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Placenta implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216513/cellular-localization-expression-and-functional-implications-of-the-utero-placental-endothelin-system-during-maintenance-and-termination-of-canine-gestation
#1
Aykut Gram, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski
Utero-placental (Ut-Pl) angiogenesis and blood flow are fundamental for successful outcome of pregnancy. They are controlled by numerous vasodilator and vasoconstrictor systems such as endothelins (EDNs) and the renin angiotensin system. Dogs possess an invasive type of placentation, classified as endotheliochorial. Despite increasing knowledge regarding canine Ut-Pl function, little information exists on uterine and placental vascular activity during initiation, maintenance and termination of pregnancy in this species...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202182/implantation-and-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-from-rare-archival-specimens-to-modern-biobanking
#2
Gerit Moser, Berthold Huppertz
Extravillous trophoblast invasion serves to attach the placenta to the uterus and to enable access to nutrients for the embryo throughout pregnancy - secretions of the uterine glands in the first trimester, maternal blood in the second and third trimester. For assessing extravillous trophoblast invasion, histology (in combination with immunohistochemistry) still plays a major role in placental research. This is especially true for the re-assessment of rare archival specimens from early human implantation sites or placenta in utero with the background of recent knowledge which may help to strengthen current hypotheses...
February 8, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193876/vulnerability-of-primitive-human-placental-trophoblast-to-zika-virus
#3
Megan A Sheridan, Dinar Yunusov, Velmurugan Balaraman, Andrei P Alexenko, Shinichiro Yabe, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Danny J Schust, Alexander W Franz, Yoel Sadovsky, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts
Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186371/gene-expression-and-epigenetic-aberrations-in-f1-placentas-fathered-by-obese-males
#4
Megan Mitchell, Reiner Strick, Pamela L Strissel, Ralf Dittrich, Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Galyna Pliushch, Ramya Potabattula, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analysed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185362/definitive-class-i-human-leukocyte-antigen-expression-in-gestational-placentation-hla-f-hla-e-hla-c-and-hla-g-in-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-on-placentation-pregnancy-and-parturition
#5
Rinat Hackmon, Lakmini Pinnaduwage, Jianhong Zhang, Stephen J Lye, Daniel E Geraghty, Caroline E Dunk
PROBLEM: The extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) express HLA-C and HLA-G, but HLA-E and HLA-F are the subject of conflicting reports. In this study, we define the HLA expression profile during active EVT placental implantation, pregnancy development, and parturition. METHOD OF STUDY: Immunohistochemistry, q-PCR, and Western blot were used to investigate HLA-C, HLA-E, and HLA-F placental expression across gestation from the early first trimester, late first trimester, second trimester (n=10 in each), preterm gestation (n=6) to elective term cesarean section and term vaginal deliveries (n=12, 38-41 weeks)...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179200/laparoscopic-management-of-abdomininal-pregnancy
#6
Francesco Cosentino, Cristiano Rossitto, Luigi Carlo Turco, Salvatore Gueli Alletti, Carmine Vascone, Lavinia Di Meglio, Giovanni Scambia, Mario Malzoni
CASE REPORT OBJECTIVE: To show the surgical management in laparoscopy of a particular localization of an extra-uterine pregnancy misunderstood until 12 week of EG complicated by hemoperitoneum and abortion. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy among women who go to an emergency department with first trimester bleeding, pain, or both ranges from 1 to 16 percent [1]. The most common localization of ectopic pregnancy are the Fallopian tubes while abdominal pregnancy represent at least 1 percent of extra-uterine pregnancies...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166424/lectin-histochemistry-for-detecting-cadmium-induced-changes-in-the-glycosylation-pattern-of-rat-placenta
#7
M C Díaz, N V González, C N Zanuzzi, R Najle, C G Barbeito
Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial and environmental pollutant that produces toxic effects on gametogenesis, pre- and post-implantation embryos, and the placenta. Because the effects of acute Cd intoxication on the placenta are not well understood, we investigated changes in its glycosylated components in Cd treated dams at days 4, 7, 10 and 15 of gestation using lectin histochemistry. CdCl2 was administered to pregnant rats; control animals received sterile normal saline. Placentas were processed for DBA, Con A, SBA, PNA, UEA-I, RCA-I and WGA lectin histochemistry to evaluate changes in the carbohydrate pattern of the placenta that might modify cell interactions and contribute to embryonic alterations...
February 6, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161062/localisation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-egf-its-specific-receptor-egf-r-and-aromatase-at-the-materno-fetal-interface-during-placentation-in-the-pregnant-mare
#8
W R Twink Allen, Susan Gower, Sandra Wilsher
INTRODUCTION: Implantation and placentation in the mare does not commence until as late as day 40 after ovulation. The reasons for this and the growth factors and/or hormones which drive placentation when it does finally occur are of considerable academic and practical interest. METHOD: Placental interface tissues recovered from 11 accurately aged and perfused-fixed horse uteri between 20 and 68 days of gestation were stained immunocytochemically for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), its specific receptor (EGF-R) and for the steroid hormone enzyme, aromatase...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161053/htr-8-svneo-cell-line-contains-a-mixed-population-of-cells
#9
Wassim Abou-Kheir, Joanna Barrak, Ola Hadadeh, Georges Daoud
INTRODUCTION: The placenta, a transient organ in humans, is essential for pregnancy maintenance and fetal development. Trophoblast and stromal cells are the main cell types present in human placenta. Trophoblast cells are derivatives of the trophectoderm layer and fulfill the endocrine, exchange, invasion and implantation processes of the placenta, whereas stromal cells are of extraembryonic mesenchymal origin and are important for villous formation and maintenance. Different cell lines were developed to study trophoblast functions including BeWo, JEG-3 and JAR from chorioncarcinoma while HTR-8/SVneo was developed using first trimester extravillous trophoblast infected with simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40)...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153546/differential-wnt-signaling-activity-limits-epithelial-gland-development-to-the-anti-mesometrial-side-of-the-mouse-uterus
#10
Jyoti Goad, Yi-An Ko, Manish Kumar, Shafiq M Syed, Pradeep S Tanwar
In mice, implantation always occurs towards the antimesometrial side of the uterus, while the placenta develops at the mesometrial side. What determines this particular orientation of the implanting blastocyst remains unclear. Uterine glands are critical for implantation and pregnancy. In this study, we showed that uterine gland development and active Wnt signaling activity is limited to the antimesometrial side of the uterus. Dkk2, a known antagonist of Wnt signaling, is only present at the mesometrial side of the uterus...
January 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137896/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-impaired-placental-function-potential-regulation-by-glucocorticoids
#11
Nathanael Yates, Rachael Christina Crew, Caitlin Wyrwoll
Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in a range of pregnancy complications including preeclampsia, preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Some of these adverse outcomes arise from alterations in placental function. Indeed, vitamin D appears critical for implantation, inflammation, immune function and angiogenesis of the placenta. Despite these associations, absence of placental vitamin D receptor in mice provokes little effect. Thus, interactions between maternal and fetal compartments are likely crucial for instigating adverse placental changes...
January 30, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127876/decidual-arteriolopathy-with-or-without-associated-hypertension-modifies-the-underlying-histomorphology-in-placentas-from-diabetic-mothers
#12
Jerzy Stanek
AIM: The aim of this study was to retrospectively document the impact of hypertensive conditions in pregnancy and decidual arteriolopathy on the patterns of placental injury in maternal diabetes mellitus (MDM). METHODS: Among all 5248 > 20 weeks' placentas, the frequencies of 19 selected clinical and 24 placental phenotypes were compared between 287 MDM placentas and 4961 remaining placentas (control group [CG]) before and after further exclusion of 85 and 611 patients with hypertensive conditions (gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, chronic hypertension)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115056/the-clinical-outcome-of-cesarean-scar-pregnancies-implanted-on-the-scar-versus-in-the-niche
#13
Andrea Kaelin Agten, Giuseppe Cali, Ana Monteagudo, Johana Oviedo, Joanne Ramos, Ilan Timor-Tritsch
BACKGROUND: The term "cesarean scar pregnancy" (CSP) refers to placental implantation within the scar of a prior cesarean delivery. The rising numbers of cesarean deliveries in the last decades have lead to an increased incidence of CSP. Complications of CSP include: morbidly adherent placenta, uterine rupture, severe hemorrhage, and preterm labor. It is suspected that CSPs implanted within a dehiscent scar ("niche") behave differently compared to those implanted on top of a well healed scar...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107460/the-incidence-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-in-pregnant-women-with-placenta-previa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Dazhi Fan, Qing Xia, Li Liu, Shuzhen Wu, Guo Tian, Wen Wang, Song Wu, Xiaoling Guo, Zhengping Liu
BACKGROUND: The global burden of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in women with placenta previa is a major public health concern. Although there are different reports on the incidence of PPH in different countries, to date, no research has reviewed them. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to calculate the average point incidence of PPH in women with placenta previa. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating PPH in women with placenta previa was conducted through literature searches in four databases in Jul 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087122/human-trophoblast-stem-cells-real-or-not-real
#15
Ching-Wen Chang, Mana M Parast
Abnormal trophoblast differentiation is the root cause of many placenta-based pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Human trophoblast differentiation is difficult to study due to the lack of a stem cell model. Such a multipotent "trophoblast stem" (TS) cell, with the ability to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, has been derived from mouse blastocysts, but attempts to derive similar human cells have failed. We consider here several possibilities for the TS cell niche in the human placenta...
January 5, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050452/primary-abdominal-pregnancy-a-case-report
#16
Sunita Dubey, Mohit Satodiya, Priyanka Garg, Mamta Rani
Abdominal pregnancy is a potentially life threatening form of ectopic gestation with an incidence of 1% of all the ectopic pregnancies. Rarely, it may reach at advanced gestation and a viable fetal outcome is indeed a rare event. Most of them are terminated earlier due to poor fetal prognosis and higher chances of maternal mortality secondary to haemorrhagic shock following spontanous placental separation. A high index of suspicion is important for making a diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy and its timely management after correct diagnosis...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050333/placenta-percreta-and-incomplete-uterine-rupture-after-endometrial-ablation-and-tubal-occlusion
#17
Jaden R Kohn, Edwina Popek, Concepcion R Diaz-Arrastia, Xiaoming Guan, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Michael A Belfort, Karin A Fox
Endometrial ablation offers symptomatic relief for menorrhagia. Pregnancy after ablation is rare but is often complicated due to pregnancy loss, growth restriction, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery, and morbidly adherent placentation, a dangerous complication that can result in hemorrhage, intensive care unit admission, and cesarean hysterectomy. We report a case of pregnancy conceived contemporaneously with endometrial ablation and tubal occlusion. Diagnosis of pregnancy was delayed due to low suspicion...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040130/correlation-of-kisspeptin-10-level-and-fetal-well-being-in-preeclamptic-patients
#18
Maysoun A Ziyaraa, Farqad B Hamdan, Liqaa R Mousa
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the role of kisspeptin-10 in preeclampsia and check for possible relationship between its severity and fetal growth well-being. Kisspeptin-10 may participate in implantation of the embryo, placenta formation, and maintenance of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred women who completed 20 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancies were divided into 60 peeclamptic and 40 normotensive control women. Kisspeptin-10 level estimation, and ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound studies for umbilical artery were performed during their second and third trimesters of pregnancy...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012790/the-role-of-parental-microrna-alleles-in-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-an-association-study
#19
Mona Amin-Beidokhti, Reza Mirfakhraie, Shohreh Zare-Karizi, Fatemeh Karamoddin
The medical evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), the occurrence of two or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to 20th week of gestation, is mainly focused on maternal factors. However, paternally expressed genes may also play a role in implantation and placenta quality. This study aimed to investigate the possible association between parental miR-196a2C>T and miR-499aT>C polymorphisms and RPL in a case-control study including 200 RPL couples and 400 healthy men and women. Genotyping was performed using Tetra-ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP for miR-196a2C>T and miR-499aT>C polymorphisms, respectively...
December 13, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918727/the-current-state-of-reproductive-biology-research-in-australia-and-new-zealand-core-themes-from-the-society-for-reproductive-biology-annual-meeting-2016
#20
L K Akison, P H Andraweera, M J Bertoldo, H M Brown, J S M Cuffe, T Fullston, O Holland, J E Schjenken
Because reproduction is essential for all life, it is central to our understanding of all aspects of biology. The Society for Reproductive Biology (SRB) 2016 conference held on the Gold Coast (Qld, Australia) displayed the current breadth of reproductive research in Australia and New Zealand, with additional insights from world leaders in the field. This conference review provides a focused summary of the key questions, emerging ideas and novel technologies that were presented in the symposia. Presented research demonstrated key advances in how stem cell biology may allow us to better understand pluripotency, as well as how environmental and lifestyle factors, such as circadian disruption, smoking, alcohol and diet, affect gametogenesis, embryo implantation, placental function and reproductive capacity...
December 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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