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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317272/roles-of-ng2-glia-in-ischemic-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Fei-Er Song, Jia-Lv Huang, Si-Han Lin, Shuo Wang, Guo-Fen Ma, Xiao-Ping Tong
Recent studies have shown that a widely distributed class of glial cells, termed NG2-glia, engages in rapid signaling with surrounding neurons through direct synaptic contacts in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). This unique glial cell group has a typical function of proliferating and differentiating into oligodendrocytes during early development of the brain, which is crucial to axon myelin formation. Therefore, NG2-glia are also called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). In vitro and in vivo studies reveal that NG2-glia expressing receptors and ion channels demonstrate functional significance for rapid signaling with neuronal synapses and modulation of neuronal activities in both physiological and pathological conditions...
March 19, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317021/the-bloc-1-subunit-pallidin-facilitates-activity-dependent-synaptic-vesicle-recycling
#2
Xun Chen, Wenpei Ma, Shixing Zhang, Jeremy Paluch, Wanlin Guo, Dion K Dickman
Membrane trafficking pathways must be exquisitely coordinated at synaptic terminals to maintain functionality, particularly during conditions of high activity. We have generated null mutations in the Drosophila homolog of pallidin, a central subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), to determine its role in synaptic development and physiology. We find that Pallidin localizes to presynaptic microtubules and cytoskeletal structures, and that the stability of Pallidin protein is highly dependent on the BLOC-1 components Dysbindin and Blos1...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315884/complementary-feeding-micronutrients-and-developmental-outcomes-of-children
#3
Jacqueline F Gould
The period of complementary feeding (6-24 months of age) can be a challenging and vulnerable time for infant nutrition due to disproportionately high requirements for metabolic processes, rapid developmental processes, and limited gastric capacity. This is a period of crucial brain development where high caloric intake is necessary to allow synaptogenesis (creation of channels between neurons for communication), and maintenance of established synapses, myelination (laying the myelin sheath around neuronal axons) and everyday psychological functioning...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315865/proteomic-analysis-of-mouse-cortex-postsynaptic-density-following-neonatal-brain-hypoxia-ischemia
#4
Guo Shao, Yongqiang Wang, Shenheng Guan, Alma L Burlingame, Fuxin Lu, Renatta Knox, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
Proteomics of the synapses and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) have provided a deep understanding of protein composition and signal networks in the adult brain, which underlie neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the architecture and organization of PSDs in the immature brain, and how it is modified by brain injury in an early developing stage. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis was performed on PSDs prepared from cortices of postnatal day 9 naïve mice or pups which had suffered hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303140/netosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Enrica Caterina Pietronigro, Vittorina Della Bianca, Elena Zenaro, Gabriela Constantin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive deterioration of cognitive functions. Its neuropathological features include amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, and the loss of neurons and synapses. Neuroinflammation is a well-established feature of AD pathogenesis, and a better understanding of its mechanisms could facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches. Recent studies in transgenic mouse models of AD have shown that neutrophils adhere to blood vessels and migrate inside the parenchyma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301776/neurotransmitter-switching-in-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#6
Nicholas C Spitzer
Neurotransmitter switching is the gain of one neurotransmitter and the loss of another in the same neuron in response to chronic stimulation. Neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic cells change to match the identity of the newly expressed neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitter switching often appears to change the sign of the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or from inhibitory to excitatory. In these cases, neurotransmitter switching and receptor matching thus change the polarity of the circuit in which they take place...
March 6, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301408/k-cl-cotransporter-2-mediated-cl-extrusion-determines-developmental-stage-dependent-impact-of-propofol-anesthesia-on-dendritic-spines
#7
Martin Puskarjov, Hubert Fiumelli, Adrian Briner, Timea Bodogan, Kornel Demeter, Claudia-Marvine Lacoh, Martina Mavrovic, Peter Blaesse, Kai Kaila, Laszlo Vutskits
BACKGROUND: General anesthetics potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated signaling are known to induce a persistent decrement in excitatory synapse number in the cerebral cortex when applied during early postnatal development, while an opposite action is produced at later stages. Here, the authors test the hypothesis that the effect of general anesthetics on synaptogenesis depends upon the efficacy of GABA receptor type A (GABAA)-mediated inhibition controlled by the developmental up-regulation of the potassium-chloride (K-Cl) cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
March 16, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298885/functional-roles-of-the-interaction-of-app-and-lipoprotein-receptors
#8
REVIEW
Theresa Pohlkamp, Catherine R Wasser, Joachim Herz
The biological fates of the key initiator of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and a family of lipoprotein receptors, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related proteins (LRPs) and their molecular roles in the neurodegenerative disease process are inseparably interwoven. Not only does APP bind tightly to the extracellular domains (ECDs) of several members of the LRP group, their intracellular portions are also connected through scaffolds like the one established by FE65 proteins and through interactions with adaptor proteins such as X11/Mint and Dab1...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297673/%C3%AE-protocadherins-interact-with-neuroligin-1-and-negatively-regulate-dendritic-spine-morphogenesis
#9
Michael J Molumby, Rachel M Anderson, Dillan J Newbold, Norah K Koblesky, Andrew M Garrett, Dietmar Schreiner, Jason J Radley, Joshua A Weiner
The 22 γ-Protocadherin (γ-Pcdh) cell adhesion molecules are critical for the elaboration of complex dendritic arbors in the cerebral cortex. Here, we provide evidence that the γ-Pcdhs negatively regulate synapse development by inhibiting the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin-1 (Nlg1). Mice lacking all γ-Pcdhs in the forebrain exhibit significantly increased dendritic spine density in vivo, while spine density is significantly decreased in mice overexpressing one of the 22 γ-Pcdh isoforms...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297658/multiscale-modeling-of-complex-formation-and-cd80-depletion-during-immune-synapse-development
#10
István P Sugár, Jayajit Das, Ciriyam Jayaprakash, Stuart C Sealfon
The mechanisms that discriminate self- and foreign antigen before T cell activation are unresolved. As part of the immune system's adaptive response to specific infections or neoplasms, antigen-presenting cells (APC) and effector T cells form transcellular molecular complexes. CTLA4 expression on regulatory or effector T cells reduces T cell activation. The CTLA4 transendocytosis hypothesis proposes that CTLA4 depletes CD80 and CD86 proteins from the APC membrane, rendering the APC incapable of activating T cells...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295344/connectomics-of-synaptic-microcircuits-lessons-from-the-outer-retina
#11
Luke Edward Rogerson, Christian Behrens, Thomas Euler, Philipp Berens, Timm Schubert
Photoreceptors form a sophisticated synaptic complex with bipolar and horizontal cells, transmitting the signals generated by the phototransduction cascade to downstream retinal circuitry. The cone photoreceptor synapse shows several characteristic anatomical connectivity motifs that shape signal transfer: Typically, ON-cone bipolar cells receive photoreceptor input through invaginating synapses; OFF-cone bipolar cells form basal synapses with photoreceptors. Both ON- and OFF-cone bipolar cells are believed to sample from all cone photoreceptors within their dendritic span...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288671/microglia-derived-il-1%C3%AE-contributes-to-axon-development-disorders-and-synaptic-deficit-through-p38-mapk-signal-pathway-in-septic-neonatal-rats
#12
Qianpeng Han, Qiongyu Lin, Peixian Huang, Mengmeng Chen, Xin Hu, Hui Fu, Shaoru He, Fengcai Shen, Hongke Zeng, Yiyu Deng
BACKGROUND: Axon development plays a pivotal role in the formation of synapse, nodes of Ranvier, and myelin sheath. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) produced by microglia may cause myelination disturbances through suppression of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation in the septic neonatal rats. Here, we explored if a microglia-derived IL-1β would disturb axon development in the corpus callosum (CC) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, and if so, whether it is associated with disorder of synapse formation in the cerebral cortex and node of Ranvier...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288102/a-fret-sensor-enables-quantitative-measurements-of-membrane-charges-in-live-cells
#13
Yuanqing Ma, Yui Yamamoto, Philip R Nicovich, Jesse Goyette, Jérémie Rossy, J Justin Gooding, Katharina Gaus
Membrane charge has a critical role in protein trafficking and signaling. However, quantification of the effective electrostatic potential of cellular membranes has remained challenging. We developed a fluorescence membrane charge sensor (MCS) that reports changes in the membrane charge of live cells via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). MCS is permanently attached to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and shows a linear, reversible and fast response to changes of the electrostatic potential...
March 13, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287145/hyaluronan-synthesis-by-developing-cortical-neurons-in-vitro
#14
Tania M Fowke, Rashika N Karunasinghe, Ji-Zhong Bai, Shawn Jordan, Alistair J Gunn, Justin M Dean
Hyaluronan is a linear glycosaminoglycan that forms the backbone of perineuronal nets around neurons in the cerebral cortex. However, it remains controversial whether neurons are capable of independent hyaluronan synthesis. Herein, we examined the expression of hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthases (HASs) throughout cortical neuron development in vitro. Enriched cultures of cortical neurons were established from E16 rats. Neurons were collected at days in vitro (DIV) 0 (4 h), 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for qPCR or immunocytochemistry...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286470/screening-the-molecular-framework-underlying-local-dendritic-mrna-translation
#15
REVIEW
Sanjeev V Namjoshi, Kimberly F Raab-Graham
In the last decade, bioinformatic analyses of high-throughput proteomics and transcriptomics data have enabled researchers to gain insight into the molecular networks that may underlie lasting changes in synaptic efficacy. Development and utilization of these techniques have advanced the field of learning and memory significantly. It is now possible to move from the study of activity-dependent changes of a single protein to modeling entire network changes that require local protein synthesis. This data revolution has necessitated the development of alternative computational and statistical techniques to analyze and understand the patterns contained within...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286129/fret-based-sensors-unravel-activation-and-allosteric-modulation-of-the-gabab-receptor
#16
Nathalie Lecat-Guillet, Carine Monnier, Xavier Rovira, Julie Kniazeff, Laurent Lamarque, Jurriaan M Zwier, Eric Trinquet, Jean-Philippe Pin, Philippe Rondard
The main inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), modulates many synapses by activating the G protein-coupled receptor GABAB, which is a target for various therapeutic applications. It is an obligatory heterodimer made of GB1 and GB2 that can be regulated by positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). The molecular mechanism of activation of the GABAB receptor remains poorly understood. Here, we have developed FRET-based conformational GABAB sensors compatible with high-throughput screening. We identified conformational changes occurring within the extracellular and transmembrane domains upon receptor activation, which are smaller than those observed in the related metabotropic glutamate receptors...
March 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285823/input-specific-plasticity-and-homeostasis-at-the-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junction
#17
Zachary L Newman, Adam Hoagland, Krishan Aghi, Kurtresha Worden, Sabrina L Levy, Jun Ho Son, Luke P Lee, Ehud Y Isacoff
Synaptic connections undergo activity-dependent plasticity during development and learning, as well as homeostatic re-adjustment to ensure stability. Little is known about the relationship between these processes, particularly in vivo. We addressed this with novel quantal resolution imaging of transmission during locomotive behavior at glutamatergic synapses of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. We find that two motor input types, Ib and Is, provide distinct forms of excitatory drive during crawling and differ in key transmission properties...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284905/embryonic-mosaic-deletion-of-app-results-in-displaced-reelin-expressing-cells-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#18
D G Callahan, W M Taylor, M Tilearcio, T Cavanaugh, D J Selkoe, T L Young-Pearse
It is widely accepted that amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, APP has been proposed to have functions in numerous biological processes including neuronal proliferation, differentiation, migration, axon guidance, and neurite outgrowth, as well as in synapse formation and function. However, germline knockout of APP yields relatively subtle phenotypes, and brain development appears grossly normal. This is thought to be due in part to functional compensation by APP family members and other type I transmembrane proteins...
March 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284900/crosstalk-between-glia-extracellular-matrix-and-neurons
#19
Inseon Song, Alexander Dityatev
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in the central nervous system form highly organized ECM structures around cell somata, axon initial segments, and synapses and play prominent roles in early development by guiding cell migration, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, and by regulating closure of the critical period of development, synaptic plasticity and stability, cognitive flexibility, and axonal regeneration in adults. Major components of neural ECM, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), tenascin-R and hyaluronic acid, are synthesized by both neurons and glial cells...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284708/visual-experience-regulates-the-development-of-long-term-synaptic-modifications-induced-by-low-frequency-stimulation-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#20
Taketoshi Sugimura, Mariko Yamamoto, Kazumasa Yamada, Yukio Komatsu, Yumiko Yoshimura
Manipulation of visual experience can considerably modify visual responses of visual cortical neurons even in adulthood in the mouse, although the modification is less profound than that observed during the critical period. Our previous studies demonstrated that low-frequency (2Hz) stimulation for 15minutes applied to layer 4 induces T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory synapses in layer 2/3 neurons of visual cortex during the critical period. In this study, we investigated whether low-frequency stimulation could induce synaptic plasticity in adult mice...
March 8, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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