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Placenta implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331644/term-abdominal-pregnancy-revealed-by-amnioperitoneum-in-rural-area
#1
Henri Donald Mutarambirwa, Bruno Kenfack, Jovanny Tsuala Fouogue
Abdominal pregnancy (AP) accounts for 1% of ectopic implantations. In sub-Saharan Africa, the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections explains the increasing frequency of this pathology. In Cameroon it rose from 1/10000 deliveries (1995) to 3.3/10000 (2015). Authors herein report a case of a viable abdominal pregnancy discovered at term during emergency laparotomy for suspected uterine rupture. The 24-year-old G2P0 patient was HIV-positive, under antiretrovirals, though AP exceptionally occurs in HIV patients...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327211/reduced-fetal-vitamin-d-status-by-maternal-undernutrition-during-discrete-gestational-windows-in-sheep
#2
J K Cleal, M R Hargreaves, K R Poore, J C Y Tang, W D Fraser, M A Hanson, L R Green
Placental transport of vitamin D and other nutrients (e.g. amino acids, fats and glucose) to the fetus is sensitive to maternal and fetal nutritional cues. We studied the effect of maternal calorific restriction on fetal vitamin D status and the placental expression of genes for nutrient transport [aromatic T-type amino acid transporter-1 (TAT-1); triglyceride hydrolase/lipoprotein uptake facilitator lipoprotein lipase (LPL)] and vitamin D homeostasis [CYP27B1; vitamin D receptor (VDR)], and their association with markers of fetal cardiovascular function and skeletal muscle growth...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326953/placenta-increta-presenting-as-exaggerated-placental-site-reaction
#3
Stewart F Cramer, Debra S Heller
Exaggerated placental site (EPS) is usually an incidental finding seen in curettings after an abortion. Placenta increta is, by definition, a disease that damages and destroys myometrium; however, prior literature has not paid sufficient attention to the role of myometrium in its pathogenesis and diagnosis. We present an unusual case of placenta increta in a hysterectomy performed for uterine perforation after curettage for the termination of pregnancy at 18 weeks. The initial histologic section of the implantation site suggested EPS...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326648/changes-in-expression-of-the-cd200-tolerance-signaling-molecule-and-its-receptor-cd200r-by-villus-trophoblasts-during-first-trimester-missed-abortion-and-in-chronic-histiocytic-intervillositis
#4
David A Clark, Jennifer M Dmetrichuk, Elizabeth McCready, Sukhbinder Dhesy-Thind, Jorge L Arredondo
PROBLEM: Expression of CD200 at the feto-maternal interface is associated with successful murine and human pregnancy. CD200 binding to CD200 receptors on lymphomyeloid cells suppresses inflammation and induces Tregs. CD200 receptors are also expressed on mouse and human placental trophoblast cells. What is the expression of CD200 and CD200R in human missed abortions which have preserved Treg levels and in chronic histiocytic intervillositis (CHI) where maternal inflammatory cells cause IUGR? METHODS: Immunohistiochemistry for CD200, CD200R, and Ki67 using human placental sections from missed abortions, term placenta, and CHI...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324064/bmp7-induces-uterine-receptivity-and-blastocyst-attachment
#5
Diana Monsivais, Caterina Clementi, Jia Peng, Paul T Fullerton, Renata Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Seppo Vainio, Martin M Matzuk
In women, the window of implantation is limited to a brief two- to three- day period characterized by optimal levels of circulating ovarian hormones and a receptive endometrium. Although the window of implantation is assumed to occur 8-10 days after ovulation in women, molecular markers of endometrial receptivity are necessary to determine optimal timing prior to embryo transfer. Previous studies showed that members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family are expressed in the uterus necessary for female fertility; however, the role of BMP7 during implantation and in late gestation is not known...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295343/epithelial-membrane-protein-2-emp2-deficiency-alters-placental-angiogenesis-mimicking-features-of-human-placental-insufficiency
#6
Carmen J Williams, Alison Chu, Wendy N Jefferson, David Casero, Deepthi Sudhakar, Nevil Khurana, Claire P Hogue, Chinmayi Aryasomayajula, Priya Patel, Peggy Sullivan, Elizabeth Padilla-Banks, Shabnam Mohandessi, Carla Janzen, Madhuri Wadehra
Epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) is a tetraspan protein predicted to regulate placental development. Highly expressed in secretory endometrium and trophectoderm cells, previous studies suggest that it may regulate implantation by orchestrating the surface expression of integrins and other membrane proteins. In order to test the role of EMP2 in pregnancy, mice lacking EMP2 (Emp2(-/-) ) were generated. Emp2(-/-) females are fertile but have reduced litter sizes when carrying Emp2(-/-) but not Emp2(+/-) fetuses...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288930/assessing-the-effect-of-oral-exposure-to-paenibacillus-alvei-a-potential-biocontrol-agent-in-male-non-pregnant-pregnant-animals-and-the-developing-rat-fetus
#7
Robert L Sprando, Thomas Black, Nicholas Olejnik, Zachary Keltner, Vanessa Topping, Martine Ferguson, Darcy Hanes, Eric Brown, Jie Zheng
Paenibacillus alvei, a naturally occurring soil microorganism, may be used in the control and/or elimination of human/animal pathogens present on/within produce commodities associated with human consumption. The safety of oral exposure to P. alvei in male, nulliparous females, the pregnant dam and developing fetus was assessed. Adult male and female rats received a single oral dose (gavage) of P. alvei and tissues were collected at post exposure days 0, 3 and 14. To evaluate the effect of the test organism on fetal development, sperm positive female rats received the test organism every 3 days thereafter throughout gestation...
March 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281300/the-effect-of-anatomical-placental-location-on-the-third-stage-of-labor
#8
Ulaş Fidan, Mustafa Ulubay, Serkan Bodur, Mehmet Ferdi Kıncı, Kazım Emre Karaşahin, Müfit Cemal Yenen
INTRODUCTION: According to the lower uterine segment and trophotropism hypotheses of placental implantation, placentation occurs in uterine segments with a high blood supply. The present study was designed to determine the clinical implications of these hypotheses by assessing the dynamics of the third stage of labor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred and ninety-two prospectively followed pregnant women were assessed at the time of delivery. The uterine locations of the placentas were determined according to the position of the main placental volume and mass under a sagittal view obtained using a centrally-located ultrasonography probe...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264611/prevalence-and-diagnostic-accuracy-of-doppler-ultrasound-of-placenta-accreta-in-egypt
#9
Ahmed M Maged, Emad Salah, Hany Saad, Hadeer Meshaal, Ashraf Eldaly, Maha A Katta, Wesam S Deeb
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of placenta accreta among those with placenta implanted over CS scar and to evaluate the accuracy of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosis. METHODS: A cross sectional study included 100 patients with placenta previa anterior with at least one previous CS. Ultrasound and color Doppler was done to all participants and correlated with operative findings. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between accrete and non accrete group regarding maternal age (32...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258943/anaesthesia-for-abnormally-invasive-placenta-a-single-institution-case-series
#10
N J Taylor, R Russell
BACKGROUND: Abnormally invasive placenta describes a spectrum of disorders resulting in pathological placental implantation. It is associated with the potential for severe maternal haemorrhage and poor fetal outcome. Increasing numbers of women are at risk owing to the rising incidence of uterine surgery and increasing maternal age. We report data over a five-year period describing anaesthetic management of cases of abnormally invasive placenta in a UK tertiary-referral maternity unit and assess how management has developed...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257867/cobalamin-supplementation-during-in%C3%A2-vitro-maturation-improves-developmental-competence-of-sheep-oocytes
#11
Federica Zacchini, Paola Toschi, Grazyna Ewa Ptak
Pregnancies obtained by Assisted Reproductive Technologies are at higher risk of miscarriage than those obtained naturally. Previously, we reported impaired placental vascular development of in vitro produced (IVP) sheep embryos and defective DNA methylation in the placentae of those embryos. One reason behind these observed defects may be an impaired One Carbon Metabolism (OCM) The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that Cobalamin (Vitamin B12, an important OCM co-factor) supplementation during IVM corrects DNA methylation of IVP embryos and, consequently, ameliorates placental vasculogenesis...
April 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240193/crh-receptors-in-human-reproduction
#12
Antonis Makrigiannakis, Thomas Vrekoussis, Emmanouel Zoumakis, Iordanis Navrozoglou, Sophia Kalantaridou
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), the main peptide-mediator of stress, has been found in the female reproductive system. Herein, the role of CRH receptors in the female reproductive sysem is presented. It is clear that CRH receptors are involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, while locally are associated with decidualization, embryonic implantation, early fetal development and triggering of parturition. Abnormal CRH signalling may contribute to obstetrical pathophysiology, such as pre-eclampsia, abnormal placenta invasion, endometrial growth retardation and preterm delivery...
February 23, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216513/cellular-localization-expression-and-functional-implications-of-the-utero-placental-endothelin-system-during-maintenance-and-termination-of-canine-gestation
#13
Aykut Gram, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski
Utero-placental (Ut-Pl) angiogenesis and blood flow are fundamental for successful outcome of pregnancy. They are controlled by numerous vasodilator and vasoconstrictor systems such as endothelins (EDNs) and the renin angiotensin system. Dogs possess an invasive type of placentation, classified as endotheliochorial. Despite increasing knowledge regarding canine Ut-Pl function, little information exists on uterine and placental vascular activity during initiation, maintenance and termination of pregnancy in this species...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202182/implantation-and-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-from-rare-archival-specimens-to-modern-biobanking
#14
Gerit Moser, Berthold Huppertz
Extravillous trophoblast invasion serves to attach the placenta to the uterus and to enable access to nutrients for the embryo throughout pregnancy - secretions of the uterine glands in the first trimester, maternal blood in the second and third trimester. For assessing extravillous trophoblast invasion, histology (in combination with immunohistochemistry) still plays a major role in placental research. This is especially true for the re-assessment of rare archival specimens from early human implantation sites or placenta in utero with the background of recent knowledge which may help to strengthen current hypotheses...
February 8, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193876/vulnerability-of-primitive-human-placental-trophoblast-to-zika-virus
#15
Megan A Sheridan, Dinar Yunusov, Velmurugan Balaraman, Andrei P Alexenko, Shinichiro Yabe, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Danny J Schust, Alexander W Franz, Yoel Sadovsky, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts
Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186371/gene-expression-and-epigenetic-aberrations-in-f1-placentas-fathered-by-obese-males
#16
Megan Mitchell, Reiner Strick, Pamela L Strissel, Ralf Dittrich, Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Galyna Pliushch, Ramya Potabattula, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analysed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185362/definitive-class-i-human-leukocyte-antigen-expression-in-gestational-placentation-hla-f-hla-e-hla-c-and-hla-g-in-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-on-placentation-pregnancy-and-parturition
#17
Rinat Hackmon, Lakmini Pinnaduwage, Jianhong Zhang, Stephen J Lye, Daniel E Geraghty, Caroline E Dunk
PROBLEM: The extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) express HLA-C and HLA-G, but HLA-E and HLA-F are the subject of conflicting reports. In this study, we define the HLA expression profile during active EVT placental implantation, pregnancy development, and parturition. METHOD OF STUDY: Immunohistochemistry, q-PCR, and Western blot were used to investigate HLA-C, HLA-E, and HLA-F placental expression across gestation from the early first trimester, late first trimester, second trimester (n=10 in each), preterm gestation (n=6) to elective term cesarean section and term vaginal deliveries (n=12, 38-41 weeks)...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179200/laparoscopic-management-of-abdomininal-pregnancy
#18
Francesco Cosentino, Cristiano Rossitto, Luigi Carlo Turco, Salvatore Gueli Alletti, Carmine Vascone, Lavinia Di Meglio, Giovanni Scambia, Mario Malzoni
CASE REPORT OBJECTIVE: To show the surgical management in laparoscopy of a particular localization of an extra-uterine pregnancy misunderstood until 12 week of EG complicated by hemoperitoneum and abortion. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy among women who go to an emergency department with first trimester bleeding, pain, or both ranges from 1 to 16 percent [1]. The most common localization of ectopic pregnancy are the Fallopian tubes while abdominal pregnancy represent at least 1 percent of extra-uterine pregnancies...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166424/lectin-histochemistry-for-detecting-cadmium-induced-changes-in-the-glycosylation-pattern-of-rat-placenta
#19
M C Díaz, N V González, C N Zanuzzi, R Najle, C G Barbeito
Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial and environmental pollutant that produces toxic effects on gametogenesis, pre- and post-implantation embryos, and the placenta. Because the effects of acute Cd intoxication on the placenta are not well understood, we investigated changes in its glycosylated components in Cd treated dams at days 4, 7, 10 and 15 of gestation using lectin histochemistry. CdCl2 was administered to pregnant rats; control animals received sterile normal saline. Placentas were processed for DBA, Con A, SBA, PNA, UEA-I, RCA-I and WGA lectin histochemistry to evaluate changes in the carbohydrate pattern of the placenta that might modify cell interactions and contribute to embryonic alterations...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161062/localisation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-egf-its-specific-receptor-egf-r-and-aromatase-at-the-materno-fetal-interface-during-placentation-in-the-pregnant-mare
#20
W R Twink Allen, Susan Gower, Sandra Wilsher
INTRODUCTION: Implantation and placentation in the mare does not commence until as late as day 40 after ovulation. The reasons for this and the growth factors and/or hormones which drive placentation when it does finally occur are of considerable academic and practical interest. METHOD: Placental interface tissues recovered from 11 accurately aged and perfused-fixed horse uteri between 20 and 68 days of gestation were stained immunocytochemically for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), its specific receptor (EGF-R) and for the steroid hormone enzyme, aromatase...
February 2017: Placenta
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