid hepatocytes. The hepatic polyploidization starts after birth with an extensive hepatocyte binucleation and generates hepatocytes of several ploidy classes. While the functional significance of hepatocyte polyploidy is becoming clearer, how it is triggered and maintained needs to be clarified. Aim of this study was to identify a major inducer of hepatocyte binucleation/polyploidization and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875985/nuclear-envelope-structural-defect-underlies-the-main-cause-of-aneuploidy-in-ovarian-carcinogenesis
#5
Callinice D Capo-Chichi, Toni M Yeasky, Elizabeth R Smith, Xiang-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND: The Cancer Atlas project has shown that p53 is the only commonly (96 %) mutated gene found in high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer, the major histological subtype. Another general genetic change is extensive aneuploidy caused by chromosomal numerical instability, which is thought to promote malignant transformation. Conventionally, aneuploidy is thought to be the result of mitotic errors and chromosomal nondisjunction during mitosis. Previously, we found that ovarian cancer cells often lost or reduced nuclear lamina proteins lamin A/C, and suppression of lamin A/C in cultured ovarian epithelial cells leads to aneuploidy...
November 22, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873161/fgf-treatment-of-host-embryos-injected-with-es-cells-increases-rates-of-chimaerism
#6
Cathérine Dupont, Friedemann Loos, John Kong-A-San, Joost Gribnau
In spite of the emergence of genome editing tools, ES cell mediated transgenesis remains the most controllable way of creating genetically modified animals. Although tetraploid (4N) complementation of 4N host embryos and ES cells, is the only method guaranteeing that offspring are entirely ES cell derived, this technique is challenging, not always successful and difficult to implement in some laboratory settings. The current study shows that pretreatment of host blastocysts with FGF4 prior to ES cell injection can provide an alternative method for the generation of animals displaying high rates of chimaerism...
November 21, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872942/graphical-genotyping-as-a-method-to-map-ny-o-n-sto-and-gpa5-using-a-reference-panel-of-tetraploid-potato-cultivars
#7
Herman J van Eck, Peter G Vos, Jari P T Valkonen, Jan G A M L Uitdewilligen, Hellen Lensing, Nick de Vetten, Richard G F Visser
The method of graphical genotyping is applied to a panel of tetraploid potato cultivars to visualize haplotype sharing. The method allowed to map genes involved in virus and nematode resistance. The physical coordinates of the amount of linkage drag surrounding these genes are easily interpretable. Graphical genotyping is a visually attractive and easily interpretable method to represent genetic marker data. In this paper, the method is extended from diploids to a panel of tetraploid potato cultivars. Application of filters to select a subset of SNPs allows one to visualize haplotype sharing between individuals that also share a specific locus...
November 21, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871934/v-src-induced-nuclear-localization-of-yap-is-involved-in-multipolar-spindle-formation-in-tetraploid-cells
#8
Keiko Kakae, Masayoshi Ikeuchi, Takahisa Kuga, Youhei Saito, Naoto Yamaguchi, Yuji Nakayama
The protein-tyrosine kinase, c-Src, is involved in a variety of signaling events, including cell division. We have reported that v-Src, which is a mutant variant of the cellular proto-oncogene, c-Src, causes delocalization of Aurora B kinase, resulting in a furrow regression in cytokinesis and the generation of multinucleated cells. However, the effect of v-Src on mitotic spindle formation is unknown. Here we show that v-Src-expressing HCT116 and NIH3T3 cells undergo abnormal cell division, in which cells separate into more than two cells...
November 18, 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870903/rdna-loci-evolution-in-the-genus-glechoma-lamiaceae
#9
Tae-Soo Jang, Jamie McCann, John S Parker, Koji Takayama, Suk-Pyo Hong, Gerald M Schneeweiss, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss
Glechoma L. (Lamiaceae) is distributed in eastern Asia and Europe. Understanding chromosome evolution in Glechoma has been strongly hampered by its small chromosomes, constant karyotype and polyploidy. Here phylogenetic patterns and chromosomal variation in Glechoma species are considered, using genome sizes, chromosome mapping of 5S and 35S rDNAs by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacers (nrITS) of 35S rDNA and 5S rDNA NTS sequences. Species and populations of Glechoma are tetraploid (2n = 36) with base chromosome number of x = 9...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868293/clinical-features-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-with-polyploidy
#10
Joji Shimono, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Masao Seto, Takanori Teshima, Koichi Ohshima
Polyploidy, defined as more than two sets of homologous chromosomes, is found in a variety of malignant tumors and is thought to be related to disease pathogenesis. However, there have been no studies that have investigated polyploidy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here we reviewed clinicopathological features of 16 cases of DLBCL with polypoidy, which was defined as DLBCL with either near-tetraploid or greater number of chromosomes as detected by the G-band method. The frequency of polyploid DLBCL was 2...
November 21, 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864221/cyclin-d-mediates-tolerance-of-genome-doubling-in-cancers-with-functional-p53
#11
A Crockford, L P Zalmas, E Grönroos, S M Dewhurst, N McGranahan, M E Cuomo, V Encheva, A P Snijders, J Begum, S Purewal, J Cerveira, H Patel, M J Renshaw, C Swanton
BACKGROUND: Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) are common features of human malignancy that fuel genetic heterogeneity. Although tolerance to tetraploidisation, an intermediate state that further exacerbates CIN, is frequently mediated by TP53 dysfunction, we find that some genome-doubled tumours retain wild-type TP53 We sought to understand how tetraploid cells with a functional p53/p21-axis tolerate genome-doubling events. METHODS: We performed quantitative proteomics in a diploid/tetraploid pair within a system of multiple independently-derived TP53 wild-type tetraploid clones arising spontaneously from a diploid progenitor...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861861/spontaneous-polyploidy-gynogenesis-and-androgenesis-in-second-generation-f2-koi-cyprinus-carpio%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-goldfish-carassius-auratus-hybrids
#12
T A Delomas, B Gomelsky, A Anil, K J Schneider, J L Warner
The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858216/inducing-triploids-and-tetraploids-with-high-temperatures-in-populus-sect-tacamahaca
#13
Liqin Guo, Wenting Xu, Yan Zhang, Jinfeng Zhang, Zunzheng Wei
This study is the first to report that triploids and tetraploids have been successfully produced through embryo sac and zygotic embryo chromosome doubling with high temperatures in P. simonii Carr. and its hybrid. A new synthetic polyploid induced by hybridization with unreduced gametes and heterozygotic embryo chromosome doubling can effectively combine polyploidy and heterosis, which can provide two major breeding advantages. In Populus, successfully creating and cultivating new polyploid varieties have economic and ecological production value...
November 17, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854178/porcine-cloned-embryos-reconstructed-with-the-cell-nuclei-of-tetraploid-m-phase-fibroblast-cells-can-restore-normal-diploidy-at-the-blastocyst-stage
#14
Q Zhao, Y G Qiu, J T Tian, C S Wang, T Z An
The cell cycle of donor cells as a major factor that affects cloning efficiency remains debatable. G2/M phase cells as a donor can successfully produce cloned animals, but a minimal amount is known regarding nuclear remodeling events. In this study, porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) were carefully synchronized at G1 or M phase as donor cells. Most of the cloned embryos reconstructed from PFFs at G1 (G1-embryos) or M (M-embryos) phase formed a pronucleus-like nucleus (PN) within 6-h post fusion (hpf), but the M-embryos formed PN earlier than the G1-embryos did...
November 17, 2016: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847512/evidence-of-genomic-exchanges-between-homeologous-chromosomes-in-a-cross-of-peanut-with-newly-synthetized-allotetraploid-hybrids
#15
Joel R Nguepjop, Hodo-Abalo Tossim, Joseph M Bell, Jean-François Rami, Shivali Sharma, Brigitte Courtois, Nalini Mallikarjuna, Djibril Sane, Daniel Fonceka
Cultivated peanut and synthetics are allotetraploids (2n = 4x = 40) with two homeologous sets of chromosomes. Meiosis in allotetraploid peanut is generally thought to show diploid-like behavior. However, a recent study pointed out the occurrence of recombination between homeologous chromosomes, especially when synthetic allotetraploids are used, challenging the view of disomic inheritance in peanut. In this study, we investigated the meiotic behavior of allotetraploid peanut using 380 SSR markers and 90 F2 progeny derived from the cross between Arachis hypogaea cv Fleur 11 (AABB) and ISATGR278-18 (AAKK), a synthetic allotetraploid that harbors a K-genome that was reported to pair with the cultivated B-genome during meiosis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846306/genetic-diversity-and-association-mapping-for-agromorphological-and-grain-quality-traits-of-a-structured-collection-of-durum-wheat-landraces-including-subsp-durum-turgidum-and-diccocon
#16
Patricia Giraldo, Conxita Royo, Mirvana González, Jose M Carrillo, Magdalena Ruiz
Association mapping was performed for 18 agromorphological and grain quality traits in a set of 183 Spanish landraces, including subspecies durum, turgidum and dicoccon, genotyped with 749 DArT (Diversity Array Technology) markers. Large genetic and phenotypic variability was detected, being the level of diversity among the chromosomes and genomes heterogeneous, and sometimes complementary, among subspecies. Overall, 356 were monomorphic in at least one subspecies, mainly in dicoccon, and some of them coincidental between subspecies, especially between turgidum and dicoccon...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846291/geographic-variation-in-festuca-rubra-l-ploidy-levels-and-systemic-fungal-endophyte-frequencies
#17
Serdar Dirihan, Marjo Helander, Henry Väre, Pedro E Gundel, Lucas A Garibaldi, J Gonzalo N Irisarri, Irma Saloniemi, Kari Saikkonen
Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42), and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830977/altered-apoptosis-autophagy-and-epigenetic-modifications-cause-the-impaired-postimplantation-octaploid-embryonic-development-in-mice
#18
Bao-Jiang Wu, Li-Xia Zhao, Cheng-Cheng Zhu, Yang-Lin Chen, Meng-Yi Wei, Si-Qin Bao, Shao-Chen Sun, Xi-He Li
Polyploids are pervasive in plants and have large impacts on crop breeding, but natural polyploids are rare in animals. Mouse diploid embryos can be induced to become tetraploid by blastomere fusion at the 2-cell stage and tetraploid embryos can develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro. However, there is little information regarding mouse octaploid embryonic development and precise mechanisms contributing to octaploid embryonic developmental limitations are unknown. To investigate the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying octaploid embryonic development, we generated mouse octaploid embryos and evaluated the in vitro/in vivo developmental potential...
November 10, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825871/evolution-in-african-tropical-trees-displaying-ploidy-habitat-association-the-genus-afzelia-leguminosae
#19
Armel S L Donkpegan, Jean-Louis Doucet, Jérémy Migliore, Jérôme Duminil, Kasso Dainou, Rosalía Piñeiro, Jan J Wieringa, Dominique Champluvier, Olivier J Hardy
Polyploidy has rarely been documented in rain forest trees but it has recently been found in African species of the genus Afzelia (Leguminosae), which is composed of four tetraploid rain forest species and two diploid dry forest species. The genus Afzelia thus provides an opportunity to examine how and when polyploidy and habitat shift occurred in Africa, and whether they are associated. In this study, we combined three plastid markers (psbA, trnL, ndhF), two nuclear markers (ribosomal ITS and the single-copy PEPC E7 gene), plastomes (obtained by High Throughput Sequencing) and morphological traits, with an extensive taxonomic and geographic sampling to explore the evolutionary history of Afzelia...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818777/high-density-snp-based-genetic-maps-for-the-parents-of-an-outcrossed-and-a-selfed-tetraploid-garden-rose-cross-inferred-from-admixed-progeny-using-the-68k-rose-snp-array
#20
Mirjana Vukosavljev, Paul Arens, Roeland E Voorrips, Wendy Pc van 't Westende, G D Esselink, Peter M Bourke, Peter Cox, W Eric van de Weg, Richard Gf Visser, Chris Maliepaard, Marinus Jm Smulders
Dense genetic maps create a base for QTL analysis of important traits and future implementation of marker-assisted breeding. In tetraploid rose, the existing linkage maps include <300 markers to cover 28 linkage groups (4 homologous sets of 7 chromosomes). Here we used the 68k WagRhSNP Axiom single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for rose, in combination with SNP dosage calling at the tetraploid level, to genotype offspring from the garden rose cultivar 'Red New Dawn'. The offspring proved to be not from a single bi-parental cross...
2016: Horticulture Research
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