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Placenta implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722160/placental-proteomics-reveal-insights-into-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#1
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6...
July 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699111/hla-class-ib-in-pregnancy-and-pregnancy-related-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Gry Persson, Wenna Nascimento Melsted, Line Lynge Nilsson, Thomas Vauvert F Hviid
The HLA class Ib genes, HLA-E, HLA-F, and HLA-G, were discovered long after the classical HLA class Ia genes. The elucidation of their functions had a modest beginning. However, their basic functions and involvement in pathophysiology and a range of diseases are now emerging. Although results from a range of studies support the functional roles for the HLA class Ib molecules in adult life, especially HLA-G and HLA-F have most intensively been, and were also primarily, studied in relation to reproduction and pregnancy...
July 11, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678605/the-early-pregnancy-placenta-foreshadows-dna-methylation-alterations-of-solid-tumors
#3
Akpéli V Nordor, Djamel Nehar-Belaid, Sophie Richon, David Klatzmann, Dominique Bellet, Virginie Dangles-Marie, Thierry Fournier, Martin J Aryee
The placenta relies on phenotypes that are characteristic of cancer to successfully implant the embryo in the uterus during early pregnancy. Notably, it has to invade its host tissues, promote angiogenesis-while surviving hypoxia-, and escape the immune system. Similarities in DNA methylation patterns between the placenta and cancers suggest that common epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in regulating these behaviors. We show here that megabase-scale patterns of hypomethylation distinguish first from third trimester chorionic villi in the placenta, and that these patterns mirror those that distinguish many tumors from corresponding normal tissues...
July 5, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670836/epithelial-cadherin-disassociates-from-the-lateral-plasma-membrane-of-uterine-epithelial-cells-throughout-pregnancy-in-a-marsupial
#4
Jessica S Dudley, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson, Bronwyn M McAllan
The uterine luminal epithelium is the first site of contact between fetal and maternal tissues during therian pregnancy and must undergo specialised changes for implantation of the blastocyst to be successful. These changes, collectively termed the plasma membrane transformation (PMT), allow the blastocyst to attach to the uterine epithelium preceding the formation of a placenta. There are similarities in the morphological and molecular changes occurring in live-bearing eutherian species during the PMT studied so far...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668162/mr-imaging-of-abnormal-placentation
#5
REVIEW
Manjiri Dighe
Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) encompasses a spectrum of conditions characterized by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the implantation site. Classification of MAP is based on the degree of trophoblastic invasion through myometrium and uterine serosa and includes accrete, when the villi are attached to the myometrium but do not invade the muscle; increta, when the placenta invades partially through the myometrium; and percreta, when it invades up to and beyond the uterine serosa. Knowledge of the common findings of MAP on MR imaging is important to be able to provide an accurate diagnosis...
August 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667126/functional-implications-of-the-relaxin-rln-system-in-the-dog-throughout-pregnancy-and-at-term
#6
Marta Nowak, Aykut Gram, Alois Boos, Selim Aslan, Serhan Serhat Ay, Firdevs Önyay, Mariusz Kowalewski
Relaxin (RLN) is a key hormone of pregnancy in mammals best known for its involvement in connective tissue remodeling. In the domestic dog, placental RLN is the only known endocrine marker of pregnancy. However, knowledge is sparse regarding the spatio-temporal expression of RLN and its receptors (RXFP1 and RXFP2) in the canine uterus and placenta. Here, their expression was investigated in the pre-implantation uterus and utero-placental compartments (UtPl) at selected time points during gestation: post-implantation, mid-gestation, and at normal and antigestagen-induced luteolysis/abortion...
June 30, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661576/physiological-alterations-associated-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-fetal-pigs-causes-and-insights-for-nutritional-optimization
#7
REVIEW
Junjun Wang, Cuiping Feng, Ting Liu, Meng Shi, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major problem in swine production since the associated low birth weight leads to high rates of pre-weaning morbidity and mortality plus permanent retardation of growth and development. Complex biological events-including genetics, epigenetics, maternal maturity, maternal nutrition, placenta efficiency, uterine capacity, and other environmental factors-can affect fetal growth and development during late gestation, as well as maturity of oocytes, duration of estrus, and both implantation and placentation of conceptuses in uteri of sows...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655551/adult-venous-endothelium-is-a-niche-for-highly-proliferative-and-vasculogenic-endothelial-colony-forming-cells
#8
Linden Green, Richard H Ofstein, Brian Rapp, M Reza Saadatzadeh, Janak R Bhavsar, Andres Fajardo, Michael C Dalsing, David A Ingram, Michael P Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Postnatal resident endothelium of blood vessels has been proposed to represent terminally differentiated tissue that does not replicate. We previously isolated endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from human umbilical cord blood (CB) and term placenta by using colony-forming assays and immunocytochemistry. We showed that ECFCs are highly proliferative and form functioning vessels in vivo, the defining characteristics of a true endothelial progenitor cell. This exploratory investigation was conducted to determine whether the endothelium of healthy adult blood vessels contained resident ECFCs...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653993/mechanistic-insight-into-long-noncoding-rnas-and-the-placenta
#9
REVIEW
Dale McAninch, Claire T Roberts, Tina Bianco-Miotto
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are classified as RNAs greater than 200 nucleotides in length that do not produce a protein product. lncRNAs are expressed with cellular and temporal specificity and have been shown to play a role in many cellular events, including the regulation of gene expression, post-transcriptional modifications and epigenetic modifications. Since lncRNAs were first discovered, there has been increasing evidence that they play important roles in the development and function of most organs, including the placenta...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651899/the-cytotrophoblastic-shell-and-complications-of-pregnancy
#10
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
Many complications of pregnancy have their pathophysiological roots in the early stages of placentation. Impaired trophoblast invasion and deficient remodelling of the maternal spiral arteries are a common feature. While malperfusion of the placenta may underpin cases of fetal growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia, the mechanistic links to spontaneous miscarriage, pre-term labour and premature rupture of the membranes are less obvious. Here, we speculate that formation of a well-developed cytotrophoblastic shell at the maternal-fetal interface is crucial for pregnancy success...
June 13, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631072/down-regulation-of-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-expression-in-invasive-placentation
#11
Scott A Shainker, Katelyn Dannheim, Kristin D Gerson, Dayna Neo, Zsuzsanna K Zsengeller, Elizabeth Pernicone, S Ananth Karumanchi, Michele R Hacker, Jonathan L Hecht
PURPOSE: To confirm reduced expression of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in accreta/increta. METHODS: Formalin-fixed tissue sections from 11 peripartum hysterectomies with invasive placentation and 5 controls were stained for sFlt-1. Stain intensity was scored in selected 100× microscopic fields. We compared sFlt-1 expression in invasive areas among cases, non-invasive areas among cases and areas from control placentas. RESULTS: Chorionic villi displayed significantly decreased sFlt-1 expression in invasive areas of cases compared to control placentas (p = 0...
August 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612537/-convention-ultrasound-and-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-placenta-implantation
#12
Wen Xiong, Hong Luo
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the diagnosis of placenta residue with implantation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 112 cases of placenta remnants from Apr. 2013 to Mar. 2016, all of which were confirmed by pathological results. The cases were divided into implanted (n =74) and non-implanted (n =38) groups. We compared the characteristics of US and CEUS imaging between the two groups...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591673/the-windmill-technique-avoids-manual-removal-of-the-retained-placenta-a-new-solution-for-an-old-problem
#13
Larry Hinkson, Mia Amelie Suermann, Susan Hinkson, Wolfgang Henrich
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to assess the reduction in manual removal of placenta with the Windmill technique of placenta delivery in patients with retained placenta. DESIGN: The Windmill technique involves the application of continuous 360° umbilical cord traction and rotation in such a manner as to be perpendicular to the direction of the birth canal at the level of the introitus. This rotation through 360° is repeated slowly with movement akin to the motion of the blades of a windmill...
August 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587344/acquired-uterine-arteriovenous-fistula-due-to-a-previous-cornual-pregnancy-with-placenta-accreta-a-case-report
#14
Dongdong Guan, Jie Wang, Liju Zong, Shan Li, You-Zhong Zhang
The present report describes a case of an acquired uterine arteriovenous fistula, which, following surgery and postoperative pathological analysis, was confirmed as a previous cornual pregnancy with placenta accreta. The patient was a 37-year-old woman (gravida 3; para 2) who had previously delivered two children via cesarean section (in 2004 and 2010, respectively) and also had a spontaneous abortion (2008). She had experienced continuous menstrual bleeding for ~20 days and had a history of prolonged (~30 days) vaginal bleeding 13 months earlier...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584004/vaginal-birth-after-two-previous-caesarean-deliveries-in-a-patient-with-uterus-didelphys-and-an-interuterine-septal-defect
#15
Njoki Ng'ang'a, Jonathan Ratzersdorfer, Yaakov Abdelhak
Uterus didelphys is a congenital abnormality characterised by double uteri, double cervices and a double or single vagina that affects 0.3% to 11% of the general female population. A 23-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 3003, with uterus didelphys, acquired an iatrogenic interuterine septal defect during an otherwise routine primary caesarean delivery for fetal malpresentation. The defect was repaired but noted to have dehisced during her second pregnancy. A repeat caesarean section was performed due to fetal malpresentation after an unsuccessful external cephalic version...
June 5, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573522/embryo%C3%A2-development-after-mitochondrial-supplementation-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Ruiqi Li, Bingqiang Wen, Haijing Zhao, Nengyong Ouyang, Songbang Ou, Wenjun Wang, Jianyong Han, Dongzi Yang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mitochondrial supplementation (MS) on early embryonic development and to assess the safety of MS treatments using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as the mitochondrial donor. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the effect of MS on early embryonic development using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as the donor. Mouse zygotes were injected with either mitochondria from iPSCs or a vehicle solution...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562440/vitamin-d-in-human-reproduction
#17
Jason M Franasiak, Evelin E Lara, Antonio Pellicer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a wide range of human disease states and the global epidemic, particularly in reproductive aged women, has led to a focus on this complex hormones role in human reproduction. Indeed vitamin D receptors are found throughout the reproductive tract in the ovary, endometrium, and the placenta. It has roles both in calcium-dependent and independent pathways. However, agreement upon the most appropriate way to assess vitamin D status and ultimately its activity at various sites has proven challenging...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556269/cervical-varices-an-unusual-source-of-first-trimester-hemorrhage
#18
Joseph R Wax, Angelina Cartin, Christian Litton, Kelley Conroy, Michael G Pinette
Endocervical varices are a rare cause of obstetrical hemorrhage. Usually presenting in the second and third trimesters, bleeding varices often require pregnancy termination or indicated preterm birth via cesarean delivery. Our patient experienced variceal hemorrhage at 12 weeks' gestation in a dichorionic twin pregnancy conceived through in vitro fertilization. A low-lying placenta resolved at 19 weeks followed by variceal regression at 22 weeks' gestation. Endocervical varices causing first-trimester hemorrhage may regress with resolution of a coexisting low placental implantation, permitting planned vaginal delivery, despite progressive hemodynamic changes of pregnancy...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552376/involvement-of-stat1-in-proliferation-and-invasiveness-of-trophoblastic-cells
#19
Francisco Lázaro Pereira de Sousa, Wittaya Chaiwangyen, Diana M Morales-Prieto, Stephanie Ospina-Prieto, Maja Weber, Stella M Photini, Nelson Sass, Silvia Daher, Ekkehard Schleussner, Udo R Markert
Trophoblast proliferation and invasion are controlled by cytokines and growth factors present at the implantation site. Members of the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines trigger their effects through activation of intracellular cascades including the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Functions of several STAT molecules in trophoblast cells have been described, but the role of STAT1 remained unclear. Here, potential functions of STAT1 and its activation by Oncostatin M (OSM) have been investigated in an in vitro model...
May 25, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551894/-advanced-abdominal-pregnancy
#20
REVIEW
David Rabinerson, Alexandra Berezowsky, Rinnat Gabbay-Benziv
Abdominal pregnancy is a very rare obstetric complication which is seriously hazardous to the mother as well as the fetus. It poses a diagnostic challenge to this day. Both maternal and fetal mortality rates in such cases are high, as well as the malformation rate among the affected fetus. The best diagnostic tools are ultrasound and MRI. The availability of these instruments, and especially the latter, is scarce in developing countries, hence the higher rate of this type of pregnancy in these regions. The higher incidence of abdominal pregnancy in developing countries is also associated with the greater prevalence of low socioeconomic status, pelvic infections and infertility - all are more prevalent in these countries...
February 2017: Harefuah
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