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Angelica Giancaspro, Stefania L Giove, Daniela Zito, A Blanco, Agata Gadaleta
Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elisabete F Dias, M Moura, H Schaefer, Luís Silva
Island plants are frequently used as model systems in evolutionary biology to understand factors that might explain genetic diversity and population differentiation levels. Theory suggests that island plants should have lower levels of genetic diversity than their continental relatives, but this hypothesis has been rejected in several recent studies. In the Azores, the population level genetic diversity is generally low. But, like in most island systems, there are high levels of genetic differentiation between different islands...
October 13, 2016: AoB Plants
Ri Gao, Haibin Wang, Bin Dong, Xiaodong Yang, Sumei Chen, Jiafu Jiang, Zhaohe Zhang, Chen Liu, Nan Zhao, Fadi Chen
Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ratan Chopra, Gloria Burow, Charles E Simpson, Jennifer Chagoya, Joann Mudge, Mark D Burow
To test the hypothesis that the cultivated peanut species possesses almost no molecular variability, we sequenced a diverse panel of twenty-two Arachis accessions representing Arachis hypogaea botanical classes, A-, B-, and K- genome diploids, a synthetic amphidiploid, and a tetraploid wild species. RNASeq was performed on pools of three tissues and de novo assembly wasperformed. Realignment of individual accession reads to transcripts of the cultivar OLin identified 306,820 bi-allelic SNPs. Among ten naturally occurring tetraploid accessions, 40,382 unique homozygous SNPs were identified in 14,719 contigs...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Božo Frajman, Ivana Rešetnik, Marjan Niketić, Friedrich Ehrendorfer, Peter Schönswetter
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is one of the most important evolutionary pathways in flowering plants and has significantly contributed to their diversification and radiation. Due to the prevalence of reticulate evolution spanning three ploidy levels, Knautia is considered one of the taxonomically most intricate groups in the European flora. On the basis of ITS and plastid DNA sequences as well as AFLP fingerprints obtained from 381 populations of almost all species of the genus we asked the following questions...
October 10, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
O Jablonska, A Marín, K Kowalewska, T Fujimoto, K Arai
Fifteen microsatellite loci were identified in the tetraploid spined loach, Cobitis biwae (Teleostei: Cobitidae). Among these, 14 were polymorphic (5-31 alleles) and showed moderate to high cross-species amplification transferability in four related species, Cobitis matsubarai, Cobitis taenia, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, and Misgurnus fossilis. The loci, described herein, will be useful for population genetics, phylogeny, parentage analysis, and detection of hybridization among Cobitis species.
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
C M P Paula, K G Figueiredo, F Souza Sobrinho, F R G Benites, L C Davide, V H Techio
The genus Brachiaria contains species that have great economic importance in the Brazilian agricultural sector, as they enable cattle ranching on acid and poor soils with species that are resistant to spittlebugs and form crop-livestock-forest integration systems. The genus mainly consists of tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) and apomictic species such as B. decumbens and B. brizantha. Sexuality is found in diploid species (2n = 2x = 18) such as B. ruziziensis. Interspecific hybridization between species of interest is possible by the artificial tetraploidization of B...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Mariette Andersson, Helle Turesson, Alessandro Nicolia, Ann-Sofie Fält, Mathias Samuelsson, Per Hofvander
Altered starch quality with full knockout of GBSS gene function in potato was achieved using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, through transient transfection and regeneration from isolated protoplasts. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) has shown great progress in introducing precisely targeted mutations. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 has received increased focus compared to other SDM techniques, since the method is easily adapted to different targets. Here, we demonstrate that transient application of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing in protoplasts of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum) yielded mutations in all four alleles in a single transfection, in up to 2 % of regenerated lines...
October 3, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Peter G Vos, M João Paulo, Roeland E Voorrips, Richard G F Visser, Herman J van Eck, Fred A van Eeuwijk
The number of SNPs required for QTL discovery is justified by the distance at which linkage disequilibrium has decayed. Simulations and real potato SNP data showed how to estimate and interpret LD decay. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and its decay with genetic distance determine the resolution of association mapping, and are useful for assessing the desired numbers of SNPs on arrays. To study LD and LD decay in tetraploid potato, we simulated autotetraploid genotypes and used it to explore the dependence on: (1) the number of haplotypes in the population (the amount of genetic variation) and (2) the percentage of haplotype specific SNPs (hs-SNPs)...
October 3, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Jiajing Sheng, Xiaohu Hu, Xiaofei Zeng, Ye Li, Fasong Zhou, Zhongli Hu, Surong Jin, Ying Diao
The genome sizes of five Miscanthus species, including 79 accessions of M. lutarioriparius, 8 of M. floridulus, 6 of M. sacchariflorus, 7 of M. sinensis, and 4 of M. × giganteus were examined using flow cytometry. The overall average nuclear DNA content were 4.256 ± 0.6 pg/2C in M. lutarioriparius, 5.175 ± 0.3 pg/2C in M. floridulus, 3.956 ± 0.2 pg/2C in M. sacchariflorus, 5.272 ± 0.2 pg/2C in M. sinensis, and 6.932 ± 0.1 pg/2C in M. × giganteus. Interspecific variation was found at the diploid level, suggesting that DNA content might be a parameter that can be used to differentiate the species...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amy Rinaldo, Brian Gilbert, Rainer Boni, Simon G Krattinger, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park, Evans Lagudah, Michael Ayliffe
The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in seedlings under standard growth conditions. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions...
September 29, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Wei Gao, Lu Long, Xinquan Tian, Jingjing Jin, Huili Liu, Hui Zhang, Fuchun Xu, Chunpeng Song
Stress-associated proteins (SAPs) containing the A20/AN1 zinc-finger domain play important roles in response to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on the SAP gene family in cotton. To explore the distributions and expression patterns of these genes, we performed genome-wide identification and characterization of SAPs in tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. TM-1 (AD1). A total of 37 genes encoding SAPs were identified, 36 of which were duplicated in the A and D sub-genomes...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Shuang Jiao, Zhihao Wu, Xungang Tan, Yulei Sui, Lijuan Wang, Feng You
Although chromosome set manipulation techniques including polyploidy induction and gynogentic induction in flatfish are becoming increasingly mature, there exists a poor understanding of their effects on embryonic development. PAX3 plays crucial roles during embryonic myogenesis and neurogenesis. In olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), there are two duplicated pax3 genes (pax3a, pax3b), and both of them are expressed in the brain and muscle regions with some subtle regional differences. We utilized pax3a and pax3b as indicators to preliminarily investigate whether chromosome set manipulation affects embryonic neurogenesis and myogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization...
September 27, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
M Pasquariello, J Ham, C Burt, J Jahier, S Paillard, C Uauy, P Nicholson
Phenotyping and mapping data reveal that chromosome intervals containing eyespot resistance genes Pch1 and Pch2 on 7D and 7A, respectively, do not overlap, and thus, these genes are not homoeloci. Eyespot is a stem-base fungal disease of cereals growing in temperate regions. Two main resistances are currently available for use in wheat. Pch1 is a potent single major gene transferred to wheat from Aegilops ventricosa and located on the distal end of chromosome 7D. Pch2, a moderate resistance deriving from Cappelle Desprez, is located at the end of 7AL...
September 24, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Noemie Prat, Camille Guilbert, Ursa Prah, Elisabeth Wachter, Barbara Steiner, Thierry Langin, Olivier Robert, Hermann Buerstmayr
The QTL Fhb1 was successfully introgressed and validated in three durum wheat populations. The novel germplasm and the QTL detected will support improvement of Fusarium resistance in durum wheat. Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is particularly susceptible to Fusarium head blight (FHB) and breeding for resistance is hampered by limited genetic variation within this species. To date, resistant sources are mainly available in a few wild relative tetraploid wheat accessions. In this study, the effect of the well-known hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
September 23, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Ya-Juan Li, Yang-Chun Gao, He Zhou, Hai-Yan Ma, Zhong-Qiao Lin, Tian-Yu Ma, Yi Sui, Katsutoshi Arai
Triploid Chinese loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, hybrids between tetraploids from Hubei Province and diploids from Liaoning Province were mated with either diploid wild-type or triploid hybrids to analyze viability and ploidy of the resultant progenies. Both triploid males and females generated fertile gametes, but progenies from the crosses using gametes of triploid hybrids did not survive beyond the larval stages. In crosses between wild-type diploid females and triploid hybrid males, embryos ranging from 2...
October 2016: Genetica
Xuzhen Wang, Xiaoni Gan, Junbing Li, Yiyu Chen, Shunping He
Origin and diversification of the Tibetan polyploid cyprinids (schizothoracins) may help us to explore relationships between diversification of the cyprinids and the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Cyprininae phylogeny was analyzed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to trace origins of polyploidy and diversifications of schizothoracins. Ancestral states reconstruction for ploidy levels indicated that the Cyprininae was diploid origin and the schizothoracin clades tetraploid origins. There were two diversification rate shifts along with diversification of the cyprinine fishes in response to the Tibetan uplift...
September 20, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Ge Zhao, Yun Song, Caixiang Wang, Hamama Islam Butt, Qianhua Wang, Chaojun Zhang, Zuoren Yang, Zhao Liu, Eryong Chen, Xueyan Zhang, Fuguang Li
Jasmonates control many aspects of plant biological processes. They are important for regulating plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought, which is one of the most serious threats to sustainable agricultural production. However, little is known regarding how jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins mediate jasmonic acid signals to improve stress tolerance in cotton. This represents the first comprehensive comparative study of TIFY transcription factors in both diploid A, D and tetraploid AD cotton species...
September 17, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Erika Toda, Takashi Okamoto
Polyploidization is a common phenomenon in angiosperms, and polyploidy has played a major role in the long-term diversification and evolutionary success of plants. Triploid plants are considered as the intermediate stage in the formation of stable autotetraploid plants, and this pathway of tetraploid formation is known as the triploid bridge. As for the mechanism of triploid formation among diploid populations, fusion of an unreduced gamete with a reduced gamete is generally accepted. In addition, the possibility of polyspermy has been proposed for maize, wheat and some orchids, although it has been regarded as an uncommon mechanism of polyploid formation...
September 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Julien Boutte, Julie Ferreira de Carvalho, Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin, Julie Poulain, Corinne Da Silva, Patrick Wincker, Malika Ainouche, Armel Salmon
In this study, we report the assembly and annotation of five reference transcriptomes for the European hexaploid Spartina species (S. maritima, S. alterniflora and their homoploid hybrids S. x townsendii and S. x neyrautii) and the allododecaploid invasive species S. anglica These transcriptomes were constructed from various leaf and root cDNA libraries that were sequenced using both Roche-454 and Illumina technologies. Considering the high ploidy levels of the Spartina genomes under study, and considering the absence of diploid reference genome and the need of an appropriate analytical strategy, we developed generic bioinformatics tools to (1) detect different haplotypes of each gene within each species and (2) assign a parental origin to haplotypes detected in the hexaploid hybrids and the neo-allopolyploid...
October 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
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