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Placenta implantation

Mohammad Charehsaz, Karin Sørig Hougaard, Hande Sipahi, Asiye Işın Doğan Ekici, Çiğdem Kaspar, Mustafa Culha, Ülkü Ündeğer Bucurgat, Ahmet Aydin
BACKGROUND: Evaluations of silver in both nanoparticle (Ag-NPs) and ionic forms indicate some adverse effects on living organisms, but little is known about their potential for developmental toxicity. In this study, developmental toxicity of Ag-NPs (from 0.2 to 20 mg/kg/day) and ionic Ag (AgNO3, 20 mg Ag/kg/day) were investigated in rats. METHODS: Animals were dosed by gavage from gestation day 7 - 20. The day after parturition, dams and pups were sacrificed and Ag level assessed in several maternal and pup organs...
October 6, 2016: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Gali Epstein Shochet, Oded Komemi, Dana Sadeh-Mestechkin, Meir Pomeranz, Ami Fishman, Liat Drucker, Michael Lishner, Shelly Tartakover Matalon
During placental implantation, cytotrophoblast cells differentiate to extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells that invade from the placenta into the maternal uterine blood vessels. The heat shock protein-27 (HSP27), the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (EIF4E) are involved in regulating EVT cell differentiation/migration. EIF4E and EIF4G compose the translation initiation complex, which is a major control point in protein translation...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Histology
A V C Coelho, R R Moura, S Crovella, F Celsi
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a key tolerogenic molecule mainly expressed in the placenta and is crucial for implantation of the embryo and immunological tolerance of the fetus during pregnancy. However, under pathological conditions, such as cancer or viral infections, HLA-G can be expressed in other tissues. The gene coding for HLA-G (HLA-G, chromosome 6p21.3) presents numerous polymorphisms, some of them influencing its expression. One of the most studied, is the 14 bp ins/del (rs371194629) situated at the 3'-UTR of the gene...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Catherine Corbel, Edith Heard
The placenta derives from one extra-embryonic lineage, the trophectoderm. In the peri-implantation murine blastocyst, mural trophectoderm cells differentiate into primary trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) while the polar trophectoderm overlying the inner cell mass continues to proliferate later differentiating into secondary TGCs. TGCs play a key role in developing placenta and are essential for a successful pregnancy. Investigation of transcriptional regulation of specific genes during post-implantation development can give insights into TGCs development...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Maryam Eftekhar, Sepideh Miraj, Zahrasadat Mortazavifar
BACKGROUND: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays essential roles in embryo implantation, invasion of trophoblastic tissue, and steroid synthesis in the placenta. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GnRH antagonist administration on pregnancy outcomes in early implantation period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 94 infertile women undergoing GnRH antagonist protocol who were at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) were included...
August 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Chih-Wei Hsu, Leeyean Wong, Tara L Rasmussen, Sowmya Kalaga, Melissa L McElwee, Lance C Keith, Ritu Bohat, John R Seavitt, Arthur L Beaudet, Mary E Dickinson
In this work, we report the use of iodine-contrast microCT to perform high-throughput 3D morphological analysis of mouse embryos and neonates between embryonic day 8.5 to postnatal day 3, with high spatial resolution up to 3µm/voxel. We show that mouse embryos at early stages can be imaged either within extra embryonic tissues such as the yolk sac or the decidua without physically disturbing the embryos. This method enables a full, undisturbed analysis of embryo turning, allantois development, vitelline vessels remodeling, yolk sac and early placenta development, which provides increased insights into early embryonic lethality in mutant lines...
September 23, 2016: Developmental Biology
Sevan A Vahanian, Anthony M Vintzileos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Placental implantation abnormalities (PIAs) comprise a large group of disorders associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors include prior uterine surgery/myometrial scarring and the presence of placenta previa with or without prior cesarean delivery. Newly identified risk factors include previous prelabor cesarean delivery and previous postpartum hemorrhage. PIAs contribute substantially to preterm birth with prematurity rates ranging from 38 to 82%...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Qiushi Wang, Chongdong Liu, Zhenyu Zhang
Since transthyretin (TTR) was discovered, it has been regarded as a serum protein carrier of thyroid hormones and retinol. However, many other important functions of TTR have been found recently, and current evidence suggests that it plays a role in human receptivity and normal pregnancy. TTR is abundant in the uterine cavity, uterine secretion, placenta, and serum of pregnant females in the peri-implantation uterus and the first trimester of pregnancy. It may be involved in the delivery of maternal thyroid hormones to the fetus...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
E Weiner, H Miremberg, E Grinstein, Y Mizrachi, L Schreiber, J Bar, M Kovo
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical characteristics and placental histopathology between pregnancies complicated by placenta previa and controls. STUDY DESIGN: Between 2009 and 2015, cesarean deliveries (CDs) of 119 pregnancies with placenta previa were identified from which maternal outcomes, neonatal outcomes and placental pathology were reviewed. Results were compared with CDs matched for maternal age and pregnancy complications (control group, n=119). Placental lesions were classified into maternal and fetal vascular supply lesions and inflammatory response...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Chelsie B Steinhauser, McKinsey Landers, Louise Myatt, Robert C Burghardt, Jeffrey L Vallet, Fuller W Bazer, Greg A Johnson
The fetal fluids and uterine flushings of pigs contain higher concentrations of fructose than glucose, but fructose is not detected in maternal blood. Fructose can be synthesized from glucose via enzymes of the polyol pathway, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD), transported across cell membranes by solute carriers SLC2A5 and SLC2A8, and converted to fructose-1-phosphate by keto-hexokinase (KHK). SLC2A8, SLC2A5, AKR1B1, SORD and KHK mRNAs and proteins were analyzed using qPCR and immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization in endometria and placentae of cyclic and pregnant gilts, cyclic gilts injected with estrogen, and ovariectomized gilts injected with progesterone (P4)...
August 17, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Aykut Gram, Alexandra Trachsel, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski
The endocrine mechanisms that lead to initiation of parturition in dogs are still not fully understood. The prepartum luteolysis is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) F2α secretion; however, there is no pregnancy- or parturition-related increase in estrogens. Moreover, unlike in other mammalian species, in the dog, increased peripartum levels of cortisol measured sporadically in maternal peripheral blood are not mandatory for normal parturition. Nevertheless, auto/paracrine effects of cortisol at the placental feto-maternal level cannot be excluded...
October 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
G Barrientos, A Uceda, A Sgariglia, G Giardina, S M Blois, J E Toblli
OBJECTIVE: Severe forms of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, like early-onset preeclampsia (PE), are often linked with abnormal placentation. Genetic factors contributed by the father may be important for placental development, and previous studies support the existence of a paternal component for PE and fetal growth restriction. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of arterial hypertension as a paternal factor on placental development and fetal growth in normal female rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lu Liang, Zongjin Li, Tao Ma, Zhibo Han, Wenjing Du, Jie Geng, Honghong Jia, Meng Zhao, Jimin Wang, Bingjing Zhang, Jie Feng, Lanzhen Zhao, Alain Rupin, Youwei Wang, Zhong Chao Han
Neovasculogenesis induced by stem cell therapy is an innovative approach to improve critical limb ischemia (CLI) in diabetes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are ideal candidate due to their angiogeneic and immunomodulatory features. The aim of this study is to determine the therapeutic effects of human placenta derived MSC (P-MSC) on diabetic CLI, with or without exogenous insulin administration, and the underlying mechanism of any effect. A series of in vitro experiments were performed to assess the stemness and vasculogenic activity of P-MSC...
August 5, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Linda M Ernst, Rebecca L Linn, Lucy Minturn, Emily S Miller
BACKGROUND: The pathology that underlies morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to describe the placental pathology, especially implantation site pathology, associated with MAP. METHODS: This was a single institution, retrospective case-control study design examining placentas of patients who delivered between January 2008 and September 2013. MAP cases were defined by the need for clinical intervention at delivery beyond spontaneous placental delivery or simple manual extraction of the placenta...
July 21, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Kata Kenesei, Kumarasamy Murali, Árpád Czéh, Jordi Piella, Victor Puntes, Emília Madarász
BACKGROUND: Precisely targeted nanoparticle delivery is critically important for therapeutic applications. However, our knowledge on how the distinct physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles determine tissue penetration through physiological barriers, accumulation in specific cells and tissues, and clearance from selected organs has remained rather limited. In the recent study, spectral imaging fluorescence microscopy was exploited for precise and rapid monitoring of tissue- and cell-type-specific distribution of fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles with chemically distinct surface compositions...
2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Maryam Farasatinasab, Azadeh Moghaddas, Simin Dashti-Khadivaki, Zahra Raoofi, Somayyeh Nasiripour
Abnormally invasive placenta is characterized by direct attachment of chorionic villi to the uterine wall. This adherent placenta traditionally has been managed by peripartum hysterectomy. Nowadays, there is a lot of interest toward gradual shift from traditional management of invasive placentation to conservative ones leaving the placenta in situ to avoid the surgical morbidity of hysterectomy and loss of future fertility. Administration of methotrexate (MTX), as an adjunctive antimetabolite drug, resulted in conflicting data during conservative management of abnormal placentation...
July 7, 2016: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
M F Malik, L R Hoyos, J Rodriguez-Kovacs, J Gillum, S C Johnson
Introduction. Cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs) are one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy. Given their rarity, there is lack of consensus regarding the management and natural course of CSPs. Case. A 37-year-old G10 P3063 female with a history of two prior cesarean deliveries was diagnosed with her second CSP at 6 weeks and 5 days in her tenth pregnancy. The patient underwent vertical hysterotomy, excision of a gestational sac implanted in the cesarean sac, and bilateral salpingectomy via a laparotomy incision...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sarah A Marshall, Sevvandi N Senadheera, Laura J Parry, Jane E Girling
The hormone relaxin is a 6-kDa peptide with high structural similarity to insulin. It is primarily produced by the corpus luteum during pregnancy but is also synthesized by other reproductive organs such as the uterus, decidua, and placenta. Relaxin binds to its receptor RXFP1, which has been localized to a wide variety of reproductive and nonreproductive tissues. The peptide's many uterotropic effects include stimulating uterine growth and vascularization, remodeling extracellular matrix components, and regulating vascular endothelial growth factor in preparation for implantation...
June 29, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Emanuela Veras, Robert J Kurman, Tian-Li Wang, Ie-Ming Shih
One of the major immune checkpoints responsible for immune evasion in cancer cells is the interaction between programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1). As human trophoblastic cells display many of the features of malignant cells such as the ability to invade normal tissue including blood vessels and are apparently not eradicated by the host immune system, we undertook the present study to determine whether PD-L1 was upregulated in different types of trophoblastic cells during normal pregnancy and in gestational trophoblastic diseases...
June 29, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Shi-Bin Cheng, Surendra Sharma
Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring...
June 23, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
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