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Blood clots

Johannes Jägers, Stephan Brauckmann, Michael Kirsch, Katharina Effenberger-Neidnicht
Background: Systemic inflammation alters energy metabolism. A sufficient glucose level, however, is most important for erythrocytes, since erythrocytes rely on glucose as sole source of energy. Damage to erythrocytes leads to hemolysis. Both disorders of glucose metabolism and hemolysis are associated with an increased risk of death. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of intravenous glucose on hemolysis during systemic inflammation. Materials and methods: Systemic inflammation was accomplished in male Wistar rats by continuous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion (1 mg LPS/kg and h, 300 min)...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Florian Falter, Nabeel Razzaq, Martin John, Jens Fassl, Markus Maurer, Sean Ewing, Ross Hofmeyr
Unfractionated heparin is the mainstay of anticoagulation during cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) due to its low cost, quick onset, and ease of reversal. Since over 30 years, the activated clotting time (ACT) has been used to assess the level of heparin activity both before and after CPB. We compared two different methods of measuring the ACT: i-STAT, which uses amperometric detection of thrombin cleavage, and Hemochron Jr, which is based on detecting viscoelastic changes in blood. We included 402 patients from three institutions (Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK; Groote Schuur, Cape Town, South Africa; University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland) undergoing elective cardiac surgery on CPB in our study...
March 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Alicia Blackman, Wayne Mohammed
This case presents a woman in her early 20s who died after the sudden onset of chest pain. Five years earlier, she was investigated for a cardiac murmur during pregnancy and an echocardiogram revealed a 6.0×3.0 cm blood-filled sac compressing the left atrium and anterolateral aspect of the left ventricle with communication to the aortic root. She later had a CT scan of the chest with contrast, which showed aneurysmal dilatation of the left main coronary artery. She was placed on aspirin but defaulted from clinic 11 months post partum...
March 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Pedro Teixeira Castro, Ana Paula Pinho Matos, Osvaldo Luiz Aranda, Edson Marchiori, Haimon Diniz Lopes Alves, Alessandra Silveira Machado, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Heron Werner, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a three-dimensional (3D) microscopic reconstruction of morphological modifications of the fallopian tube (FT) following surgical sterilization (including tuboperitoneal fistula) and ectopic pregnancy (EP) using confocal microtomography (micro-CT). METHODS: Six specimens of FT from elective and emergency surgeries were selected: three remnants of the FT (RFT) from surgical sterilization, including one presenting tuboperitoneal fistula, and three FTs with EP...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Won Jang, Hyo Sung Kwak, Gyung Ho Chung, Seung Bae Hwang
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the utility of three-dimensional (3D), black-blood (BB), contrast-enhanced, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of intraluminal thrombi in acute stroke patients. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with acute stroke involving the anterior circulation underwent MRI examination within 6 h of clinical onset. Cerebral angiography was used as the reference standard. In a blinded manner, two neuroradiologists interpreted the following three data sets: (1) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) + 3D BB contrast-enhanced MRI; (2) DWI + susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI); (3) DWI + 3D BB contrast-enhanced MRI + SWI...
March 19, 2018: European Radiology
Ying Su, Jingli Chen, Zengxiang Dong, Yan Zhang, Ruishuang Ma, Junjie Kou, Feng Wang, Jialan Shi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mechanisms for thrombosis in diabetic retinopathy (DR) are complex and need to be further elucidated. The purpose of this study was to test phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on microparticles (MPs) and MP-origin cells from the circulation and to analyze cell-/MP-associated procoagulant activity (PCA) in DR patients. METHODS: PS-positive MPs and cells from healthy controls (n = 20) and diabetic patients (n = 60) were analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Anirban Banerjee, Christopher C Silliman, Ernest E Moore, Monika Dzieciatskowa, Marguerite Kelher, Angela Sauaia, Kenneth Jones, Michael P Chapman, Eduardo Gonzalez, Hunter B Moore, Angelo D'Alessandro, Erik Peltz, Benjamin E Huebner, Peter Einerson, James Chandler, Arsen Ghasabayan, Kirk Hansen
BACKGROUND: Viscoelastic measurements of hemostasis indicate that 20% of seriously injured patients exhibit systemic hyperfibrinolysis, with increased early mortality. These patients have normal clot formation with rapid clot lysis. Targeted proteomics was applied to quantify plasma proteins from hyperfibrinolytic (HF) patients to elucidate potential pathophysiology. METHODS: Blood samples were collected in the field or at Emergency Department arrival and thrombelastography (TEG) was used to characterize in vitro clot formation under native and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-stimulated conditions...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
M Cynthia Logsdon, Deborah Winders Davis, John A Myers, Katlin M Masterson, Jeffrey A Rushton, Adrian P Lauf
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe new mothers' knowledge related to maternal mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, new mothers were recruited from a postpartum unit of an academic health sciences center where the population was predominately low-income women. Before hospital discharge, they answered questions on their knowledge of potential postpartum complications that could lead to maternal mortality. Questions were based on recommendations from an expert nursing panel...
March 16, 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Wudan Yan
After suffering a stroke-perhaps a blood clot gets lodged in the brain or a blood vessel near the brain bursts-a person may suddenly not be able to hear, talk, or see. He or she might have trouble walking or exhibit a speech impediment. In fact, one of the greatest challenges of treating patients affected by stroke is that it's a heterogeneous condition, says Joel Stein, a physiatrist specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation at Columbia University and Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City (Figure 1)...
March 2018: IEEE Pulse
A V Belyaev, J L Dunster, J M Gibbins, M A Panteleev, V Volpert
Hemostasis is a complex physiological mechanism that functions to maintain vascular integrity under any conditions. Its primary components are blood platelets and a coagulation network that interact to form the hemostatic plug, a combination of cell aggregate and gelatinous fibrin clot that stops bleeding upon vascular injury. Disorders of hemostasis result in bleeding or thrombosis, and are the major immediate cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Regulation of hemostasis and thrombosis is immensely complex, as it depends on blood cell adhesion and mechanics, hydrodynamics and mass transport of various species, huge signal transduction networks in platelets, as well as spatiotemporal regulation of the blood coagulation network...
March 5, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Luke E Visscher, Hoang Phuc Dang, Mark A Knackstedt, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Phong A Tran
Advanced scaffolds used in tissue regenerating applications should be designed to address clinically relevant complications such as surgical site infection associated with surgical procedures. Recognizing that patient-specific scaffolds with local drug delivery capabilities are a promising approach, we combined 3D printing with traditional salt-leaching techniques to prepare a new type of scaffold with purposely designed macro- and micro-porosity. The dual macro/micro porous scaffolds of medical-grade polycaprolactone (mPCL) were characterized for their porosity, surface area, mechanical properties and degradation...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Maxim Yu Rykov, Sergei V Zaborovskij, Alexander N Shvecov, Vladimir V Shukin
PURPOSE: To review our experience with peripherally inserted central catheters in pediatric cancer patients. METHODS: The analysis included 353 patients (3 months up to 17 years, mean age 11.2 years) with a variety of cancers diseases, which in 2011-2016, 354 peripherally inserted central catheters were placed. All settings are carried out using ultrasound guidance. In 138 (39%) patients, external anatomical landmarks were used and in 216 (61%) intraoperative fluoroscopy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Lixiu Wang, Yayan Bi, Muxin Yu, Tao Li, Dongxia Tong, Xiaoyan Yang, Cong Zhang, Li Guo, Chunxu Wang, Yan Kou, Zengxiang Dong, Valerie A Novakovic, Ye Tian, Junjie Kou, Masood A Shammas, Jialan Shi
BACKGROUND: The definitive role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in the prothrombotic state of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) remains unclear. Our objectives were to study the PS exposure on blood cells and microparticles (MPs) in NVAF, and evaluate their procoagulant activity (PCA). METHODS: NVAF patients without (n = 60) and with left atrial thrombi (n = 18) and controls (n = 36) were included in our study. Exposed PS was analyzed with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Mariola A Dietrich, Piotr Hliwa, Mikołaj Adamek, Dieter Steinhagen, Halina Karol, Andrzej Ciereszko
The environmental temperature affects plasma biochemical indicators, antioxidant status and hematological and immunological parameters in fish. So far, only single blood proteins have been identified in response to temperature changes. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of carp blood plasma from males acclimated to warm (30 °C) and cold (10 °C) temperatures by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 47 spots were found to be differentially regulated by temperature (>1...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zeynep Canan Özdemir, Yeter Düzenli Kar, Eren Gündüz, Ayşe Bozkurt Turhan, Özcan Bör
OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for thromboembolic events, although the pathogenesis of the development of thromboembolism in IDA is as yet unclear. The likelihood of children with IDA contracting hypercoagulability was evaluated in this cross-sectional study using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 57 children with IDA (median age 11 years; 37 female, 20 male) and 48 healthy children (median age 9...
March 15, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Alexander Fyrdahl, Roberto Vargas Paris, Sven Nyrén, Karen Holst, Martin Ugander, Peter Lindholm, Andreas Sigfridsson
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of an improved motion and flow robust methodology for imaging the pulmonary vasculature using non-contrast-enhanced, free-breathing, golden-angle radial MRI. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n = 10, age 46 ± 11 years, 50% female) and patients (n = 2, ages 27 and 84, both female) were imaged at 1.5 T using a Cartesian and golden-angle radial 2D balanced SSFP pulse sequence. The acquisitions were made under free breathing without contrast agent enhancement...
March 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Helen V Wilmot, Jason Hockley, Peter Rigsby, Elaine Gray
Until recently, the role of factor XII (FXII) in hemostasis was not considered to be important since patients with FXII deficiency do not present with bleeding. The activation of FXII by agents including mast cells and platelet polyphosphates suggests that it may have a role in thrombogenesis. The inhibition of FXII therefore presents an option for antithrombotic therapy, and antibodies and inhibitors are already in development. Assays for FXII will be required to support these technologies, and an international standard (IS) for FXII would be useful for the development of these methods and for the clinical monitoring of patients...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Qiang Wang, Akram A Da'dara, Patrick J Skelly
BACKGROUND: Schistosomes are blood dwelling parasitic worms that cause the debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Here we examined the influence of the parasites on their external environment by monitoring the impact of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms on the murine plasma proteome in vitro and, in particular, on how the worms affect the blood coagulation protein high molecular weight kininogen (HK). METHODS: Following the incubation of adult schistosomes in murine plasma, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was conducted to look for changes in the plasma proteome compared with control plasma...
March 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Amirhossein Mafi, Srinivas Abbina, Manu Thomas Kalathottukaren, James H Morrissey, Charles Haynes, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Jim Pfaendtner, Keng C Chou
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) released by human platelets has recently been shown to activate blood clotting and identified as a potential target for the development of novel antithrombotics. Recent studies have shown that polymers with cationic binding groups (CBGs) inhibit polyP and attenuate thrombosis. However, a good molecular-level understanding of the binding mechanism is lacking for further drug development. While molecular dynamics (MD) simulation can provide molecule-level information, the time scale required to simulate these large biomacromolecules makes classical MD simulation impractical...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Ti-Yuan Yang, Marcelo Chen, Wun-Rong Lin, Chung-Yi Li, Wei-Kung Tsai, Allen W Chiu, Ming-Chung Ko
OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations between preoperative treatment with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and the risks of blood transfusion during transurethral resection of the prostate and blood clot evacuation or emergency department visits for hematuria within 1 month after surgery. METHODS: We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in this population-based cohort study. A total of 3,126 patients who underwent first-time transurethral resection of the prostate from 2004 to 2013 were identified...
March 12, 2018: Clinics
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