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Placenta implantation

Aisha Mansoor Ali, Abdulaziz Alobaid, Tasnim Nidal Malhis, Ahmad Fawzi Khattab
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays pivotal role in decidualization and implantation of the placenta. Recent researches have shown that low level of vitamin D3 "25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)" in serum is a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. Latest evidence supports role of vitamin D3 deficiency treatment in reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of antenatal supplementation of vitamin D3 on the risk of pre-eclampsia and to explore the dose effect in attaining the vitamin D3 normal level...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
T Arthur Chang, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Behzad Gerami-Naini, Jessica G Drenzek, Maureen Durning, Mark A Garthwaite, Jenna Kropp Schmidt, Thaddeus G Golos
BACKGROUND: The initiation of primate embryo invasion into the endometrium and the formation of the placenta from trophoblasts, fetal mesenchyme, and vascular components are essential for the establishment of a successful pregnancy. The mechanisms which direct morphogenesis of the chorionic villi, and the interactions between trophectoderm-derived trophoblasts and the fetal mesenchyme to direct these processes during placentation are not well understood due to a dearth of systems to examine and manipulate real-time primate implantation...
March 16, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Dorien Reijnders, Chin-Chi Liu, Xinjing Xu, Anna Zhao, Kelsey Olson, Scott D Butler, Nataki C Douglas, Jenny L Sones
Preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disease of pregnancy, is a leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity/mortality. Early angiogenic and inflammatory disturbances within the placenta are thought to underlie the development of the maternal PE syndrome and poor pregnancy outcomes. However, the exact etiology remains largely unknown. Here, we use the BPH/5 mouse model of PE to elucidate the way in which inflammation early in pregnancy contributes to abnormal expression of angiogenic factors at the maternal-fetal interface...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Valentina Bruno, Judit Svensson-Arvelund, Marie Rubér, Göran Berg, Emilio Piccione, Maria C Jenmalm, Jan Ernerudh
Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is widely used in recurrent miscarriage treatment. The anti-coagulant effects are established, while immunological effects are not fully known. Our aim was to assess LMWH effects on activation and polarization of central regulatory immune cells from healthy women, and on placenta tissues from women undergoing elective abortions. Isolated blood monocytes and T helper (Th) cells under different activation and polarizing conditions were cultured with or without LMWH. Flow cytometry showed that LMWH exposure induced increased expression of HLA-DR and CD206 in macrophages...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huijing Zhang, Ruochong Dou, Huixia Yang, Xianlan Zhao, Dunjin Chen, Yilin Ding, Hongjuan Ding, Shihong Cui, Weishe Zhang, Hong Xin, Weirong Gu, Yali Hu, Guifeng Ding, Hongbo Qi, Ling Fan, Yuyan Ma, Junli Lu, Yue Yang, Li Lin, Xiucui Luo, Xiaohong Zhang, Shangrong Fan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify the maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with placenta increta or placenta percreta in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 2219 cases from 20 tertiary care centers in China between January 2011 and December 2015. All cases were diagnosed of placenta increta or placenta percreta, based on either intraoperative findings or histopathological findings. RESULTS: The incidence of placenta increta and placenta percreta progressively increased from 0...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Adolf E Schindler
This concise report deals with the known effects of progestogen lack in early pregnancy with failure of implantation and blood supply to the placenta depending on proper trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling, and vessel dilatation. The pathophysiology of preeclampsia will be outlined and the most recent data on the effect of dydrogesterone presented. Dydrogesterone appears to be able to reduce significantly the development of preeclampsia. The effect is related to begin with such prevention and this should be continued until 37th weeks of gestation which would also mean prevention of premature labor...
March 6, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Eun Jung Jung, Hwa Jin Cho, Jung Mi Byun, Dae Hoon Jeong, Kyung Bok Lee, Moon Su Sung, Ki Tae Kim, Young Nam Kim
INTRODUCTION: Placenta previa is a condition in which the placenta implants in the poorly vascularized lower uterine segment, which may result in inadequate uteroplacental perfusion, in turn, adversely affect the neonatal outcome. Abnormal placentation may also lead to severe postpartum hemorrhage as placenta separation proceeds. We aimed to evaluate the differences in placental histopathology and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa and controls. METHOD: We undertook a retrospective case-control study of 93 pregnancies with placenta previa and 81 controls between 2011 and 2017...
March 2018: Placenta
Felix R Graubner, Alois Boos, Selim Aslan, Ibrahim Kücükaslan, Mariusz P Kowalewski
For many years, modifications of the uterine extracellular matrix (ECM) during gestation have not been considered as critical for successful canine (Canis lupus familiaris) pregnancy. However previous reports indicated an effect of free-floating blastocysts on the composition of the uterine ECM. Here, the expression of selected genes involved in structural functions, cell-to-cell communication and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases were targeted utilizing qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that canine free-floating embryos affect gene expression of FN1, ECM1 and TIMP4...
February 9, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Laura B James-Allan, Guy StJ Whitley, Karin Leslie, Alison E Wallace, Judith E Cartwright
Successful implantation and placentation are dependent on the interaction between decidual stromal cells (DSC) and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells. The extent of trophoblast invasion relies on communication between the placenta and maternal decidua. The cyclical process of decidualisation induces a transformation of endometrial fibroblasts to secretory DSC; these secreted products have many functions including the control of trophoblast invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and remodelling of the uterine vessels (the spiral arteries) are associated with pregnancy disorders such as pre-eclampsia...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Tina A Nguyen, Daniel A Kahn, Andrea I Loewendorf
INTRODUCTION: Maternal-fetal chimerism is miniscule, a testament to the integrity of the uteroplacental interface. The soundness of this border region is potentially altered through cesarean delivery of prior babies with uncertain consequences for the following pregnancies. METHODS: Using multicolor flow cytometry and quantitative PCR of non-inherited maternal antigens we performed a retrospective case control pilot study and formulated the null hypothesis that placental implantation over a prior uterine scar does not result in the presence of memory Treg (CD45RO+) in the fetus...
February 12, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Haichong Wu, Kangfeng Jiang, Tao Zhang, Gan Zhao, Aftab Shaukat, Ganzhen Deng
During the first trimester of pregnancy in dairy cows, the fetus is mainly recognized by the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) in the maternal immune system. Before the embryo begins to implant in the maternal uterus, it requires a long time to remodel and develop vessels in the placenta. During this stage, the embryos are exposed to a hypoxic environment. However, the expression of bovine MHC-I has not been determined in hypoxic bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEECs). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a marker for hypoxic conditions in cells...
January 25, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Anthony M Carter
The mammalian placenta shows an extraordinary degree of variation in gross and fine structure, but this has been difficult to interpret in physiological terms. Transcriptomics offers a path to understanding how structure relates to function. This essay examines how studies of gene transcription can inform us about placental evolution in eutherian and marsupial mammals and more broadly about convergent evolution of viviparity and placentation in vertebrates. Thus far, the focus has been on the chorioallantoic placenta of eutherians at term, the reproductive strategies of eutherians and marsupials, and the decidual response of the uterus at implantation...
2018: F1000Research
Yasser Y Lenis, Gregory A Johnson, Xiaoqiu Wang, Wendy W Tang, Kathrin A Dunlap, M Carey Satterfield, Guoyao Wu, Thomas R Hansen, Fuller W Bazer
Background: Polyamines stimulate DNA transcription and mRNA translation for protein synthesis in trophectoderm cells, as well as proliferation and migration of cells; therefore, they are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and placenta). The ovine conceptus produces polyamines via classical and non-classical pathways. In the classical pathway, arginine (Arg) is transformed into ornithine, which is then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to produce putrescine which is the substrate for the production of spermidine and spermine...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yousef Shahin, Chun Lap Pang
OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of endovascular interventional modalities for haemorrhage control in abnormal placentation deliveries. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from inception to July 2017. Blood loss volume was regarded as the primary endpoint. Other important results are described. Random and fixed effects models were used for the meta-analysis...
February 5, 2018: European Radiology
Camilla M Whittington, Denis O'Meally, Melanie K Laird, Katherine Belov, Michael B Thompson, Bronwyn M McAllan
Early pregnancy is a critical time for successful reproduction; up to half of human pregnancies fail before the development of the definitive chorioallantoic placenta. Unlike the situation in eutherian mammals, marsupial pregnancy is characterised by a long pre-implantation period prior to the development of the short-lived placenta, making them ideal models for study of the uterine environment promoting embryonic survival pre-implantation. Here we present a transcriptomic study of pre-implantation marsupial pregnancy, and identify differentially expressed genes in the Sminthopsis crassicaudata uterus involved in metabolism and biosynthesis, transport, immunity, tissue remodelling, and uterine receptivity...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Kazem Hosseini, Tuba Gunel, Ece Gumusoglu, Ali Benian, Kilic Aydinli
Early pregnancy loss (EPL), also termed early miscarriage, is determined as the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or fetus prior to the 12th week of gestation. EPL frequency is ~15% in pregnancies. Fetal development and growth is associate with placental function and vessel development; therefore, the placental genome would represent a useful miscarriage model for (epi)genetic and genomic studies. An important factor of placental development and function is epigenetic regulation of gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are the primary epigenetic regulators which have an important role in placental development and function...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sánchez-Santos A, Martínez-Hernández Mg, Contreras-Ramos A, Ortega-Camarillo C, Baiza-Gutman LA
During embryo implantation, the outer layer of the blastocyst interacts with the endometrium giving rise to the development of the trophoblast cell lineage. The cells in this lineage participate in the penetration of endometrium due to their motility and invasive properties. The mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and invasive ability of these cells are essential for the establishment and maintenance of an efficient exchange between maternal and fetal tissues during pregnancy. In this context, hyperglycemia can induce oxidative stress causing alterations in the placenta...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Algeri Paola, Nicoli Elena, Rota Sonia Maria, Caruso Orlando, Manfredini Cinzia, Buzzi Antonella
We reported a case of secondary abdominal pregnancy with placental implantation into the fallopian tube, diagnosed at 16 weeks, in a woman admitted to the emergency room complaining of syncopal attacks. The best approach would be termination of the pregnancy, taking into consideration the high risk to the mother and the low possibility of alive and healthy birth. We had to perform an urgent surgical intervention due to the fact that the patient was in a clinically unstable condition, which was related to hemoperitoneum...
January 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Francesca Soncin, Marwa Khater, Cuong To, Donald Pizzo, Omar Farah, Anna Wakeland, Kanaga Arul Nambi Rajan, Katharine K Nelson, Ching-Wen Chang, Matteo Moretto-Zita, David R Natale, Louise C Laurent, Mana M Parast
An increasing body of evidence points to significant spatio-temporal differences in early placental development between mouse and human, but a detailed comparison of placentae in these two species is missing. We set out to compare placentae from both species across gestation, with a focus on trophoblast progenitor markers. We found that CDX2 and ELF5, but not EOMES, are expressed in early post-implantation trophoblast subpopulations in both species. Genome-wide expression profiling of mouse and human placentae revealed clusters of genes with distinct co-expression patterns across gestation...
January 22, 2018: Development
Amy Winship, Ellen Menkhorst, Michelle Van Sinderen, Evdokia Dimitriadis
Interleukin (IL)11 is a crucial regulator during the initiation of pregnancy in humans and mice. Elevated levels are detected in serum, placenta and decidua of women with pre-eclampsia. Elevated IL11 during placentation recapitulates pre-eclampsia in mice, although withdrawal rescues pre-eclampsia features, suggesting that IL11 could provide a novel therapeutic target. The aim of this study was to determine the safety profile of an IL11 antagonist ligated to polyethylene glycol (PEGIL11A) during pregnancy in mice...
December 19, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
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