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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228003/a-mig-15-jnk-1-map-kinase-cascade-opposes-rpm-1-signaling-in-synapse-formation-and-learning
#1
Oliver Crawley, Andrew C Giles, Muriel Desbois, Sudhanva Kashyap, Rayna Birnbaum, Brock Grill
The Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR) proteins are conserved intracellular signaling hubs that regulate synapse formation and axon termination. The C. elegans PHR protein, called RPM-1, acts as a ubiquitin ligase to inhibit the DLK-1 and MLK-1 MAP kinase pathways. We have identified several kinases that are likely to form a new MAP kinase pathway that suppresses synapse formation defects, but not axon termination defects, in the mechanosensory neurons of rpm-1 mutants. This pathway includes: MIG-15 (MAP4K), NSY-1 (MAP3K), JKK-1 (MAP2K) and JNK-1 (MAPK)...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222951/neuronal-pas-domain-protein-4-npas4-controls-neuronal-homeostasis-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-through-the-induction-of-homer1a
#2
Wei Shan, Taku Nagai, Motoki Tanaka, Norimichi Itoh, Yoko Furukawa-Hibi, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Masahiro Sokabe, Kiyofumi Yamada
Neuronal intrinsic homeostatic scaling-down of excitatory synapse has been implicated in epilepsy pathogenesis to prevent the neuronal circuits from hyper-excitability. Recent findings suggest a role for neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), an activity-dependent neuron-specific transcription factor in epileptogenesis, however, the underlying mechanism by which Npas4 regulates epilepsy remains unclear. We herein propose that limbic seizure activity up-regulates Npas4-homer1a signaling in the hippocampus, thereby contributing to epileptogenesis in mice...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222785/neuronal-cell-morphology-in-primary-cerebellar-granule-cells-using-high-content-analysis
#3
Nicholas Radio, Steven Frank
Neurite outgrowth, one of the underlying cellular processes that defines the development and functionality of the mammalian nervous system, is also a sensitive indicator of neuronal cell health. From screening libraries of putative neurotherapeutic compounds to analyzing the millions of environmental pollutants for which we have inadequate neurotoxicity safety data, the large volume of chemical compounds that require evaluation is a major obstacle for manual imaging and analysis methods. In this context, high-content analysis (HCA) has emerged as a sensitive and accurate method for detecting changes in neuronal cell morphology within a format applicable to screening large chemical libraries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221907/coupling-of-exocytosis-and-endocytosis-at-the-presynaptic-active-zone
#4
REVIEW
Tanja Maritzen, Volker Haucke
Brain function depends on the ability of neurons to communicate with each other via the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized presynaptic release sites termed active zones (AZs). The presynaptic AZ comprises an assembly of large multidomain proteins that link the machinery for vesicle fusion to sites of voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry. Following SV fusion at AZ release sites SV membranes are retrieved by compensatory endocytosis, and SVs are reformed. Recent data suggest that Ca2+-triggered SV exocytosis at AZs and endocytic retrieval of SVs may be functionally and physically linked...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219210/bioenergetic-regulation-of-microglia
#5
REVIEW
Soumitra Ghosh, Erika Castillo, Elma S Frias, Raymond A Swanson
Microglia have diverse actions, ranging from synapse pruning in development to cytotoxic effects in disease. Brain energy metabolism and substrate availability vary under normal and disease states, but how these variations influence microglial function is relatively unknown. Microglia, like most other cell types, express the full complement of gene products required for both glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. Evidence suggests that microglia increase aerobic glycolysis and decrease respiration when activated by various stimuli...
December 8, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218821/activity-dependent-control-of-nmda-receptor-subunit-composition-at-hippocampal-mossy-fibre-synapses
#6
Mario Carta, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Adam Gorlewicz, Nelson Rebola, Christophe Mulle
Single neurons express NMDARs with distinct subunit composition and biophysical properties which can be segregated in an input-specific manner. The dynamic control of the heterogeneous distribution of synaptic NMDARs is crucial to control input-dependent synaptic integration and plasticity. In hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells (CA3 PCs) from mice of both sexes, we found that mossy fibre (Mf) synapses display a markedly lower proportion of GluN2B containing NMDARs than associative/commissural synapses. The mechanism involved in such heterogeneous distribution of GluN2B subunits is not known...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218745/expression-of-the-potassium-chloride-co-transporter-kcc2-within-the-avian-song-system
#7
Christopher E Vaaga, Kimberly E Miller, Agnes L Bodor, David J Perkel
Songbirds learn to produce vocalizations early in life by listening to, then copying the songs of conspecific males. The anterior forebrain pathway, homologous to a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit, is essential for song learning. The projection between the striato-pallidal structure, Area X, and the medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamic nucleus (DLM) is strongly hyperpolarizing in adults, due to a very negative chloride reversal potential (Person and Perkel, 2005). The chloride reversal potential is determined, in part, by the expression level of a neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter, KCC2, which is developmentally upregulated in mammals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218323/sap97-binding-partner-cript-promotes-dendrite-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Lei Zhang, Angela Marie Jablonski, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Hua Ding, Steven Seeholzer, Ian Paterson Newton, Inke Nathke, Rachael Neve, JinBin Zhai, Yuan Shang, Mingjie Zhang, Robert Gordon Kalb
The dendritic tree is a key determinant of neuronal information processing. In the motor system, the dendritic tree of spinal cord neurons undergoes dramatic remodeling in an activity-dependent manner during early postnatal life. This leads to the proper segmental spinal cord connectivity that subserves normal locomotor behavior. One molecular system driving the establishment of dendrite architecture of mammalian motor neurons relies on AMPA receptors (AMPA-Rs) assembled with the GluA1 subunit, and this occurs in an NMDA receptor (NMDA-R)-independent manner...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218002/xenopus-laevis-as-a-model-organism-for-the-study-of-spinal-cord-formation-development-function-and-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Laura N Borodinsky
The spinal cord is the first central nervous system structure to develop during vertebrate embryogenesis, underscoring its importance to the organism. Because of its early formation, accessibility to the developing spinal cord in amniotes is challenging, often invasive and the experimental approaches amenable to model systems like mammals are limited. In contrast, amphibians, in general and the African-clawed frog Xenopus laevis, in particular, offer model systems in which the formation of the spinal cord, the differentiation of spinal neurons and glia and the establishment of spinal neuron and neuromuscular synapses can be easily investigated with minimal perturbations to the whole organism...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218000/synapse-specific-regulation-revealed-at-single-synapses-is-concealed-when-recording-multiple-synapses
#10
Justin Lines, Ana Covelo, Ricardo Gómez, Lan Liu, Alfonso Araque
Synaptic transmission and its activity-dependent modulation, known as synaptic plasticity, are fundamental processes in nervous system function. Neurons may receive thousands of synaptic contacts, but synaptic regulation may occur only at individual or discrete subsets of synapses, which may have important consequences on the spatial extension of the modulation of synaptic information. Moreover, while several electrophysiological methods are used to assess synaptic transmission at different levels of observation, i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215865/identification-of-fluorescent-small-molecule-compounds-for-synaptic-labeling-by-image-based-high-content-screening
#11
Matthew Dunn, Umed Boltaev, Anne Beskow, Sergey Pampou, Ronald Realubit, Torcato Meira, João Vaz Silva, Rose Reeb, Charles Karan, Steffen Jockusch, David Sulzer, Young-Tae Chang, Dalibor Sames, Clarissa Waites
Few tools are available for non-invasive imaging of synapses in the living mammalian brain. Current paradigms require the use of genetically modified mice or viral delivery of genetic material to the brain. To develop an alternative chemical approach, utilizing the recognition of synaptic components by organic small molecules, we designed an imaging-based, high-content screen in cultured cortical neurons to identify molecules based on their colocalization with fluorescently-tagged synaptic proteins. We used this approach to screen a library of ~7,000 novel fluorescent dyes, and identified a series of compounds in the xanthone family that exhibited consistent synaptic labeling...
December 7, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215028/effect-of-canola-oil-consumption-on-memory-synapse-and-neuropathology-in-the-triple-transgenic%C3%A2-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Elisabetta Lauretti, Domenico Praticò
In recent years consumption of canola oil has increased due to lower cost compared with olive oil and the perception that it shares its health benefits. However, no data are available on the effect of canola oil intake on Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Herein, we investigated the effect of chronic daily consumption of canola oil on the phenotype of a mouse model of AD that develops both plaques and tangles (3xTg). To this end mice received either regular chow or a chow diet supplemented with canola oil for 6 months...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215006/stateful-characterization-of-resistive-switching-tio2-with-electron-beam-induced-currents
#13
Brian D Hoskins, Gina C Adam, Evgheni Strelcov, Nikolai Zhitenev, Andrei Kolmakov, Dmitri B Strukov, Jabez J McClelland
Metal oxide resistive switches are increasingly important as possible artificial synapses in next-generation neuromorphic networks. Nevertheless, there is still no codified set of tools for studying properties of the devices. To this end, we demonstrate electron beam-induced current measurements as a powerful method to monitor the development of local resistive switching in TiO2-based devices. By comparing beam energy-dependent electron beam-induced currents with Monte Carlo simulations of the energy absorption in different device layers, it is possible to deconstruct the origins of filament image formation and relate this to both morphological changes and the state of the switch...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214114/calcium-dysregulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-target-for-new-drug-development
#14
Yong Wang, Yun Shi, Huafeng Wei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia among aged people whose population is rapidly increasing. AD not only seriously affects the patient's physical health and quality of life, but also adds a heavy burden to the patient's family and society. It is urgent to understand AD pathogenesis and develop the means of prevention and treatment. AD is a chronic devastating neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. Current approaches for management focus on helping patients relieve or delay the symptoms of cognitive dysfunction...
August 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212956/icam1-neutrophils-promote-chronic-inflammation-via-asprv1-in-b-cell-dependent-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#15
Ryder F Whittaker Hawkins, Alexandre Patenaude, Aline Dumas, Rajiv Jain, Yodit Tesfagiorgis, Steven Kerfoot, Takeshi Matsui, Matthias Gunzer, Patrice E Poubelle, Catherine Larochelle, Martin Pelletier, Luc Vallières
Neutrophils contribute to demyelinating autoimmune diseases, yet their phenotype and functions have been elusive to date. Here, we demonstrate that ICAM1 surface expression distinguishes extra- from intravascular neutrophils in the mouse CNS during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Transcriptomic analysis of these 2 subpopulations indicated that neutrophils, once extravasated, acquire macrophage-like properties, including the potential for immunostimulation and MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212945/refining-the-roles-of-neuroligins-in-synapse-development-and-function-a-reductionist-conditional-knock-out-approach
#16
Hunter S Shaw, Christopher K Salmon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212915/altered-synaptic-transmission-and-maturation-of-hippocampal-ca1-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-human-chr16p11-2-microdeletion
#17
Hung-Chi Lu, Alea A Mills, Di Tian
The pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is often expressed early in infancy and toddlerhood. Mouse models of syndromic disorders have provided insight regarding mechanisms of action, but most studies have focused on characterization in juveniles and adults. Insight into developmental trajectories, particularly related to circuit and synaptic function, likely will yield important information regarding disorder pathogenesis that leads to symptom progression. Chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion is one of the most common copy number variations associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212017/control-of-huntington-s-disease-associated-phenotypes-by-the-striatum-enriched-transcription-factor-foxp2
#18
Lea J Hachigian, Vitor Carmona, Robert J Fenster, Ruth Kulicke, Adrian Heilbut, Annie Sittler, Luís Pereira de Almeida, Jill P Mesirov, Fan Gao, Eric D Kolaczyk, Myriam Heiman
Alteration of corticostriatal glutamatergic function is an early pathophysiological change associated with Huntington's disease (HD). The factors that regulate the maintenance of corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses post-developmentally are not well understood. Recently, the striatum-enriched transcription factor Foxp2 was implicated in the development of these synapses. Here, we show that, in mice, overexpression of Foxp2 in the adult striatum of two models of HD leads to rescue of HD-associated behaviors, while knockdown of Foxp2 in wild-type mice leads to development of HD-associated behaviors...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211935/a-simple-twist-of-phosphate-immunological-synapse-formation-and-t-cell-receptor-signaling-outcome-in-regulatory-t-cells
#19
Talal A Chatila, Raffaele De Palma
Signaling through the T cell receptor (TCR) regulates T cell homeostasis and effector functions. However, a full accounting of the TCR-coupled signaling networks and how their interplay determines specific functional outcomes remains elusive. Of particular interest are efforts over the last years to elucidate distinctive features of TCR signaling in regulatory T cells (Treg) that may account for some of their unique functional attributes as compared to conventional T (Tconv) cells. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, van Ham et al...
December 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209001/remote-tactile-sensing-system-integrated-with-magnetic-synapse
#20
Sunjong Oh, Youngdo Jung, Seonggi Kim, SungJoon Kim, Xinghao Hu, Hyuneui Lim, CheolGi Kim
Mechanoreceptors in a fingertip convert external tactile stimulations into electrical signals, which are transmitted by the nervous system through synaptic transmitters and then perceived by the brain with high accuracy and reliability. Inspired by the human synapse system, this paper reports a robust tactile sensing system consisting of a remote touch tip and a magnetic synapse. External pressure on the remote touch tip is transferred in the form of air pressure to the magnetic synapse, where its variation is converted into electrical signals...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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