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Witholding withdrawing life

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21227630/-refractory-sufferings-at-the-end-of-life-which-considerations-which-propositions
#1
Clémence Joly, Elisabeth Ghazi Elie, Eric Maillet, Didier Hannequin, Elisabeth Guédon
Refractory suffering of terminally ill people may be physical (pain, dyspnea, vomiting...) or existential (spiritual sufferings, anxiousness...). End-of-life decisions are often around ethics. Decision making near the end of life consists in witholding and withdrawing life-support treatment and prescribing both of treatments with risk of double effect and sedation for distress. In France, such decisions are defined by the deontology code and by the law of April 22nd, 2005 concerning the end of life and patients' rights...
April 2011: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10974983/futilitarianism-knowing-how-much-is-enough-in-end-of-life-health-care
#2
REVIEW
K Dunphy
The concept of futility is frequently invoked by doctors as providing ethical justification for the unilateral witholding/withdrawal of treatment of marginal benefit. The term now appears in many institutional policies. Yet it provokes controversy in its application, often being characterized as an unwarranted infringement of patient autonomy. This paper explores the substance of assertions of futility and attempts to dissect out the issues commonly intertwined in appeals to the concept. An ethical analysis of its component parts is presented using a principle-based approach to derive appropriate duties of care applicable in specific scenarios...
July 2000: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/7601671/the-decision-to-withdraw-tube-feeding
#3
J F Murakami, W F Wong
Physicians involved in the care of elderly patients are often faced with end-of-life decisions including withholding or withdrawal of tube feeding. More than 80% of deaths take place in the hospital or nursing home and the prolongation of life by medical technology has replaced natural processes. We believe the availability of life-sustaining medical technology including tube feeding does not make physicians ethically obligated to use it once it is known that health and function cannot be restored and the burdens outweight the benefits...
April 1995: Hawaii Medical Journal
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