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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789207/antidiabetic-potential-of-phytochemicals-isolated-from-the-stem-bark-of-myristica-fatua-houtt-var-magnifica-bedd-sinclair
#1
B Prabha, S Neethu, S Lekshmy Krishnan, D R Sherin, M Madhukrishnan, R Ananthakrishnan, K B Rameshkumar, T K Manojkumar, P Jayamurthy, K V Radhakrishnan
Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Myristica fatua Houtt. led to the isolation of a new compound 1 (3-tridecanoylbenzoic acid), along with six known acylphenols (2-7). All the compounds displayed moderate inhibitory activity on α-amylase and significant activity on α-glucosidase; however malabaricone B (6) and C (7) were identified as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 values of 63.70 ± 0.546, and 43.61 ± 0.620 µM respectively. Acylphenols (compounds 3-7) also showed significant antiglycation property...
May 19, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782017/measuring-trans-plasma-membrane-electron-transport-by-c2c12-myotubes
#2
Shannon C Kelly, Amanda M Eccardt, Jonathan S Fisher
Trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) plays a role in protection of cells from intracellular reductive stress as well as protection from damage by extracellular oxidants. This process of transporting electrons from intracellular reductants to extracellular oxidants is not well defined. Here we present spectrophotometric assays by C2C12 myotubes to monitor tPMET utilizing the extracellular electron acceptors: water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 (WST-1) and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP or DCIP)...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781585/group-i-paks-support-muscle-regeneration-and-counteract-cancer-associated-muscle-atrophy
#3
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771942/antisense-pmo-cocktails-effectively-skip-dystrophin-exons-45-55-in-myotubes-transdifferentiated-from-dmd-patient-fibroblasts
#4
Joshua Lee, Yusuke Echigoya, William Duddy, Takashi Saito, Yoshitsugu Aoki, Shin'ichi Takeda, Toshifumi Yokota
Antisense-mediated exon skipping has made significant progress as a therapeutic platform in recent years, especially in the case of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Despite FDA approval of eteplirsen-the first-ever antisense drug clinically marketed for DMD-exon skipping therapy still faces the significant hurdles of limited applicability and unknown truncated protein function. In-frame exon skipping of dystrophin exons 45-55 represents a significant approach to treating DMD, as a large proportion of patients harbor mutations within this "hotspot" region...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771357/a-promotive-effect-for-halofuginone-on-membrane-repair-and-synaptotagmin-7-levels-in-muscle-cells-of-dysferlin-null-mice
#5
Hila Barzilai-Tutsch, Melissa Dewulf, Christophe Lamaze, Gillian Butler Browne, Mark Pines, Orna Halevy
In the absence of dysferlin, skeletal muscle cells fail to reseal properly after injury, resulting in slow progress of the dysferlinopathy muscular dystrophy. Halofuginone, a leading agent in preventing fibrosis in muscular dystrophies, was tested for its effects on membrane resealing post-injury. A hypo-osmotic shock assay on myotubes derived from wild-type and dysferlin-null (dysf-/-) mice revealed that pre-treatment with halofuginone reduces the percentage of membrane-ruptured myotubes only in dysf-/- myotubes...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760587/the-role-of-adipokines-in-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-and-insulin-sensitivity
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, David J Baker, Simon W Jones
Background: There is currently an unmet clinical need to develop better pharmacological treatments to improve glucose handling in Type II Diabetes patients with obesity. To this end, determining the effect of obesity-associated adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity has emerged as an important area of drug discovery research. This review draws together the data on the functional role of adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin signalling, highlights several understudied novel adipokines and provides a perspective on the direction of future research...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758057/ankk1-is-found-in-myogenic-precursors-and-muscle-fibers-subtypes-with-glycolytic-metabolism
#7
Estrella Rubio-Solsona, Salvador Martí, Juan J Vílchez, Francesc Palau, Janet Hoenicka
Ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene has been widely related to neuropsychiatry disorders. The localization of ANKK1 in neural progenitors and its correlation with the cell cycle has suggested its participation in development. However, ANKK1 functions still need to be identified. Here, we have further characterized the ANKK1 localization in vivo and in vitro, by using immunolabeling, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot in the myogenic lineage. Histologic investigations in mice and humans revealed that ANKK1 is expressed in precursors of embryonic and adult muscles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754289/the-novel-adipokine-wisp1-associates-with-insulin-resistance-and-impairs-insulin-action-in-human-myotubes-and-mouse-hepatocytes
#8
Tina Hörbelt, Christopher Tacke, Mariya Markova, Daniella Herzfeld de Wiza, Frederique Van de Velde, Marlies Bekaert, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Silke Hornemann, Maria Rödiger, Nicole Seebeck, Elisabeth Friedl, Wenke Jonas, G Hege Thoresen, Oliver Kuss, Anke Rosenthal, Volker Lange, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Annette Schürmann, Bruno Lapauw, Natalia Rudovich, Olga Pivovarova, D Margriet Ouwens
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Wingless-type (Wnt) inducible signalling pathway protein-1 (WISP1) has been recently identified as a proinflammatory adipokine. We examined whether WISP1 expression and circulating levels are altered in type 2 diabetes and whether WISP1 affects insulin signalling in muscle cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: Serum and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies, for analysis of circulating WISP1 levels by ELISA and WISP1 mRNA expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, were collected from normal-weight men (control group, n = 33) and obese men with (n = 46) and without type 2 diabetes (n = 56) undergoing surgery...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752552/collagen-vi-is-required-for-the-structural-and-functional-integrity-of-the-neuromuscular-junction
#9
Matilde Cescon, Ilaria Gregorio, Nane Eiber, Doriana Borgia, Aurora Fusto, Patrizia Sabatelli, Michele Scorzeto, Aram Megighian, Elena Pegoraro, Said Hashemolhosseini, Paolo Bonaldo
The synaptic cleft of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) consists of a highly specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) involved in synapse maturation, in the juxtaposition of pre- to post-synaptic areas, and in ensuring proper synaptic transmission. Key components of synaptic ECM, such as collagen IV, perlecan and biglycan, are binding partners of one of the most abundant ECM protein of skeletal muscle, collagen VI (ColVI), previously never linked to NMJ. Here, we demonstrate that ColVI is itself a component of this specialized ECM and that it is required for the structural and functional integrity of NMJs...
May 11, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751400/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induces-alterations-in-myogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-cells
#10
Heidi Q Xie, Yingjie Xia, Tuan Xu, Yangsheng Chen, Hualing Fu, Yunping Li, Yali Luo, Li Xu, Karl W K Tsim, Bin Zhao
Dioxin-induced toxicities that affect the development of the motor system have been proposed since many years. However, cellular evidence and the molecular basis for the effects are limited. In this study, a cultured mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, was utilized to examine the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on myogenic differentiation and expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a neuromuscular transmission-related gene. The results showed that TCDD exposure at 10-10  M repressed the myotube formation of C2C12 cells by disturbing the fusion process and suppressing the expression of myosin heavy chain, a myobute structural protein, and not by induction of cytotoxicity...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748534/activated-dendritic-cells-modulate-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-human-myoblasts
#11
Leandro Ladislau, Débora M Portilho, Tristan Courau, Alhondra Solares-Pérez, Elisa Negroni, Jeanne Lainé, David Klatzmann, Adriana Bonomo, Yves Allenbach, Olivier Benveniste, Ingo Riederer, Wilson Savino, Vincent Mouly, Gillian Butler-Browne, Claudia F Benjamim
Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases affecting skeletal muscle tissue homeostasis. They are characterized by muscle weakness and inflammatory infiltration with tissue damage. Amongst the cells in the muscle inflammatory infiltration, dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting and key components in autoimmunity exhibiting an increased activation in inflamed tissues. Since, the IIMs are characterized by the focal necrosis/regeneration and muscle atrophy, we hypothesized that DCs may play a role in these processes...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748289/regulation-of-insulin-receptor-pathway-and-glucose-metabolism-by-cd36-signaling
#12
Dmitri Samovski, Pallavi Dhule, Terri Pietka, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Eric Penrose, Ni-Huiping Son, Robert C Flynn, Kooresh I Shoghi, Krzysztof L Hyrc, Ira J Goldberg, Eric R Gamazon, Nada A Abumrad
During reduced energy intake, skeletal muscle maintains homeostasis by rapidly suppressing insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. Loss of this adaptation is observed with deficiency of the fatty acid transporter CD36. A similar loss is also characteristic of the insulin resistant state where CD36 is dysfunctional. To elucidate what links CD36 to muscle glucose utilization we examined whether CD36 signaling might influence insulin action. First, we show that CD36 deletion specific to skeletal muscle reduces expression of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism genes...
May 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742122/time-controlled-fasting-prevents-aging-like-mitochondrial-changes-induced-by-persistent-dietary-fat-overload-in-skeletal-muscle
#13
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Stefano Maria Cannata, Viviana Casagrande, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Katia Aquilano
A large body of evidence suggests that persistent dietary fat overload causes mitochondrial dysfunction and systemic metabolic gridlock. Mitochondrial and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle (SkM) are severely affected upon persistent high fat diet (HFD) leading to premature tissue aging. Here, we designed weekly cycles of fasting (called as time-controlled fasting, TCF) and showed that they were effective in limiting mitochondrial damage and metabolic disturbances induced by HFD. Specifically, TCF was able to prevent the decline of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl), maintain efficient mitochondrial respiration in SkM as well as improve blood glucose and lipid profile...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741608/jak-inhibitor-improves-type-i-interferon-induced-damage-proof-of-concept-in-dermatomyositis
#14
Leandro Ladislau, Xavier Suárez-Calvet, Ségolène Toquet, Océane Landon-Cardinal, Damien Amelin, Marine Depp, Mathieu P Rodero, Denisa Hathazi, Darragh Duffy, Vincent Bondet, Corinna Preusse, Boris Bienvenu, Flore Rozenberg, Andreas Roos, Claudia F Benjamim, Eduard Gallardo, Isabel Illa, Vincent Mouly, Werner Stenzel, Gillian Butler-Browne, Olivier Benveniste, Yves Allenbach
Dermatomyositis is an acquired auto-immune disease characterized by skin lesions and muscle-specific pathological features such as perifascicular muscle fibre atrophy and vasculopathy. Dermatomyositis patients display an upregulation of type I interferon-inducible genes in muscle fibres, endothelial cells, skin and peripheral blood. However, the effect of type I interferon on muscle tissue has not yet been determined. Our aim was to study the pathogenicity of type I interferon in vitro and to evaluate the efficacy of the type I interferon pathway blockade for therapeutic purposes...
May 8, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739270/bioinspired-3d-human-neuromuscular-junction-development-in-suspended-hydrogel-arrays
#15
Thomas Dixon, Eliad Cohen, Dana Meredith Cairns, Maria Rodriguez, Juanita Mathews, Rod Jose, David L Kaplan
The physical connection between motoneurons and skeletal muscle targets is responsible for the creation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), which allow electrical signals to be translated to mechanical work. NMJ pathology contributes to the spectrum of neuromuscular, motoneuron, and dystrophic disease. Improving in vitro tools that allow for recapitulation of the physiology of the neuromuscular connection will enable researchers to better understand the development and maturation of NMJs, and will help to decipher mechanisms leading to NMJ degeneration...
May 9, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739041/1%C3%AE-25-oh-2-vitamin-d3-inhibits-c2c12-cell-differentiation-by-activating-c-src-and-erk1-2
#16
Zhonghua Wang, Aijun Jiang, Jingwei Mei, Xinyan Zhang
BACKGROUND: The steroid hormone 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1,25-D3) induced some biological responses through activation of MAPK cascades in various cell types. It seems that 1,25-D3 plays different roles at different stages of proliferating, differentiating, and differentiated C2C12 cells. We wanted to detect the effect of 1,25-D3 on myogenic differentiation and the role of ERK1/2 in differentiating stage induced by 2% horse serum with 1,25-D3. METHODS: In this study, cells were induced to differentiate with 2% horse serum until the 7th day (with addition of 1,25-D3 every two days)...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731431/large-scale-expansion-of-human-ipsc-derived-skeletal-muscle-cells-for-disease-modeling-and-cell-based-therapeutic-strategies
#17
Erik van der Wal, Pablo Herrero-Hernandez, Raymond Wan, Mike Broeders, Stijn L M In 't Groen, Tom J M van Gestel, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Tom H Cheung, Ans T van der Ploeg, Gerben J Schaaf, W W M Pim Pijnappel
Although skeletal muscle cells can be generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), transgene-free protocols include only limited options for their purification and expansion. In this study, we found that fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified myogenic progenitors generated from healthy controls and Pompe disease iPSCs can be robustly expanded as much as 5 × 1011 -fold. At all steps during expansion, cells could be cryopreserved or differentiated into myotubes with a high fusion index...
April 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729383/ameliorative-potential-of-lavandula-stoechas-in-metabolic-syndrome-via-multitarget-interactions
#18
S S Kulabas, H Ipek, A R Tufekci, S Arslan, I Demirtas, R Ekren, U Sezerman, T B Tumer
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Decoction and infusion prepared from aerial parts of Lavandula stoechas L. (L. stoechas) have been traditionally used as remedy against several components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated disorders including type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases by Anatolian people. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim is to elucidate the potential ameliorative effects of L. stoechas aqueous extracts on insulin resistance and inflammation models through multitarget in vitro approaches and also to elucidate mechanism of action by analyzing transcriptional and metabolic responses...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727591/alpha-linolenic-acid-and-linoleic-acid-differentially-regulate-the-skeletal-muscle-secretome-of-obese-zucker-rats
#19
Alex Rajna, Heather Gibling, Ousseynou Sarr, Sarthak Matravadia, Graham P Holloway, David M Mutch
Evidence shows that proteins secreted from skeletal muscle influence a broad range of metabolic signaling pathways. We previously reported that essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) improved whole-body glucose homeostasis in obese Zucker rats; however, the mechanisms underlying these benefits remain enigmatic. While PUFA and obesity influence skeletal muscle function, their effects on the secretome are unknown. The aim of this work was to determine if improvements in whole-body glucose homeostasis in obese Zucker rats fed diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) for 12-wks are related to changes in the skeletal muscle secretome...
May 4, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724455/telocytes-in-human-fetal-skeletal-muscle-interstitium-during-early-myogenesis
#20
Mirca Marini, Mirko Manetti, Irene Rosa, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Eleonora Sgambati
A new peculiar stromal cell type called telocyte (TC)/CD34-positive stromal cell (i.e. cell with distinctive prolongations named telopodes) has recently been described in various tissues and organs, including the adult skeletal muscle interstitium of mammals. By forming a resident stromal three-dimensional network, TCs have been suggested to participate in different physiological processes within the skeletal muscle tissue, including homeostasis maintenance, intercellular signaling, tissue regeneration/repair and angiogenesis...
April 30, 2018: Acta Histochemica
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