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Niki K Vavatzanidis, Dirk Mürbe, Angela D Friederici, Anja Hahne
In the present study we explore the implications of acquiring language when relying mainly or exclusively on input from a cochlear implant (CI), a device providing auditory input to otherwise deaf individuals. We focus on the time course of semantic learning in children within the second year of implant use; a period that equals the auditory age of normal hearing children during which vocabulary emerges and extends dramatically. 32 young bilaterally implanted children saw pictures paired with either matching or non-matching auditory words...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
P Dey, Luyi Yang, C Robert, G Wang, B Urbaszek, X Marie, S A Crooker
Using time-resolved Kerr rotation, we measure the spin-valley dynamics of resident electrons and holes in single charge-tunable monolayers of the archetypal transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductor WSe_{2}. In the n-type regime, we observe long (∼130  ns) polarization relaxation of electrons that is sensitive to in-plane magnetic fields B_{y}, indicating spin relaxation. In marked contrast, extraordinarily long (∼2  μs) polarization relaxation of holes is revealed in the p-type regime, which is unaffected by B_{y}, directly confirming long-standing expectations of strong spin-valley locking of holes in the valence band of monolayer TMDs...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Alexander Kandratsenka, Hongyan Jiang, Yvonne Dorenkamp, Svenja M Janke, Marvin Kammler, Alec M Wodtke, Oliver Bünermann
The Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) provides the foundation for virtually all computational studies of chemical binding and reactivity, and it is the justification for the widely used "balls and springs" picture of molecules. The BOA assumes that nuclei effectively stand still on the timescale of electronic motion, due to their large masses relative to electrons. This implies electrons never change their energy quantum state. When molecules react, atoms must move, meaning that electrons may become excited in violation of the BOA...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
G S Luka, E Nowak, J Kawchuk, M Hoorfar, H Najjaran
In this work, a low-cost, portable device is developed to detect colorimetric assays for in-field and point-of-care (POC) analysis. The device can rapidly detect both pH values and nitrite concentrations of five different samples, simultaneously. After mixing samples with specific reagents, a high-resolution digital camera collects a picture of the sample, and a single-board computer processes the image in real time to identify the hue-saturation-value coordinates of the image. An internal light source reduces the effect of any ambient light so the device can accurately determine the corresponding pH values or nitrite concentrations...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Wolfram Doehner, Dilek Ural, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jelena Čelutkienė, Reinaldo Bestetti, Yuksel Cavusoglu, Marco A Peña-Duque, Duska Glavas, Massimo Iacoviello, Ulrich Laufs, Ricardo Marmol Alvear, Amam Mbakwem, Massimo F Piepoli, Stuart D Rosen, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Cristiana Vitale, M Birhan Yilmaz, Stefan D Anker, Gerasimos Filippatos, Petar Seferovic, Andrew J S Coats, Frank Ruschitzka
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome with multiple interactions between the failing myocardium and cerebral (dys-)functions. Bi-directional feedback interactions between the heart and the brain are inherent in the pathophysiology of HF: (i) the impaired cardiac function affects cerebral structure and functional capacity, and (ii) neuronal signals impact on the cardiovascular continuum. These interactions contribute to the symptomatic presentation of HF patients and affect many co-morbidities of HF...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
Tonatiuh Rangel, Andre Rinn, Sahar Sharifzadeh, Felipe H da Jornada, André Pick, Steven G Louie, Gregor Witte, Leeor Kronik, Jeffrey B Neaton, Sangam Chatterjee
Organic materials are promising candidates for advanced optoelectronics and are used in light-emitting diodes and photovoltaics. However, the underlying mechanisms allowing the formation of excited states responsible for device functionality, such as exciton generation and charge separation, are insufficiently understood. This is partly due to the wide range of existing crystalline polymorphs depending on sample preparation conditions. Here, we determine the linear optical response of thin-film single-crystal perylene samples of distinct polymorphs in transmission and reflection geometries...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M M Kameda-Smith, C Iorio-Morin, A Winkler-Schwartz, Ahmed S Uzair, D Bergeron, M Bigder, A Dakson, C A Elliott, D Guha, P Lavergne, S Makarenko, M S Taccone, M Tso, B Wang, D Fortin
BACKGROUND: Smartphones and their apps are used ubiquitously in medical practice. However in some cases their use can be at odds with current patient data safety regulations such as Canada's Personal Health Information Protection Act (PHIPA) 2004. In order to assess current practices and inform mobile application development, we sought to better understand mobile device usage patterns amongst Canadian neurosurgery residents. METHODS: Through the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative (CNRC), an online survey characterizing smartphone ownership and usage patterns was developed and sent to all Canadian neurosurgery resident in April of 2016...
December 22, 2017: World Neurosurgery
J Pierreville, C Serrano, H van den Brink, P Prognon, J Pineau, N Martelli
3D printing plays an increasingly important role in the medical sector and particularly in surgery. Nowadays, numerous manufacturers benefit from this technology to produce their medical devices and some hospitals have also purchased 3D printers. In this context, the aim of the present study was to study the distribution and the use of 3D printing in French hospitals in order to its main features in surgery. By conducting a national survey, we targeted hospitals equipped with 3D printers and those using external providers to benefit from this technology...
December 22, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Cynthia Swarnalatha Srikesavan, Esther Williamson, Lucy Eldridge, Peter Heine, Jo Adams, Tim Cranston, Sarah E Lamb
BACKGROUND: The Strengthening and Stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH) is a tailored, progressive exercise program for people having difficulties with wrist and hand function due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The program was evaluated in a large-scale clinical trial and was found to improve hand function, was safe to deliver, and was cost-effective. These findings led to the SARAH program being recommended in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for the management of adults with RA...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Hiroya Nishikawa, Daigou Mochizuki, Hiroki Higuchi, Yasushi Okumura, Hirotsugu Kikuchi
Invited for this month's cover picture is the groups of Professor Hirotsugu Kikuchi and Dr. Yasushi Okumura at the Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering at Kyushu University (Japan). External dynamic control of molecular self-organized superstructures with unique features has been researched, as these structures are applicable to chiral molecular devices. The cover picture shows photocontrol of selective reflection color that originated from the self-organized helical structure of chiral nematic liquid crystals (N*LCs) using closed-/open-type dopants...
December 2017: ChemistryOpen
Liumin Suo, Dahyun Oh, Yuxiao Lin, Zengqing Zhuo, Oleg Borodin, Tao Gao, Fei Wang, Akihiro Kushima, Ziqiang Wang, Ho-Cheol Kim, Yue Qi, Wanli Yang, Feng Pan, Ju Li, Kang Xu, Chunsheng Wang
Solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) is the key component that enables all advanced electrochemical devices, the best representative of which is Li-ion battery (LIB). Its kinetically stabilizes electrolytes at potentials far beyond their thermodynamic stability limits, so that cell reactions could proceed reversibly, and its ad hoc chemistry and formation mechanism has been a topic under intensive investigation since the first commercialization of LIB 25 years ago. Traditionally SEI can only be formed in non-aqueous electrolytes...
November 29, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Chengliang Wang, Huanli Dong, Lang Jiang, Wenping Hu
Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors...
November 29, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Martin Ek, Michael A Filler
Functional materials and devices require nanoscale control of morphology, crystal structure, and composition. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) crystal growth and its related growth modes enable the synthesis of 1D nanostructures, commonly called "nanowires", where the necessary nanoscale heterogeneity can be encoded axially. During the VLS process, a seed particle collects atoms and directs the nucleation of crystalline material. Modulating the delivery of growth species or conditions permits compositional and/or structural encoding...
November 29, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Rakesh Dhama, Vincenzo Caligiuri, Lucia Petti, Alireza Rahimi Rashed, Massimo Rippa, Raffaella Lento, Roberto Termine, Humeyra Caglayan, Antonio De Luca
Plasmonic quasi periodic structures are well known to exhibit several surprising phenomena with respect to their periodic counterparts, due to their long range order and higher rotational symmetry. Thanks to their specific geometrical arrangement, plasmonic quasi-crystals offer unique possibilities in tailoring the coupling and propagation of surface plasmons through their lattice, a scenario in which a plethora of novel phenomena can take place. In this paper we investigate the Extra-Ordinary Transmission (EOT) phenomenon occurring in specifically patterned Thue-Morse nano-cavities, demonstrating noticeable enhanced transmission, directly revealed by near field optical experiments, performed by means of a Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope (SNOM)...
November 27, 2017: ACS Nano
Shiyuan Gao, Li Yang, Catalin D Spataru
Bilayer van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures such as MoS2/WS2 and MoSe2/WSe2 have attracted much attention recently, particularly because of their type II band alignments and the formation of interlayer exciton as the lowest-energy excitonic state. In this work, we calculate the electronic and optical properties of such heterostructures with the first-principles GW+Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) method and reveal the important role of interlayer coupling in deciding the excited-state properties, including the band alignment and excitonic properties...
November 22, 2017: Nano Letters
Benoît Valle, Thierry Simonneau, Romain Boulord, Francis Sourd, Thibault Frisson, Maxime Ryckewaert, Philippe Hamard, Nicolas Brichet, Myriam Dauzat, Angélique Christophe
Background: Plant science uses increasing amounts of phenotypic data to unravel the complex interactions between biological systems and their variable environments. Originally, phenotyping approaches were limited by manual, often destructive operations, causing large errors. Plant imaging emerged as a viable alternative allowing non-invasive and automated data acquisition. Several procedures based on image analysis were developed to monitor leaf growth as a major phenotyping target. However, in most proposals, a time-consuming parameterization of the analysis pipeline is required to handle variable conditions between images, particularly in the field due to unstable light and interferences with soil surface or weeds...
2017: Plant Methods
Carlos A López, María Victoria Martínez-Huerta, María Consuelo Alvarez-Galván, Paula Kayser, Patricia Gant, Andres Castellanos-Gomez, María T Fernández-Díaz, Francois Fauth, José A Alonso
Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, MAPbX3 (X = halogen), containing methylammonium (MA: CH3-NH3(+)) in the large voids conformed by the PbX6 octahedral network, are the active absorption materials in the new generation of solar cells. CH3NH3PbBr3 is a promising member with a large band gap that gives rise to a high open circuit voltage. A deep knowledge of the crystal structure and, in particular, the MA conformation inside the perovskite cage across the phase transitions undergone below room temperature, seems essential to establish structure-property correlations that may drive to further improvements...
November 8, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Clément Larquet, Anh-Minh Nguyen, Mario Ávila-Gutiérrez, Lionel Tinat, Benedikt Lassalle-Kaiser, Jean-Jacques Gallet, Fabrice Bournel, Andrea Gauzzi, Clément Sanchez, Sophie Carenco
Lanthanide oxysulfide nanoparticles have recently attracted interest in view of their potential applications, such as lighting devices and MRI contrast agents, which requires a good stability in air and a controlled surface. In order to address these issues, in this work, air-sensitive Ce2O2S nanoparticles of hexagonal shape were successfully prepared and characterized under inert conditions. Bimetallic Gd2(1-y)Ce2yO2S nanoparticles of similar shape and size were also synthesized for the whole composition range (y from 0 to 1)...
November 1, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Nicolas Batisse, Encarnación Raymundo-Piñero
A more detailed understanding of the electrode/electrolyte interface degradation during the charging cycle in supercapacitors is of great interest for exploring the voltage stability range and therefore the extractable energy. The evaluation of the gas evolution during the charging, discharging, and aging processes is a powerful tool toward determining the stability and energy capacity of supercapacitors. Here, we attempt to fit the gas analysis resolution to the time response of a low-gas-generation power device by adopting a modified pulsed electrochemical mass spectrometry (PEMS) method...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jaana Ahonniska-Assa, Orli Polack, Einat Saraf, Judy Wine, Tamar Silberg, Andreea Nissenkorn, Bruria Ben-Zeev
BACKGROUND: While many individuals with severe developmental impairments learn to communicate with augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices, a significant number of individuals show major difficulties in the effective use of AAC. Recent technological innovations, i.e., eye-tracking technology (ETT), aim to improve the transparency of communication and may also enable a more valid cognitive assessment. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether ETT in forced-choice tasks can enable children with very severe motor and speech impairments to respond consistently, allowing a more reliable evaluation of their language comprehension...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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