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Craniofacial growth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337631/the-cervical-vertebral-maturation-method-a-user-s-guide
#1
James A McNamara, Lorenzo Franchi
The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is used to determine the craniofacial skeletal maturational stage of an individual at a specific time point during the growth process. This diagnostic approach uses data derived from the second (C2), third (C3), and fourth (C4) cervical vertebrae, as visualized in a two-dimensional lateral cephalogram. Six maturational stages of those three cervical vertebrae can be determined, based on the morphology of their bodies. The first step is to evaluate the inferior border of these vertebral bodies, determining whether they are flat or concave (ie, presence of a visible notch)...
January 16, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337630/ethnic-differences-in-craniofacial-and-upper-spine-morphology-in-children-with-skeletal-class-ii-malocclusion
#2
Eunhye Oh, Sug-Joon Ahn, Liselotte Sonnesen
OBJECTIVES: To analyze differences in upper cervical spine and craniofacial morphology, including posterior cranial fossa and growth prediction signs, between Danish and South Korean pre-orthodontic skeletal Class II children and to analyze associations between upper cervical spine morphology and craniofacial characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred forty-six skeletal Class II children-93 Danes (54 boys and 39 girls, mean age 12.2 years) and 53 Koreans (27 boys and 26 girls, mean age 10...
January 16, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331408/long-term-craniofacial-morphology-in-young-adults-treated-for-a-non-syndromal-uclp-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Isabelle F P M Kappen, Whitney R Yoder, Aebele B Mink van der Molen, Corstiaan C Breugem
Minimizing mid-facial growth impairment is one of the treatment goals in cleft lip and palate surgery. As growth of the maxilla extends into young adulthood, long-term evaluation is essential to make a comprehensive assessment of a treatment protocol. There are numerous treatment approaches for cleft lip/palate surgery, and most have the characteristic distinction between either an early or a late cleft palate closure. PRISMA guidelines were applied to explore the quality of the current literature and to identify treatment factors influencing long-term cephalometric outcomes...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326517/18p-deletion-syndrome-case-report-with-clinical-consideration-and-management
#4
Megha Goyal, Mayuri Jain, Sachin Singhal, Kirty Nandimath
18p deletion syndrome is characterized by the deletion of short arm of chromosome 18. Presentation of this syndrome is quite variable with dysmorphic features, growth deficiencies, and mental retardation with poor verbal performance. Few patients even fail to thrive when malformations involving the heart and brain are severe. In the present article, we report an isolated case of 18p deletion in a 23-year-old female who for the first time reported to the hospital for dental problems. The patient was short statured with mental retardation and craniofacial, skeletal, dental, and endocrinal abnormalities...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324473/chondromyxoid-fibroma-arising-in-craniofacial-sites-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-25-cases
#5
David M Meredith, Christopher D M Fletcher, Vickie Y Jo
Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign tumor, usually arising in the metaphysis of long bones in young adults. Occurrence in craniofacial bones presents a particular diagnostic challenge given its unusual location and resemblance to malignant mimics. We describe the clinicopathologic features of 25 cases of craniofacial CMF identified between 1999 and 2017. Patients were 14 men and 11 women, with median age of 44 years (range, 5 to 83 y). Sites of involvement were sphenoid (7), ethmoid (5), maxilla (3), occipital (2), nasal septum (2), palatine (2), temporal (2), orbit (1), and undisclosed skull (1)...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313890/violence-in-paradise-cranial-trauma-in-the-prehispanic-population-of-gran-canaria-canary-islands
#6
Teresa Delgado-Darias, Verónica Alberto-Barroso, Javier Velasco-Vázquez
OBJECTIVES: This paper addresses the prevalence and pattern of physical violence in the prehispanic society of Gran Canaria and discusses its link with the social structure and insular context in which that people lived. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 347 prehispanic crania from Guayadeque Ravine (575-1415 AD) have been examined in order to determine the frequency, types, location, and timing of trauma. RESULTS: Craniofacial injuries are present in 27...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306033/a-glyphosate-micro-emulsion-formulation-displays-teratogenicity-in-xenopus-laevis
#7
Patrizia Bonfanti, M Saibene, R Bacchetta, P Mantecca, A Colombo
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in broad-spectrum herbicide formulations used in agriculture, domestic area and aquatic weed control worldwide. Its market is growing steadily concurrently with the cultivation of glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops and emergence of weeds less sensitive to glyphosate. Ephemeral and lentic waters near to agricultural lands, representing favorite habitats for amphibian reproduction and early life-stage development, may thus be contaminated by glyphosate based herbicides (GBHs) residues...
December 24, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302920/a-balanced-reciprocal-translocation-t-10-15-q22-3-q26-1-interrupting-acan-gene-in-a-family-with-proportionate-short-stature
#8
M Crippa, S Giangiobbe, R Villa, I Bestetti, T De Filippis, L Fatti, J Taurino, L Larizza, L Persani, F Bellini, P Finelli, M T Bonati
PURPOSE: Few examples of the involvement of a single gene in idiopathic short stature have been described until now. Our aim was to identify the causative gene of proportionate short stature in a large family showing co-segregation of the phenotype with the reciprocal translocation t(10;15)(q22;q24). METHODS: FISH mapping was carried out with BACs and long-range PCR probes to identify the smallest genomic regions harboring the translocation breakpoints. Real-Time RT-PCR was performed in blood after pre-amplification of target genes cDNA...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287644/craniofacial-morphology-of-hiv-positive-children-and-adolescents-undergoing-antiretroviral-therapy-a-pilot-study
#9
Maria Luiza Veloso de Almeida Watanabe, Adriana Oliveira Lira Ortega, Catalina Riera Costa, Emiko Saito Arita, Karem L Ortega
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to analyze craniofacial morphology by assessing the skeletal cephalometric profiles of HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: For this study, 21 HIV-positive patients aged between 6 and 17 years (study group) were selected and compared with 21 normoreactive patients (control group), paired by sex and age. The patients were also divided into 3 age ranges (6-8, 9-12, and 13-17 years) considering the pubertal growth spurt as the central event...
January 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287641/american-association-of-orthodontists-foundation-craniofacial-growth-legacy-collection-in-the-orthodontic-literature-use-and-trends-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Thikriat Al-Jewair, Elizabeth Stellrecht, Lauren Lewandowski, Rania Chakaki
INTRODUCTION: The American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection is a digital repository of records from 9 craniofacial growth study collections in the United States and Canada. The purposes of this article were to describe the use of materials from the AAOF Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection in the orthodontic literature in comparative and follow-up studies, and to analyze trends before and after the project's launch in 2009. METHODS: An electronic search without date or language restriction was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and CINAHL...
January 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276151/bmal1-deficiency-contributes-to-mandibular-dysplasia-by-upregulating-mmp3
#11
Jiajia Zhao, Xin Zhou, Qingming Tang, Ran Yu, Shaoling Yu, Yanlin Long, Cen Cao, Jun Han, Anbing Shi, Jeremy J Mao, Xiong Chen, Lili Chen
Skeletal mandibular hypoplasia (SMH), one of the common types of craniofacial deformities, seriously affects appearance, chewing, pronunciation, and breathing. Moreover, SMH is prone to inducing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. We found that brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1), the core component of the molecular circadian oscillator, was significantly decreased in mandibles of juvenile SMH patients. Accordingly, SMH was observed in circadian-rhythm-disrupted or BMAL1-deficient mice. RNA sequencing and protein chip analyses suggested that matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3) is the potential target of BMAL1...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274743/ankrd11-associated-with-intellectual-disability-and-autism-regulates-dendrite-differentiation-via-the-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathway
#12
Minhan Ka, Woo-Yang Kim
Haploinsufficiency of ANKRD11 due to deletion or truncation mutations causes KBG syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and craniofacial abnormalities. However, little is known about the neurobiological role of ANKRD11 during brain development. Here we show that ANKRD11 regulates pyramidal neuron migration and dendritic differentiation in the developing moue cerebral cortex. Using an in utero manipulation approach, we found that Ankrd11 knockdown delayed radial migration of cortical neurons...
December 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243252/predicting-calvarial-growth-in-normal-and-craniosynostotic-mice-using-a-computational-approach
#13
Arsalan Marghoub, Joseph Libby, Christian Babbs, Erwin Pauws, Michael J Fagan, Mehran Moazen
During postnatal calvarial growth the brain grows gradually and the overlying bones and sutures accommodate that growth until the later juvenile stages. The whole process is coordinated through a complex series of biological, chemical and perhaps mechanical signals between various elements of the craniofacial system. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent a computational model can accurately predict the calvarial growth in wild-type (WT) and mutant type (MT) Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice displaying bicoronal suture fusion...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243108/identification-of-a-novel-high-yielding-source-of-multipotent-adult-human-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells
#14
Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Marlena Bütow, Johannes Greiner, Anna Höving, Christian Kaltschmidt, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Due to their extraordinarily broad differentiation potential and persistence during adulthood, adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are highly promising candidates for clinical applications, particularly when facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or complex craniofacial injuries. Successful application of human NCSCs in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical research mainly relies on the availability of sufficient amounts of tissue for cell isolation procedures. Facing this challenge, we here describe for the first time a novel population of NCSCs within the middle turbinate of the human nasal cavity...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216270/generation-and-characterization-of-kctd15-mutations-in-zebrafish
#15
Alison Heffer, Gregory D Marquart, Allisan Aquilina-Beck, Nabil Saleem, Harold A Burgess, Igor B Dawid
Potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15 (Kctd15) was previously found to have a role in early neural crest (NC) patterning, specifically delimiting the region where NC markers are expressed via repression of transcription factor AP-2a and inhibition of Wnt signaling. We used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to generate null mutations in zebrafish kctd15a and kctd15b paralogs to study the in vivo role of Kctd15. We found that while deletions producing frame-shift mutations in each paralog showed no apparent phenotype, kctd15a/b double mutant zebrafish are smaller in size and show several phenotypes including some affecting the NC, such as expansion of the early NC domain, increased pigmentation, and craniofacial defects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207475/function-of-micrornas-in-the-osteogenic-differentiation-and-therapeutic-application-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-ascs
#16
REVIEW
Walter M Hodges, Frederick O'Brien, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W Hamrick
Traumatic wounds with segmental bone defects represent substantial reconstructive challenges. Autologous bone grafting is considered the gold standard for surgical treatment in many cases, but donor site morbidity and associated post-operative complications remain a concern. Advances in regenerative techniques utilizing mesenchymal stem cell populations from bone and adipose tissue have opened the door to improving bone repair in the limbs, spine, and craniofacial skeleton. The widespread availability, ease of extraction, and lack of immunogenicity have made adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) particularly attractive as a stem cell source for regenerative strategies...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194260/facial-anthropometric-evaluation-of-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-patients-infancy-through-adolescence
#17
Mahboobe Dehghani, Arezoo Jahanbin, Maryam Omidkhoda, Mostafa Entezari, Elaheh Shadkam
INTRODUCTION: Craniofacial anthropometric studies measure the differences in humans' craniofacial dimensions. The aim of this study was to determine facial anthropometric dimensions of newborn to 12-year-old girls with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). METHODS: In this cross-sectional analytical study, data was collected from 65 infant to 12-year old girls with UCLP. Digital frontal and profile facial photographs were transferred to a computer and desired anthropometric landmarks were traced on each image...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193055/facial-shape-manifestations-of-growth-faltering-in-tanzanian-children
#18
Joanne B Cole, Mange F Manyama, Dejana Nikitovic, Paula N Gonzalez, Denise K Liberton, Warren M Wilson, Campbell Rolian, Jacinda R Larson, Emmanuel Kimwaga, Joshua Mathayo, Charles C Roseman, Stephanie A Santorico, Ken Lukowiak, Richard A Spritz, Benedikt Hallgrimsson
Variation in the shape of the human face and in stature is determined by complex interactions between genetic and environmental influences. One such environmental influence is malnourishment, which can result in growth faltering, usually diagnosed by means of comparing an individual's stature with a set of age-appropriate standards. These standards for stature, however, are typically ascertained in groups where people are at low risk for growth faltering. Moreover, genetic differences among populations with respect to stature are well established, further complicating the generalizability of stature-based diagnostic tools...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192304/association-of-hearing-loss-and-otologic-outcomes-with-fibrous-dysplasia
#19
Alison M Boyce, Carmen Brewer, Timothy R DeKlotz, Christopher K Zalewski, Kelly A King, Michael T Collins, H Jeffrey Kim
Importance: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) and McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) are rare bone and endocrine disorders in which expansile fibro-osseous lesions result in deformity, pain, and functional impairment. The effect of FD on hearing and otologic function has not been established. Objectives: To characterize audiologic and otologic manifestations in a large cohort of individuals with FD/MAS and to investigate potential mechanisms of hearing loss. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this natural history study, individuals with craniofacial FD seen at a clinical research center underwent clinical, biochemical, computed tomographic, audiologic, and otolaryngologic evaluations...
November 30, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190819/the-ectodomain-of-cadherin-11-binds-to-erbb2-and-stimulates-akt-phosphorylation-to-promote-cranial-neural-crest-cell-migration
#20
Ketan Mathavan, Vikram Khedgikar, Vanessa Bartolo, Dominique Alfandari
During development, a multi-potent group of cells known as the cranial neural crest (CNC) migrate to form craniofacial structures. Proper migration of these cells requires proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules, such as cadherins. In Xenopus laevis, preventing extracellular cleavage of cadherin-11 impairs CNC migration. However, overexpression of the soluble cleavage product (EC1-3) is capable of rescuing this phenotype. The mechanism by which EC1-3 promotes CNC migration has not been investigated until now...
2017: PloS One
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