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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515146/transcriptome-of-wheat-inflorescence-development-from-spikelet-initiation-to-floral-patterning
#1
Nan Feng, Gaoyuan Song, Jiantao Guan, Kai Chen, Meiling Jia, Dehua Huang, Jiajie Wu, Lichao Zhang, Xiuying Kong, Shuaifeng Geng, Jun Liu, Aili Li, Long Mao
Early reproductive development in cereals is crucial for final grain number per spike, and hence the yield potential of the crop. To date, however, no systematic analyses of gene expression profiles during this important process have been conducted for common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Here, we studied the transcriptome profiles at four stages of early wheat reproductive development, from spikelet initiation to floral organ differentiation. K-means clustering and stage-specific transcript identification detected dynamically expressed homoeologs of important transcription regulators in spikelet and floral meristems that may be involved in spikelet initiation, floret meristem specification, and floral organ patterning, as inferred from their homologs in model plants...
May 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510185/morphological-physiological-cytological-and-phytochemical-studies-in-diploid-and-colchicine-induced-tetraploid-plants-of-fagopyrum-tataricum-l-gaertn
#2
Lin-Jiao Wang, Mao-Yin Sheng, Pei-Cai Wen, Jia-Ying Du
BACKGROUND: Tartary buckwheat are very popular as an important functional food material and its cultivation is very widespread in our whole world, but there obviously lack works in the researches of genetic breeding for agricultural and medicinal utilization. The aim of this study is to obtain good germplasm resources for agricultural and medicinal use of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) by inducing the tetraploid plants. RESULTS: Four cultivars of F. tataricum, that is, Qianwei 2#, Jinku 2#, Chuanqiao 1#, and Liuqiao 1# were selected to experiment...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494436/neuronal-tetraploidization-in-the-cerebral-cortex-correlates-with-reduced-cognition-in-mice-and-precedes-and-recapitulates-alzheimer-s-associated-neuropathology
#3
Noelia López-Sánchez, Ángela Fontán-Lozano, Anna Pallé, Valentina González-Álvarez, Alberto Rábano, José L Trejo, José M Frade
A controversy exists as to whether de novo-generated neuronal tetraploidy (dnNT) occurs in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the presence of age-associated dnNT in the normal brain remains unexplored. Here we show that age-associated dnNT occurs in both superficial and deep layers of the cerebral cortex of adult mice, a process that is blocked in the absence of E2F1, a known regulator of cell cycle progression. This blockage correlates with improved cognition despite compromised neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus was confirmed in mice lacking the E2f1 gene...
April 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464069/phenotypic-and-haplotype-diversity-among-tetraploid-and-hexaploid-wheat-accessions-with-potentially-novel-insect-resistance-genes-for-wheat-stem-sawfly
#4
J P Cook, N K Blake, H Y Heo, J M Martin, D K Weaver, L E Talbert
Genetic diversity in breeding programs can be impaired by fixation of alleles derived from a limited number of founder lines. This is demonstrated with the use of a solid-stem trait derived from the Portuguese landrace 'S-615' over 70 yrs ago that is widely used to resist the wheat stem sawfly ( Norton, WSS) in North America. The objective of this study was to evaluate haplotype diversity underlying the quantitative trait locus (QTL) that controls the majority of the S-615 derived solid-stem genetic variation using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays in a diverse set of 228 solid-stem tetraploid and hexaploid wheat accessions originating from areas of the world infested with various species of WSS...
March 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463975/global-gene-expression-profiling-related-to-temperature-sensitive-growth-abnormalities-in-interspecific-crosses-between-tetraploid-wheat-and-aegilops-tauschii
#5
Ryusuke Matsuda, Julio Cesar Masaru Iehisa, Kouhei Sakaguchi, Ryoko Ohno, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460465/functional-characterisation-of-a-novel-ovarian-cancer-cell-line-nuoc-1
#6
Aiste McCormick, Eleanor Earp, Katherine Elliot, Gavin Cuthbert, Rachel O'Donnell, Brian T Wilson, Ruth Sutton, Charlotte Leeson, Huw D Thomas, Helen Blair, Sarah Fordham, John Lunec, James Allan, Richard J Edmondson
BACKGROUND: Cell lines provide a powerful model to study cancer and here we describe a new spontaneously immortalised epithelial ovarian cancer cell line (NUOC-1) derived from the ascites collected at a time of primary debulking surgery for a mixed endometrioid / clear cell / High Grade Serous (HGS) histology. RESULTS: This spontaneously immortalised cell line was found to maintain morphology and epithelial markers throughout long-term culture. NUOC-1 cells grow as an adherent monolayer with a doubling time of 58 hours...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448798/chemodiversity-of-two-closely-related-tetraploid-centaurium-species-and-their-hexaploid-hybrid-metabolomic-search-for-high-resolution-taxonomic-classifiers
#7
Tijana Banjanac, Milan Dragićević, Branislav Šiler, Uroš Gašić, Borut Bohanec, Jasmina Nestorović Živković, Snežana Trifunović, Danijela Mišić
Species within the genus Centaurium readily hybridize and polyploid complexes are often seen in natural populations. We describe phytochemical profiles of newly discovered allohexaploid hybrid, here named Centaurium pannonicum, and its parental tetraploid species C. erythraea and rare C. littorale ssp. compressum. Our aim was to examine chemodiversity of these taxa in the area of Vojvodina (North Serbia) and to perform metabolomics search for chemical classifiers which would provide high resolution discrimination of parental and hybrid individuals...
April 24, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448637/45s-rdna-external-transcribed-spacer-organization-reveals-new-phylogenetic-relationships-in-avena-genus
#8
Joana Rodrigues, Wanda Viegas, Manuela Silva
The genus Avena comprises four distinct genomes organized in diploid (AA or CC), tetraploid (AABB or AACC) and hexaploid species (AACCDD), constituting an interesting model for phylogenetic analysis. The aim of this work was to characterize 45S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) variability in distinct species representative of Avena genome diversity-A. strigosa (AA), A. ventricosa (CvCv), A. eriantha (CpCp), A. barbata (AABB), A. murphyi (AACC), A. sativa (AACCDD) and A. sterilis (AACCDD) through the assessment of the 5' external transcribed spacer (5'-ETS), a promising IGS region for phylogenetic studies poorly studied in Avena genus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446920/two-highly-similar-poplar-paleo-subgenomes-suggest-an-autotetraploid-ancestor-of-salicaceae-plants
#9
Yinzhe Liu, Jinpeng Wang, Weina Ge, Zhenyi Wang, Yuxian Li, Nanshan Yang, Sangrong Sun, Liwei Zhang, Xiyin Wang
As a model plant to study perennial trees in the Salicaceae family, the poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genome was sequenced, revealing recurrent paleo-polyploidizations during its evolution. A comparative and hierarchical alignment of its genome to a well-selected reference genome would help us better understand poplar's genome structure and gene family evolution. Here, by adopting the relatively simpler grape (Vitis vinifera) genome as reference, and by inferring both intra- and inter-genomic gene collinearity, we produced a united alignment of these two genomes and hierarchically distinguished the layers of paralogous and orthologous genes, as related to recursive polyploidizations and speciation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429058/effects-of-genome-duplication-on-phenotypes-and-industrial-applications-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#10
Ke Zhang, Ya-Hong Fang, Ke-Hui Gao, Yang Sui, Dao-Qiong Zheng, Xue-Chang Wu
Polyploidy is common in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, but the physiological and phenotypic effects of ploidy changes have not been fully clarified. Here, isogenic diploid, triploid, and tetraploid S. cerevisiae strains were constructed from a haploid strain, CEN.PK2-1C. Stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performance of the four euploid strains were compared. Each euploid strain had strengths and weaknesses in tolerance to certain stressors, and no single strain was tolerant of all stressors. The diploid had higher ethanol production than the other strains in normal fermentation medium, while the triploid strain showed the fastest fermentation rate in the presence of inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysate...
April 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427346/karyotypic-evolution-of-the-medicago-complex-sativa-caerulea-falcata-inferred-from-comparative-cytogenetic-analysis
#11
Feng Yu, Haiqing Wang, Yanyan Zhao, Ruijuan Liu, Quanwen Dou, Jiangli Dong, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy plays an important role in the adaptation and speciation of plants. The alteration of karyotype is a significant event during polyploidy formation. The Medicago sativa complex includes both diploid (2n = 2× = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 2× = 32) subspecies. The tetraploid M. ssp. sativa was regarded as having a simple autopolyploid origin from diploid ssp. caerulea, whereas the autopolyploid origin of tetraploid ssp. falcata from diploid form ssp. falcata is still in doubt...
April 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424725/a-genome-scale-analysis-of-the-pin-gene-family-reveals-its-functions-in-cotton-fiber-development
#12
Yuzhou Zhang, Peng He, Zuoren Yang, Gai Huang, Limin Wang, Chaoyou Pang, Hui Xiao, Peng Zhao, Jianing Yu, Guanghui Xiao
The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein, the most important polar auxin transporter, plays a critical role in the distribution of auxin and controls multiple biological processes. However, characterizations and functions of this gene family have not been identified in cotton. Here, we identified the PIN family in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium raimondii. This gene family was divided into seven subgroups. A chromosomal distribution analysis showed that GhPIN genes were evenly distributed in eight chromosomes and that the whole genome and dispersed duplications were the main duplication events for GhPIN expansion...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421329/characterization-of-two-tt2-type-myb-transcription-factors-regulating-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-tetraploid-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum
#13
Nan Lu, Marissa Roldan, Richard A Dixon
Two TT2-type MYB transcription factors identified from tetraploid cotton are involved in regulating proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, providing new strategies for engineering condensed tannins in crops. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites involved in stress resistance in plants, and are health supplements that help to reduce cholesterol levels. As one of the most widely grown crops in the world, cotton provides the majority of natural fabrics and is a supplemental food for ruminant animals...
April 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419145/apomixis-frequency-under-stress-conditions-in-weeping-lovegrass-eragrostis-curvula
#14
Juan Manuel Rodrigo, Diego Carlos Zappacosta, Juan Pablo Selva, Ingrid Garbus, Emidio Albertini, Viviana Echenique
To overcome environmental stress, plants develop physiological responses that are triggered by genetic or epigenetic changes, some of which involve DNA methylation. It has been proposed that apomixis, the formation of asexual seeds without meiosis, occurs through the temporal or spatial deregulation of the sexual process mediated by genetic and epigenetic factors influenced by the environment. Here, we explored whether there was a link between the occurrence of apomixis and various factors that generate stress, including drought stress, in vitro culture, and intraspecific hybridization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417908/cytokinesis-failure-leading-to-chromosome-instability-in-v-src-induced-oncogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Yuji Nakayama, Shuhei Soeda, Masayoshi Ikeuchi, Keiko Kakae, Naoto Yamaguchi
v-Src, an oncogene found in Rous sarcoma virus, is a constitutively active variant of c-Src. Activation of Src is observed frequently in colorectal and breast cancers, and is critical in tumor progression through multiple processes. However, in some experimental conditions, v-Src causes growth suppression and apoptosis. In this review, we highlight recent progress in our understanding of cytokinesis failure and the attenuation of the tetraploidy checkpoint in v-Src-expressing cells. v-Src induces cell cycle changes-such as the accumulation of the 4N cell population-and increases the number of binucleated cells, which is accompanied by an excess number of centrosomes...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415765/stable-aneuploid-tumors-cells-are-more-sensitive-to-ttk-inhibition-than-chromosomally-unstable-cell-lines
#16
Marion A A Libouban, Jeroen A D M de Roos, Joost C M Uitdehaag, Nicole Willemsen-Seegers, Sara Mainardi, Jelle Dylus, Jos de Man, Bastiaan Tops, Jules P P Meijerink, Zuzana Storchová, Rogier C Buijsman, René H Medema, Guido J R Zaman
Inhibition of the spindle assembly checkpoint kinase TTK causes chromosome mis-segregation and tumor cell death. However, high levels of TTK correlate with chromosomal instability (CIN), which can lead to aneuploidy. We show that treatment of tumor cells with the selective small molecule TTK inhibitor NTRC 0066-0 overrides the mitotic checkpoint, irrespective of cell line sensitivity. In stable aneuploid cells NTRC 0066-0 induced acute CIN, whereas in cells with high levels of pre-existing CIN there was only a small additional fraction of cells mis-segregating their chromosomes...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415725/stat3-positive-tumor-cells-contribute-to-vessels-neoformation-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#17
Simona Ruggieri, Roberto Tamma, Nicoletta Resta, Francesco Albano, Nicoletta Coccaro, Daria Loconte, Tiziana Annese, Mariella Errede, Giorgina Specchia, Rebecca Senetta, Paola Cassoni, Domenico Ribatti, Beatrice Nico
With the aim of elucidating the relationship between Stat3 expression and tumor vessels abnormalities in the PCNLs, in this study we evaluated Stat3 and pStat3 expression by Real-time PCR and by immunohistochemistry in biopsy sections from PCNSL patients. Correlations of the expression levels with the presence of aberrant vessels were analyzed by confocal laser microscopy analysis, using FVIII as endothelial cell marker, CD133 and nestin as cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, CD20 as tumor cell marker, and Stat3...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414099/molecular-evolution-of-the-plastid-genome-during-diversification-of-the-cotton-genus
#18
Zhiwen Chen, Corrinne E Grover, Pengbo Li, Yumei Wang, Hushuai Nie, Yanpeng Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Fang Liu, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Xiaoyan Cai, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F Wendel, Jinping Hua
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome duringdiversification, chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) from 6 D-genome and 2 G-genome species of Gossypium (G. armourianum D2-1, G. harknessii D2-2, G. davidsonii D3-d, G. klotzschianum D3-k, G. aridum D4, G. trilobum D8, and G. australe G2, G. nelsonii G3) were newly reported here...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413121/characterisation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-terminal-differentiation-in-a-maximally-proliferative-human-epithelial-tissue-lessons-from-the-human-hair-follicle-matrix
#19
Talveen S Purba, Lars Brunken, Michael Peake, Asim Shahmalak, Asuncion Chaves, Enrique Poblet, Ralf Paus
Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2)) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression...
April 2, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398545/evolutionary-dynamics-of-mixed-ploidy-populations-in-an-annual-herb-dispersal-local-persistence-and-recurrent-origins-of-polyploids
#20
Martin Certner, Eliška Fenclová, Pavel Kúr, Filip Kolár, Petr Koutecký, Anna Krahulcová, Jan Suda
Background and Aims: Despite the recent wealth of studies targeted at contact zones of cytotypes in various species, some aspects of polyploid evolution are still poorly understood. This is especially the case for the frequency and success rate of spontaneous neopolyploidization or the temporal dynamics of ploidy coexistence, requiring massive ploidy screening and repeated observations, respectively. To fill this gap, an extensive study of spatio-temporal patterns of ploidy coexistence was initiated in the widespread annual weed Tripleurospermum inodorum (Asteraceae)...
April 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
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