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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809155/microbe-profile-candida-albicans-a-shape-changing-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus-of-humans
#1
Neil A R Gow, Bhawna Yadav
(a) Morphotypes of Candida albicans (blue sector, vegetative forms; pink sector, forms related to mating or changes in ploidy). Cell types shown include: budding yeast cells; elongated conjoined yeasts forming pseudohyphae; parallel-sided hyphae; chlamydospores formed from suspensor cells; enlarged goliath cells formed under zinc deprivation (unpublished study, image from Duncan Wilson); intestinal gut form cells (image from Suzanne Noble); mating competence defined by white-grey-opaque cell transitions (images from Guanghua Huang); elongated chemotactic shmoo-mating projections leading to tetraploid zygote formation (images from David Soll and Karla Daniels); trimera formed by unequal chromosome segregation under antifungal exposure (image from Judith Berman)...
August 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802080/segmental-allotetraploidy-generates-extensive-homeologous-expression-rewiring-and-phenotypic-diversity-at-the-population-level-in-rice
#2
Yue Sun, Ying Wu, Chunwu Yang, Shuai Sun, Xiuyun Lin, Lixia Liu, Chunming Xu, Jonathan F Wendel, Lei Gong, Bao Liu
Allopolyploidization, i.e., concomitant merging and doubling of two or more divergent genomes in a common nucleus/cytoplasm, is known to instantly alter genome-wide transcriptome dynamics, a phenomenon referred to as "transcriptomic shock". However, the immediate effects of transcriptomic alteration in generating phenotypic diversity at the population level remain under-investigated. Here, we employed the MassARRAY-based Sequenom platform to assess and compare orthologous, allelic, and homeologous gene expression status in two tissues (leaf and root) of a set of randomly chosen individuals from populations of parental rice subspecies (indica and japonica), in vitro "hybrids" (parental mixes), reciprocal F1 hybrids and reciprocal tetraploids at the 5(th) -selfed generation (S5)...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801756/segregation-distortion-and-genome-wide-digenic-interactions-affect-transmission-of-introgressed-chromatin-from-wild-cotton-species
#3
Rahul Chandnani, Baohua Wang, Xavier Draye, Lisa K Rainville, Susan Auckland, Zhimin Zhuang, Edward L Lubbers, O Lloyd May, Peng W Chee, Andrew H Paterson
This study reports transmission genetics of chromosomal segments into Gossypium hirsutum from its most distant euploid relative, Gossypium mustelinum . Mutilocus interactions and structural rearrangements affect introgression and segregation of donor chromatin. Wild allotetraploid relatives of cotton are a rich source of genetic diversity that can be used in genetic improvement, but linkage drag and non-Mendelian transmission genetics are prevalent in interspecific crosses. These problems necessitate knowledge of transmission patterns of chromatin from wild donor species in cultivated recipient species...
August 11, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797221/use-of-genotyping-by-sequencing-to-determine-the-genetic-structure-in-the-medicinal-plant-chamomile-and-to-identify-flowering-time-and-alpha-bisabolol-associated-snp-loci-by-genome-wide-association-mapping
#4
Lars-Gernot Otto, Prodyut Mondal, Jonathan Brassac, Susanne Preiss, Jörg Degenhardt, Sang He, Jochen Christoph Reif, Timothy Francis Sharbel
BACKGROUND: Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) has a long history of use in herbal medicine with various applications, and the flower heads contain numerous secondary metabolites which are medicinally active. In the major crop plants, next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are intensely applied to exploit genetic resources, to develop genomic resources and to enhance breeding. Here, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been used in the non-model medicinal plant chamomile to evaluate the genetic structure of the cultivated varieties/populations, and to perform genome wide association study (GWAS) focusing on genes with large effect on flowering time and the medicinally important alpha-bisabolol content...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794480/chromosome-structural-variation-of-two-cultivated-tetraploid-cottons-and-their-ancestral-diploid-species-based-on-a-new-high-density-genetic-map
#5
Wen-Wen Wang, Zhao-Yun Tan, Ya-Qiong Xu, Ai-Ai Zhu, Yan Li, Jiang Yao, Rui Tian, Xiao-Mei Fang, Xue-Ying Liu, You-Ming Tian, Zhong-Hua Teng, Jian Zhang, Da-Jun Liu, De-Xin Liu, Hai-Hong Shang, Fang Liu, Zheng-Sheng Zhang
A high-resolution genetic map is a useful tool for assaying genomic structural variation and clarifying the evolution of polyploid cotton. A total of 36956 SSRs, including 11289 released in previous studies and 25567 which were newly developed based on the genome sequences of G. arboreum and G. raimondii, were utilized to construct a new genetic map. The new high-density genetic map includes 6009 loci and spanned 3863.97 cM with an average distance of 0.64 cM between consecutive markers. Four inversions (one between Chr08 and Chr24, one between Chr09 and Chr23 and two between Chr10 and Chr20) were identified by homology analysis...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789633/variations-in-5s-rdnas-in-diploid-and-tetraploid-offspring-of-red-crucian-carp-%C3%A3-common-carp
#6
Lihai Ye, Chun Zhang, Xiaojun Tang, Yiyi Chen, Shaojun Liu
BACKGROUND: The allotetraploid hybrid fish (4nAT) that was created in a previous study through an intergeneric cross between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂) provided an excellent platform to investigate the effect of hybridization and polyploidization on the evolution of 5S rDNA. The 5S rDNAs of paternal common carp were made up of a coding sequence (CDS) and a non-transcribed spacer (NTS) unit, and while the 5S rDNAs of maternal red crucian carp contained a CDS and a NTS unit, they also contained a variable number of interposed regions (IPRs)...
August 8, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750081/genome-wide-analysis-of-basic-helix-loop-helix-gene-family-in-peanut-and-assessment-of-its-roles-in-pod-development
#7
Chao Gao, Jianlei Sun, Chongqi Wang, Yumei Dong, Shouhua Xiao, Xingjun Wang, Zigao Jiao
The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins constitute a superfamily of transcription factors that are known to play a range of regulatory roles in eukaryotes. Over the past few decades, many bHLH family genes have been well-characterized in model plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice and tomato. However, the bHLH protein family in peanuts has not yet been systematically identified and characterized. Here, 132 and 129 bHLH proteins were identified from two wild ancestral diploid subgenomes of cultivated tetraploid peanuts, Arachis duranensis (AA) and Arachis ipaensis (BB), respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746308/derivation-of-ground-state-female-es-cells-maintaining-gamete-derived-dna-methylation
#8
Masaki Yagi, Satoshi Kishigami, Akito Tanaka, Katsunori Semi, Eiji Mizutani, Sayaka Wakayama, Teruhiko Wakayama, Takuya Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Yamada
Inhibitors of Mek1/2 and Gsk3β, known as 2i, enhance the derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and promote ground-state pluripotency in rodents. Here we show that the derivation of female mouse ES cells in the presence of 2i and leukaemia inhibitory factor (2i/L ES cells) results in a widespread loss of DNA methylation, including a massive erasure of genomic imprints. Despite this global loss of DNA methylation, early-passage 2i/L ES cells efficiently differentiate into somatic cells, and this process requires genome-wide de novo DNA methylation...
July 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741843/niche-differences-may-explain-the-geographic-distribution-of-cytotypes-in-erysimum-mediohispanicum
#9
A Jesus Muñoz-Pajares, Francisco Perfectti, João Loureiro, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Paolo Biella, Mariana Castro, Sílvia Castro, Jose M Gómez
Polyploidization has played an important role in plant diversification, and variation in ploidy level may be found not only between species of the same genus, but also within a single species. Although establishing the adaptive significance of polyploidy to explain the geographic distribution of cytotypes is challenging, the occurrence of different cytotypes in different ecological niches may suggest an adaptive role of genome duplication. We have studied the adaptive significance of the geographic distribution of cytotypes across the entire distribution range of the endemic Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae)...
July 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740255/untangling-the-model-muddle-empirical-tumour-growth-in-tasmanian-devil-facial-tumour-disease
#10
Rodrigo K Hamede, Nicholas J Beeton, Scott Carver, Menna E Jones
A pressing and unresolved topic in cancer research is how tumours grow in the absence of treatment. Despite advances in cancer biology, therapeutic and diagnostic technologies, there is limited knowledge regarding the fundamental growth and developmental patterns in solid tumours. In this ten year study, we estimated growth curves in Tasmanian devil facial tumours, a clonal transmissible cancer, in males and females with two different karyotypes (diploid, tetraploid) and facial locations (mucosal, dermal), using established differential equation models and model selection...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739643/histone-methyltransferase-dot1l-is-a-coactivator-for-thyroid-hormone-receptor-during-xenopus-development
#11
Luan Wen, Liezhen Fu, Yun-Bo Shi
Histone modifications are associated with transcriptional regulation by diverse transcription factors. Genome-wide correlation studies have revealed that histone activation marks and repression marks are associated with activated and repressed gene expression, respectively. Among the histone activation marks is histone H3 K79 methylation, which is carried out by only a single methyltransferase, disruptor of telomeric silencing-1-like (DOT1L). We have been studying thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis in two highly related species, the pseudo-tetraploid Xenopus laevis and diploid Xenopus tropicalis, as a model for postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals that is difficult to study...
July 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732039/abnormal-meiosis-in-an-intersectional-allotriploid-of-populus-l-and-segregation-of-ploidy-levels-in-2x-%C3%A3-3x-progeny
#12
Jun Wang, Beibei Huo, Wanting Liu, Daili Li, Ling Liao
Triploid plants are usually highly aborted owing to unbalanced meiotic chromosome segregation, but limited viable gametes can participate in the transition to different ploidy levels. In this study, numerous meiotic abnormalities were found with high frequency in an intersectional allotriploid poplar (Populus alba × P. berolinensis 'Yinzhong'), including univalents, precocious chromosome migration, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, and precocious cytokinesis, indicating high genetic imbalance in this allotriploid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717203/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-circular-rnas-by-high-throughput-sequencing-in-soybean
#13
Wei Zhao, Yihui Cheng, Chi Zhang, Qingbo You, Xinjie Shen, Wei Guo, Yongqing Jiao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) arise during pre-mRNA splicing, in which the 3' and 5' ends are linked to each other by a covalent bond. Soybean is an ancient tetraploid, which underwent two whole genome duplications. Most of soybean genes are paralogous genes with multiple copies. Although many circRNAs have been identified in animals and plants, little is known about soybean circRNAs, especially about circRNAs derived from paralogous genes. Here, we used deep sequencing technology coupled with RNase R enrichment strategy and bioinformatic approach to uncover circRNAs in soybean...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712501/gene-editing-in-polyploid-crops-wheat-camelina-canola-potato-cotton-peanut-sugar-cane-and-citrus
#14
Donald P Weeks
Polyploid crops make up a significant portion of the major food and fiber crops of the world and include wheat, potato, cotton, apple, peanut, citrus, and brassica oilseeds such as rape, canola, and Camelina. The presence of three sets of chromosomes in triploids, four sets in tetraploids, and six sets in hexaploids present significant challenges to conventional plant breeding and, potentially, to efficient use of rapidly emerging gene and genome-editing systems such as zinc finger nucleases, single-stranded oligonucleotides, TALE effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9)...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711668/genome-wide-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-the-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-aldh-gene-superfamily-under-abiotic-stresses-in-cotton
#15
Xinlei Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Hejun Lu, Xiaoyan Cai, Xingxing Wang, Zhongli Zhou, Chunying Wang, Yuhong Wang, Zhenmei Zhang, Kunbo Wang, Fang Liu
In plants, aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) function as 'aldehyde scavengers' by removing reactive aldehydes and thus play important roles in stress responses. To date, 30 ALDHs have been identified in Gossypium raimondii, whereas ALDHs have not been studied in Gossypium arboreum or in tetraploid cotton. In this study, we identified 30, 59 and 59 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes from G. arboreum, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, respectively. Gene structure analysis revealed that members of the same family exhibit similar exon-intron structures and structural domains, and all members of the ALDH18 family possess a distinct AA-kinase domain...
July 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710383/wider-geographic-distribution-and-higher-diversity-of-hexaploids-than-tetraploids-in-carassius-species-complex-reveal-recurrent-polyploidy-effects-on-adaptive-evolution
#16
Xiao-Li Liu, Fang-Fang Jiang, Zhong-Wei Wang, Xi-Yin Li, Zhi Li, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Fan Chen, Jian-Feng Mao, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Polyploidy roles on adaptive evolution and ecological novelty have been extensively studied in plants but remained unclear in vertebrates owing to the rare polyploidy incidences. Here, a huge number of 3105 specimens in Carassius species complex including 2211 hexaploids and 894 tetraploids were sampled from 34 locations through mainland China. And hexaploids had wider geographic distribution than tetraploids especially in the areas with high altitude, high latitude and low annual precipitation. Then, an approximate 1050 bp transferrin (tf) fragments were amplified from all the samples, and 526 tf alleles were identified from a total of 37260 sequences at last...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707250/genomic-prediction-of-starch-content-and-chipping-quality-in-tetraploid-potato-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#17
Elsa Sverrisdóttir, Stephen Byrne, Ea Høegh Riis Sundmark, Heidi Øllegaard Johnsen, Hanne Grethe Kirk, Torben Asp, Luc Janss, Kåre L Nielsen
Genomic prediction models for starch content and chipping quality show promising results, suggesting that genomic selection is a feasible breeding strategy in tetraploid potato. Genomic selection uses genome-wide molecular markers to predict performance of individuals and allows selections in the absence of direct phenotyping. It is regarded as a useful tool to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs, and is becoming increasingly viable for crops as genotyping costs continue to fall. In this study, we have generated genomic prediction models for starch content and chipping quality in tetraploid potato to facilitate varietal development...
July 13, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707113/genetically-engineered-hairy-root-cultures-of-hyoscyamus-senecionis-and-h-muticus-ploidy-as-a-promising-parameter-in-the-metabolic-engineering-of-tropane-alkaloids
#18
Esmaeil Dehghan, Darwin W Reed, Patrick S Covello, Zeinab Hasanpour, Javier Palazon, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey, Farajollah Shahriari Ahmadi
Tetraploidy improves overexpression of h6h and scopolamine production of H. muticus, while in H. senecionis, pmt overexpression and elicitation can be used as effective methods for increasing tropane alkaloids. The effects of metabolic engineering in a polyploid context were studied by overexpression of h6h in the tetraploid hairy root cultures of H. muticus. Flow cytometry analysis indicated genetic stability in the majority of the clones, while only a few clones showed genetic instability. Among all the diploid and tetraploid clones, the highest level of h6h transgene expression and scopolamine accumulation was interestingly observed in the tetraploid clones of H...
July 13, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694102/evolution-of-dmsp-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-biosynthesis-pathway-origin-and-phylogenetic-distribution-in-polyploid-spartina-poaceae-chloridoideae
#19
Hélène Rousseau, Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin, Xavier Dauvergne, Julien Boutte, Gaëlle Simon, Nathalie Marnet, Alain Bouchereau, Solène Guiheneuf, Jean-Pierre Bazureau, Jérôme Morice, Stéphane Ravanel, Francisco Cabello-Hurtado, Abdelkader Ainouche, Armel Salmon, Jonathan F Wendel, Malika L Ainouche
DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) is an ecologically important sulfur metabolite commonly produced by marine algae and by some higher plant lineages, including the polyploid salt marsh genus Spartina (Poaceae). The molecular mechanisms and genes involved in the DMSP biosynthesis pathways are still unknown. In this study, we performed comparative analyses of DMSP amounts and molecular phylogenetic analyses to decipher the origin of DMSP in Spartina that represents one of the major source of terrestrial DMSP in coastal marshes...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690795/short-term-effect-of-elevated-co2-concentration-0-5-on%C3%A2-mitochondria-in-diploid-and-tetraploid-black-locust-robinia%C3%A2-pseudoacacia-l
#20
Fuling Xu, Mingquan Jiang, Fanjuan Meng
Recent increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration have affected the growth and physiology of plants. In this study, plants were grown with 0.5% CO 2 for 0, 3, and 6 days. The anatomy, fluorescence intensity of H2O2, respiration rate, and antioxidant activities of the mitochondria were analyzed in diploid (2×) and tetraploid (4×) black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Exposure to 0.5% CO 2 resulted in clear structural alterations and stomatal closure in the mitochondria. Reduced membrane integrity and increased structural damage were observed in 2× plants at 6 days...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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