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Matthias Baudisch, Andrea Marini, Joel D Cox, Tony Zhu, Francisco Silva, Stephan Teichmann, Mathieu Massicotte, Frank Koppens, Leonid S Levitov, F Javier García de Abajo, Jens Biegert
The speed of solid-state electronic devices, determined by the temporal dynamics of charge carriers, could potentially reach unprecedented petahertz frequencies through direct manipulation by optical fields, consisting in a million-fold increase from state-of-the-art technology. In graphene, charge carrier manipulation is facilitated by exceptionally strong coupling to optical fields, from which stems an important back-action of photoexcited carriers. Here we investigate the instantaneous response of graphene to ultrafast optical fields, elucidating the role of hot carriers on sub-100 fs timescales...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Heather A Feldner, Samuel W Logan, James C Galloway
AIM: Rehabilitation professionals are increasingly recognizing mobility as a basic human right and endorsing the efficacy of early powered mobility for children with mobility impairments to foster independence, promote socialization with peers and facilitate participation in family and community life. However, the relationship between mobility and technology provision, when considered in the context of lived experiences of children with mobility impairments and their families, is complex and understudied...
March 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Bako Ali, Ali Ismail Awad
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or "things" to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects...
March 8, 2018: Sensors
Taehyun Hwang, Byungho Lee, Jinhyun Kim, Sangheon Lee, Bumjin Gil, Alan Jiwan Yun, Byungwoo Park
Moving away from the high-performance achievements in organometal halide perovskite (OHP)-based optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices, intriguing features have been reported in that photocarriers and mobile ionic species within OHPs interact with light, electric fields, or a combination of both, which induces both spatial and temporal changes of optoelectronic properties in OHPs. Since it is revealed that the transport of photocarriers and the migration of ionic species are affected not only by each other but also by the inhomogeneous character, which is a consequence of the route selected to deposit OHPs, understanding the nanostructural evolution during OHP deposition, in terms of the resultant structural defects, electronic traps, and nanoscopic charge behaviors, will be valuable...
March 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nicole Prinz, Barbara Bohn, Annamarie Kern, Deborah Püngel, Olga Pollatos, Reinhard W Holl
OBJECTIVE: For dietary assessment, mobile devices with a camera can be used as an alternative to hand-written paper records. The Nutritional Tracking Information Smartphone (Nutris-Phone) study aimed to examine relative validity and feasibility of a photo-based dietary record in everyday life. DESIGN: Parallel to the photo-based technique, a weighed record was performed. Participant satisfaction was assessed by questionnaire. A trained nutrition scientist evaluated portion sizes and nutrient content was calculated (DGExpert)...
March 6, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Piotr Foltynski
INTRODUCTION: Wound surface area measurement is important as therapeutic decisions may depend on the change of wound surface area over time. Digital planimetry is a popular technique in wound area measurement. It is accurate and repeatable when calibration is performed with 2 rulers placed at opposite sides of a wound. The aim of the current study was improving accuracy and precision of wound area measurement using capabilities of smart devices. METHODS: The correction of area measurement based on calculated camera tilt angle and the calculation of calibration coefficient of linear dimensions as weighted average were proposed...
2018: PloS One
Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, T Jessie Ge, Ophir Vermesh, Ryan Spitler
Health care systems primarily focus on patients after they present with disease, not before. The emerging field of precision health encourages disease prevention and earlier detection by monitoring health and disease based on an individual's risk. Active participation in health care can be encouraged with continuous health-monitoring devices, providing a higher-resolution picture of human health and disease. However, the development of monitoring technologies must prioritize the collection of actionable data and long-term user engagement...
February 28, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Harmeet Singh Rehan, Jahnavi Maini, A Ps Hungin
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are devices with a heating element which produces aerosol for inhalation. They have been propagated as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking and a potential device for smoking cessation, despite non-documentation of their long-term adverse health effects. OBJECTIVES: With the glorification of ECIG, its use has increased even among non-tobacco users. This makes it critical to understand and discuss a true picture about safety and utility of ECIGs by reviewing the literature...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Safety
Giorgia Capocasale, Vera Panzarella, Vito Rodolico, Olga Di Fede, Giuseppina Campisi
There is currently a growing interest in new diagnostic tools of the oral cavity and mucosa which are non-invasive, repeatable and reliable. A diagnosis of a suspected, autoimmune pathology was made regarding a 57-year-old patient with desquamative gingivitis. However, a negative Nikolsky's sign did not seem to indicate a diagnosis of mucous membrane pemphigoid neither was there any indication as to the optimum location for an incisional biopsy. As an imaging method, the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled the obtaining of tomographic (cross-sectional) scans of tissue...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
E A Bazikyan, N V Syrnikova, A A Chunikhin, O V Zayratyants
The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of laser singlet phototherapy and traditional photodynamic therapy the treatment of periodontal diseases in an animal model. The experimental model involved 70 male rats Wistar in which periodontitis was modeled and treated: in group I (30 animals) a nanosecond laser device for medical use with a wavelength of 1270 nm was used for 7 sessions in a 400 ns pulse mode, an average radiation power of 2 W, and a radiation density of 200 J/cm2 , group II (30 animals) received photodynamic therapy with the administration of a photosensitizer, followed by irradiation with a laser wavelength of 660 nm for 7 sessions 2 Wt average radiation power, group III (controls, 10 animals) - traditional drug therapy...
2018: Stomatologii︠a︡
Daria Noferini, Michael M Koza, Seikh M H Rahman, Zach Evenson, Gøran J Nilsen, Sten Eriksson, Andrew R Wildes, Maths Karlsson
Acceptor-doped barium zirconates are currently receiving considerable interest because of their high proton conductivity at intermediate temperatures, making them applicable as electrolytes in various electrochemical devices, but the mechanism of proton conduction is unclear. Here, we investigate the role of the acceptor-dopant level in the localized proton motions, i.e. proton transfers between oxygens and O-H reorientations, in hydrated samples of the proton conducting, acceptor-doped, perovskites BaZr1-x Inx O3-x/2 with x = 0...
February 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jie Yin, Zhiling Zou, Hongwen Song, Zhuo Zhang, Bo Yang, Xiting Huang
Romantic love is a cross-culturally universal phenomenon that serves as a commitment device for motivating pair bonding in human beings. Women and men may experience different feelings when viewing the same warm, romantic scenes. To determine which brain systems may be involved in romance perception and examine possible sex differences, we scanned 16 women and 16 men who were intensely in love, using functional MRI. Participants were required to rate the romance level of 60 pictures showing romantic events that may frequently occur during romantic relationship formation...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Serge Boveda, Radoslaw Lenarczyk, Stefano Fumagalli, Roland Tilz, Kinga Goscinska-Bis, Maciej Kempa, Pascal Defaye, Christelle Marquié, Alessandro Capucci, Laura Ueberham, Nikolaos Dagres
The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) prospective snapshot survey is to provide an overview of the factors influencing patient selection for the implantation of a particular type of device: subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) or transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (TV-ICD), across a broad range of tertiary European centres. A specially designed electronic questionnaire was sent via the internet to tertiary reference centres routinely implanting both TV-ICDs and S-ICDs...
February 8, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Amy M Reed, Judson C Janak, Jean A Orman, Steven J Hudak
Introduction: Until recently, female U.S. service members (SMs) have not been permitted to serve in direct combat roles. However, during Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), a large number of female SMs have been wounded while serving in combat support roles. This included an unprecedented number of women with genitourinary (GU) injuries. No previous studies have reported either the incidence or clinical picture of these injuries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of GU injuries among female U...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Adam L Collins, Carlos G Camara, Eli Van Cleve, Seth J Putterman
Triboelectrification has been studied for over 2500 years, yet there is still a lack of fundamental understanding as to its origin. Given its utility in areas such as xerography, powder spray painting, and energy harvesting, many devices have been made to investigate triboelectrification at many length-scales, though few seek to additionally make use of triboluminescence: the emission of electromagnetic radiation immediately following a charge separation event. As devices for measuring triboelectrification became smaller and smaller, now measuring down to the atomic scale with atomic force microscope based designs, an appreciation for the collective and multi-scale nature of triboelectrification has perhaps abated...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
X Wang, X Shu, Z Li, W Huo, L Zou, Y Tang, L Li
BACKGROUND: Skin imaging analysis, acting as a supplement to noninvasive bioengineering devices, has been widely used in medical cosmetology and cosmetic product evaluation. The main aim of this study is to assess the differences and correlations in measuring skin spots, wrinkles, vascular features, porphyrin, and pore between two commercially available image analysis software. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy healthy women were included in the study. Before taking pictures, the dermatologist evaluated subjects' skin conditions...
January 27, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Kin P Cheung, Dmitry Veksler, Jason P Campbell
Charge-capture/emission is ubiquitous in electron devices. Its dynamics often play critical roles in device operation and reliability. Treatment of this basic process is found in many text books and is considered well understood. As in many electron device models, the individuality of immobile charge is commonly replaced with the average quantity of charge density. This has worked remarkably well when large numbers of individual charges (ensemble) are involved. As device geometries become very small, the ensemble "averaging" becomes far less accurate...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Lijuan He, Jiaxiang Tao, Debonil Maity, Fangwei Si, Yi Wu, Tiffany Wu, Vishnu Prasath, Denis Wirtz, Sean X Sun
Eukaryotic cells are sensitive to mechanical forces they experience from the environment. The process of mechanosensation is complex, and involves elements such as the cytoskeleton and active contraction from myosin motors. Ultimately, mechanosensation is connected to changes in gene expression in the cell, or mechanotransduction. While the involvement of the cytoskeleton in mechanosensation is known, processes upstream to cytoskeletal changes are unclear. In this paper, using a microfluidic device that mechanically compresses live cells, we demonstrate that calcium currents and membrane tension-sensitive ion channels directly signal to the Rho GTPase and myosin contraction...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Niki K Vavatzanidis, Dirk Mürbe, Angela D Friederici, Anja Hahne
In the present study we explore the implications of acquiring language when relying mainly or exclusively on input from a cochlear implant (CI), a device providing auditory input to otherwise deaf individuals. We focus on the time course of semantic learning in children within the second year of implant use; a period that equals the auditory age of normal hearing children during which vocabulary emerges and extends dramatically. 32 young bilaterally implanted children saw pictures paired with either matching or non-matching auditory words...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
P Dey, Luyi Yang, C Robert, G Wang, B Urbaszek, X Marie, S A Crooker
Using time-resolved Kerr rotation, we measure the spin-valley dynamics of resident electrons and holes in single charge-tunable monolayers of the archetypal transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductor WSe_{2}. In the n-type regime, we observe long (∼130  ns) polarization relaxation of electrons that is sensitive to in-plane magnetic fields B_{y}, indicating spin relaxation. In marked contrast, extraordinarily long (∼2  μs) polarization relaxation of holes is revealed in the p-type regime, which is unaffected by B_{y}, directly confirming long-standing expectations of strong spin-valley locking of holes in the valence band of monolayer TMDs...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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