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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336234/ubiquitin-specific-protease-4-usp4-suppresses-myoblast-differentiation-by-down-regulating-myod-activity-in-a-catalytic-independent-manner
#1
Sun-Il Yun, Kyeong Kyu Kim
For myotube formation, proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts must be tightly regulated by various myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) such as MyoD, myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), myogenin, and muscle-specific regulatory factor 4 (MRF4). However, it is not clear how the expression or activity of these MRFs is controlled during myogenesis. In this study, we identified ubiquitin-specific protease 4 (USP4), one of deubiquitinating enzymes, as a suppressor of MRFs by demonstrating that a knockdown of USP4 enhances myogenesis by controlling MyoD and the level of myogenesis marker proteins in C2C12 cells...
March 20, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336113/effect-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-ratio-on-the-proliferation-differentiation-and-expression-levels-of-key-regulators-involved-in-protein-metabolism-of-myocytes
#2
Yehui Duan, Liming Zeng, Fengna Li, Wenlong Wang, Yinghui Li, Qiuping Guo, Yujiao Ji, Bi'e Tan, Yulong Yin
OBJECTIVES: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), are key regulators of protein synthesis in muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different BCAA ratios (Leu:Ile:Val) on the proliferation, differentiation, and expression levels of the regulators related to protein metabolism of C2 C12 myocytes. METHODS: Studies were conducted in C2C12 myocytes exposed to different BCAA ratios (Leu: Ile: Val = 0, 1:0...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334989/impaired-fetal-muscle-development-and-jak-stat-activation-mark-disease-onset-and-progression-in-a-mouse-model-for-merosin-deficient-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#3
Andreia M Nunes, Ryan D Wuebbles, Apurva Sarathy, Tatiana M Fontelonga, Marianne Deries, Dean J Burkin, Sólveig Thorsteinsdóttir
Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a dramatic neuromuscular disease in which crippling muscle weakness is evident from birth. Here we use the dyW mouse model for human MDC1A to trace the onset of the disease during development in utero. We find that myotomal and primary myogenesis proceed normally in homozygous dyW-/-embryos. Fetal dyW-/-muscles display the same number of myofibers as wildtype muscles, but by E18.5 dyW-/-muscles are significantly smaller and muscle size is not recovered post-natally...
March 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#4
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332479/3d-tissue-formation-by-stacking-detachable-cell-sheets-formed-on-nanofiber-mesh
#5
Min Sung Kim, Byungjun Lee, Hong Nam Kim, Seokyoung Bang, Hee Seok Yang, Seong Min Kang, Kahp-Yang Suh, Suk-Hee Park, Noo Li Jeon
We present a novel approach for assembling 3D tissue by layer-by-layer stacking of cell sheets formed on aligned nanofiber mesh. A rigid frame was used to repeatedly collect aligned electrospun PCL (polycaprolactone) nanofiber to form a mesh structure with average distance between fibers 6.4 µm. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human foreskin dermal fibroblasts, and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) were cultured on the nanofiber mesh, they formed confluent monolayers and could be handled as continuous cell sheets with areas 3 × 3 cm(2) or larger...
March 23, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329051/caloric-restriction-mimetics-slow-aging-of-neuromuscular-synapses-and-muscle-fibers
#6
Jessica Stockinger, Nicholas Maxwell, Dillon Shapiro, Rafael deCabo, Gregorio Valdez
Resveratrol and metformin have been shown to mimic some aspects of caloric restriction and exercise. However, it remains unknown if these molecules also slow age-related synaptic degeneration, as previously shown for caloric restriction and exercise. In this study, we examined the structural integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in 2-year-old mice treated with resveratrol and metformin starting at 1 year of age. We found that resveratrol significantly slows aging of NMJs in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of 2-year-old mice...
March 7, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322786/adp-ribosylation-factor-like-gtpase-15-enhances-insulin-induced-akt-phosphorylation-in-the-ir-irs1-akt-pathway-by-interacting-with-asap2-and-regulating-pdpk1-activity
#7
Jie Zhao, Min Wang, Wuquan Deng, Daping Zhong, Youzhao Jiang, Yong Liao, Bing Chen, Xiaoli Zhang
Decreased phosphorylation in the insulin signalling pathway is a hallmark of insulin resistance. The causes of this phenomenon are complicated and multifactorial. Recently, genomic analyses have identified ARL15 as a new candidate gene related to diabetes. However, the ARL15 protein function remains unclear. Here, we show that ARL15 is upregulated by insulin stimulation. This effect was impaired in insulin-resistant pathophysiology in TNF-α-treated C2C12 myotubes and in the skeletal muscles of leptin knockout mice...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320096/a-natural-compound-jaceosidin-ameliorates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-insulin-resistance-via-upregulation-of-serca2b
#8
Zijun Ouyang, Wanshuai Li, Qianqian Meng, Qi Zhang, Xingqi Wang, Ahmed Elgehama, Xudong Wu, Yan Shen, Yang Sun, Xuefeng Wu, Qiang Xu
Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as a vital contributor to dysregulated glucose homeostasis, and impaired function of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) is one of the central mechanisms underlying ER stress. In this study, we reported that SERCA2b upregulation contributed to the amelioration of ER stress and insulin resistance by a small natural compound jaceosidin. In a model of differentiated C2C12 myotubes, jaceosidin-triggered SERCA2b upregulation enhanced insulin sensitivity and decreased ER stress...
March 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317895/upregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-through-the-elevation-of-cyclic-amp-levels-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-enhances-exercise-performance
#9
Toshiya Matsukawa, Hideko Motojima, Yuki Sato, Shinya Takahashi, Myra O Villareal, Hiroko Isoda
Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315380/primary-structures-and-partial-toxicological-characterization-of-two-phospholipases-a2-from-micrurus-mipartitus-and-micrurus-dumerilii-coral-snake-venoms
#10
Paola Rey-Suárez, Vitelbina Núñez, Mónica Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Bruno Lomonte
Snake venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2) share high sequence identities and a conserved structural scaffold, but show important functional differences. Only a few PLA2s have been purified and characterized from coral snake (Micrurus spp.) venoms, and their role in envenomation remains largely unknown. In this report, we describe the isolation, sequencing and partial functional characterization of two Micrurus PLA2s: MmipPLA2 from Micrurus mipartitus and MdumPLA2 from Micrurus dumerilii, two species of clinical importance in Colombia...
March 14, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306190/natural-polymeric-hydrogel-evaluation-for-skeletal-muscle-tissue-engineering
#11
Beth E Pollot, Christopher R Rathbone, Joseph C Wenke, Teja Guda
Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to repair/regenerate after most types of injuries, there is limited regeneration after volumetric muscle loss (VML). A number of scaffold materials have been used in the development of grafts to treat VML, however, there is still a need to better understand the most appropriate material with regards to its ability to maintain mechanical integrity while also supporting myogenesis. Five commonly used natural polymeric materials (Collagen I, Agarose, Alginate, Fibrin, and Collagen Chitosan) used in skeletal muscle tissue engineering grafts were evaluated for their mechanical properties and myogenic capacity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303972/lentiviral-vectors-can-be-used-for-full-length-dystrophin-gene-therapy
#12
John R Counsell, Zeinab Asgarian, Jinhong Meng, Veronica Ferrer, Conrad A Vink, Steven J Howe, Simon N Waddington, Adrian J Thrasher, Francesco Muntoni, Jennifer E Morgan, Olivier Danos
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a lack of dystrophin expression in patient muscle fibres. Current DMD gene therapy strategies rely on the expression of internally deleted forms of dystrophin, missing important functional domains. Viral gene transfer of full-length dystrophin could restore wild-type functionality, although this approach is restricted by the limited capacity of recombinant viral vectors. Lentiviral vectors can package larger transgenes than adeno-associated viruses, yet lentiviral vectors remain largely unexplored for full-length dystrophin delivery...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303574/functional-impact-of-an-oculopharyngeal-muscular-dystrophy-mutation-in-pabpn1
#13
Maricela García-Castañeda, Ana Victoria Vega, Rocío Rodríguez, Maria Guadalupe Montiel-Jaen, Bulmaro Cisneros, Angel Zarain-Herzberg, Guillermo Avila
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is linked to mutations in the gene encoding poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). OPMD mutations consist in an expansion of a tract that contains 10 alanines (to 12-17). The disease courses with muscle weakness that begins in adulthood, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we investigated functional effects of PABPN1 and an OPMD mutation (PABPN1-17A), using myotubes transfected with cDNAs encoding these proteins (GFP-tagged). PABPN1 stimulated myoblast fusion (100%), but PABPN1-17A failed to mimic this effect...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302447/dcebio-facilitates-myogenic-differentiation-via-intermediate-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channel-activation-in-c2c12-myoblasts
#14
Shoko Tanaka, Yuko Ono, Kazuho Sakamoto
Membrane hyperpolarization is suggested to be a trigger for skeletal muscle differentiation. We investigated whether DCEBIO, an opener of the small/intermediate conductance Ca(2+) activated K(+) (SKCa/IKCa) channels, increase myogenic differentiation in C2C12 skeletal myoblasts. DCEBIO significantly increased myotube formation, protein expression level of myosin heavy chain II, and mRNA expression level of myogenin in C2C12 myoblasts cultured in differentiation medium. DCEBIO induced myotube formation and hyperpolarization were reduced by the IKCa channel blocker TRAM-34, but not by the SKCa channel blocker apamin...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300563/sestrin-2-induces-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-by-regulating-ampk-signaling-in-c2c12-myotubes
#15
Huige Li, Sujuan Liu, Hairui Yuan, Yanmei Niu, Li Fu
Impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle serves a critical role in the development of insulin resistance (IR), whereas the precise mechanism of the process remains unknown. Recently, the evolutionarily conserved, stress-inducible protein Sestrin2 (Sesn2) has been proposed to play a protective role against obesity-induced IR and diabetes. Activation of Sesn2 may activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) accompanied by suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which may ultimately lead to autophagy induction...
March 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300393/remote-control-and-modulation-of-cellular-events-by-plasmonic-gold-nanoparticles-implications-and-opportunities-for-biomedical-applications
#16
Jiayang Li, Jing Liu, Chunying Chen
Compared to traditional hyperthermia methods, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) successfully achieve site-specific incremental temperature in deep tissues. By virtue of near-infrared (NIR) laser-mediated photothermal treatment, Au NPs have been widely explored in clinical and preclinical applications, including cancer therapy and tissue engineering. In this issue of ACS Nano, Suzuki, Ciofani, and colleagues demonstrate how gold nanoshells can remotely activate striated muscle cells via inducing myotube contraction and modulating related gene expression by mild heat stimulation under NIR irradiation...
March 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300163/in-vitro-drug-testing-based-on-contractile-activity-of-c2c12-cells-in-an-epigenetic-drug-model
#17
Kazushi Ikeda, Akira Ito, Ryusuke Imada, Masanori Sato, Yoshinori Kawabe, Masamichi Kamihira
Skeletal muscle tissue engineering holds great promise for pharmacological studies. Herein, we demonstrated an in vitro drug testing system using tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs. In response to epigenetic drugs, myotube differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells was promoted in two-dimensional cell cultures, but the levels of contractile force generation of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs prepared by three-dimensional cell cultures were not correlated with the levels of myotube differentiation in two-dimensional cell cultures...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300015/frzb-and-melusin-overexpressed-in-lgmd2a-regulate-integrin-%C3%AE-1d-isoform-replacement-altering-myoblast-fusion-and-the-integrin-signalling-pathway
#18
Oihane Jaka, Leire Casas-Fraile, Margarita Azpitarte, Ana Aiastui, Adolfo López de Munain, Amets Sáenz
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is characterised by muscle wasting and progressive degeneration of proximal muscles because of mutations in the CAPN3 gene. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of muscle degeneration are still not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the relevance of genes with differential expression in the muscle of LGMD2A patients. For this purpose, we analysed their in vitro expression in primary cultures of human myoblasts and myotubes...
March 16, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298333/multiple-ampk-activators-inhibit-l-carnitine-uptake-in-c2c12-skeletal-muscle-myotubes
#19
Andy Shaw, Stewart Jeromson, Kenneth R Watterson, John D Pediani, Iain Gallagher, Tim Whalley, Gillian Dreczkowski, Naomi Brooks, Stuart Galloway, D Lee Hamilton
Mutations in the gene that encodes the principal L-Carnitine transporter, OCTN2, can lead to a reduced intracellular L-Carnitine pool and the disease Primary Carnitine Deficiency. L-Carnitine supplementation is used therapeutically to increase intracellular L-Carnitine. As AMPK and insulin regulate fat metabolism and substrate uptake we hypothesised that AMPK activating compounds and insulin would increase L-Carnitine uptake in C2C12 myotubes. The cells express all three OCTN transporters at the mRNA level and immunohistochemistry confirmed expression at the protein level...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294416/hypoxia-impairs-muscle-function-and-reduces-myotube-size-in-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle
#20
N R W Martin, K Aguilar-Agon, G P Robinson, D J Player, M C Turner, S D Myers, M P Lewis
Contemporary tissue engineered skeletal muscle models display a high degree of physiological accuracy compared with native tissue, and therefore may be excellent platforms to understand how various pathologies affect skeletal muscle. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease which causes tissue hypoxia and is characterised by muscle fibre atrophy and impaired muscle function. In the present study we exposed engineered skeletal muscle to varying levels of oxygen (O2 ; 21-1%) for 24 hours in order to see if a COPD like muscle phenotype could be recreated in vitro, and if so, at what degree of hypoxia this occured...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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