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multi-drug resistant bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051652/making-good-use-of-the-byproducts-of-cultivation-green-synthesis-and-antibacterial-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-the-leaf-extract-of-blueberry
#1
Kun Li, Chenyu Ma, Tiancai Jian, Hushan Sun, Lei Wang, Hui Xu, Weihuan Li, Hongyan Su, Xianhao Cheng
In this study, we made an effort to use blueberry leaves extract as a reducing and a capping agent to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The successful formation of AgNPs was confirmed with UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activities against four kinds of multi drug resistant clinical pathogens and aquatic pathogens were investigated. The results showed that as-prepared AgNPs exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activities...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031077/4-quinolone-hybrids-and-their-antibacterial-activities
#2
Yuan-Qiang Hu, Shu Zhang, Zhi Xu, Zao-Sheng Lv, Ming-Liang Liu, Lian-Shun Feng
The emergence and wide-spread of drug-resistant bacteria including multi-drug resistant and pan-drug resistant pathogens which are associated with considerable mortality, represent a significant global health threat. 4-Quinolones which are exemplified by fluoroquinolones are the second largest chemotherapy agents used in clinical practice for the treatment of various bacterial infections. However, the resistance of bacteria to 4-quinolones develops rapidly and spreads widely throughout the world due to the long-term, inappropriate use and even abuse...
September 28, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030312/antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-thai-fermented-pork-in-chiang-rai-province-thailand
#3
Kamonnaree Chotinantakul, Nittaya Chansiw, Seiji Okada
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of resistant phenotypes and genes of Enterococcus spp. to explore the range of resistant profiles from Thai traditional fermented pork. METHODS: A total of 120 Thai fermented pork specimens in Chiang Rai, Thailand were collected and antimicrobial resistance was identified using 11 antimicrobial agents in enterococcal isolates, via an agar disk diffusion method. The antibiotic resistant genes from resistant phenotypes and virulence genes were observed...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028315/nanoparticles-of-short-cationic-peptidopolysaccharide-self-assembled-by-hydrogen-bonding-with-antibacterial-effect-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#4
Zheng Hou, Yogesh Vikhe Shankar, Yang Liu, Feiqing Ding, Jothy Lachumy Subramanion, Vikashini Ravikumar, Rubí Zamudio-Vázquez, Damien Keogh, Huiwen Lim, Moon Yue Feng Tay, Surajit Bhattacharjya, Scott A Rice, Jian Shi, Hongwei Duan, Xue-Wei Liu, Yuguang Mu, Nguan Soon Tan, Kam Michael Chiu Tam, Kevin Pethe, Mary B Chan-Park
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and polymers are active against many multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria but only a limited number of these compounds are in clinical use due to their unselective toxicity. The typical strategy for achieving selective antibacterial efficacy with low mammalian cell toxicity is through balancing the ratio of cationicity to hydrophobicity. Herein, we report a cationic nanoparticle self-assembled from chitosan-graft-oligolysine (CSM5-K5) chains with ultra-low molecular weight (1450 Daltons) that selectively kills bacteria...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025364/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-parameters-for-treatment-optimization-of-infection-due-to-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-a-summary-for-practical-purposes-in-children-and-adults
#5
Giulia Gustinetti, Giuliana Cangemi, Roberto Bandettini, Elio Castagnola
In the last years, there has been a tremendous increase in the incidence of bacterial infections due to resistant strains, especially multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli. In Europe, a north to south and a west to east gradient was noticed, with more than one third of the K. pneumonia isolates being resistant to carbapenems in few countries. New antibiotics are lacking and, as a consequence, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters, normalized to pathogen minimal inhibitory concentration, are used with increased frequency to treat infections due to difficult-to-treat pathogens...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023413/diallylthiosulfinate-allicin-a-volatile-antimicrobial-from-garlic-allium-sativum-kills-human-lung-pathogenic-bacteria-including-mdr-strains-as-a-vapor
#6
Jana Reiter, Natalja Levina, Mark van der Linden, Martin Gruhlke, Christian Martin, Alan J Slusarenko
Garlic (Allium sativum) has potent antimicrobial activity due to allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) synthesized by enzyme catalysis in damaged garlic tissues. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor and its volatility makes it potentially useful for combating lung infections. Allicin was synthesized (>98% pure) by oxidation of diallyl disulfide by H₂O₂ using formic acid as a catalyst and the growth inhibitory effect of allicin vapor and allicin in solution to clinical isolates of lung pathogenic bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus, including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, was demonstrated...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023034/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-different-clinical-sources-in-al-najaf-province-iraq
#7
Ahmed Abduljabbar Jaloob Aljanaby, Haneen Mohammed Reda Jaber Alhasnawi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Burns infections and urinary tract infections are the most important prevalent diseases in Asian countries, such as Iraq. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important bacteria cause this type of infections especially in hospitals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multi-drug resistance K. pneumoniae and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing K. pneumoniae isolates from inpatients with urinary tract infection and burns infections in Al-Kufa hospital in Al-Najaf province, Iraq...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021722/bacterial-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profile-and-the-prevalence-of-sepsis-among-burn-patients-at-the-burn-unit-of-cipto-mangunkusumo-hospital
#8
A Wardhana, R Djan, Z Halim
Infection is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among burn patients. An effective measure to reduce infection is routine monitoring of bacterial infection and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns at the burn unit. This will help to create a burn centre-specific empirical antibiotic therapy protocol. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM) Burn Unit between September-November 2016. Data regarding bacterial culture isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility spectrum, and the number of burn patients diagnosed with sepsis were collected...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018426/transfer-and-persistence-of-a-multi-drug-resistance-plasmid-in-situ-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota-in-the-absence-of-antibiotic-treatment
#9
Heidi Gumpert, Jessica Z Kubicek-Sutherland, Andreas Porse, Nahid Karami, Christian Munck, Marius Linkevicius, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Agnes E Wold, Dan I Andersson, Morten O A Sommer
The microbial ecosystem residing in the human gut is believed to play an important role in horizontal exchange of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes that threatens human health. While the diversity of gut-microorganisms and their genetic content has been studied extensively, high-resolution insight into the plasticity, and selective forces shaping individual genomes is scarce. In a longitudinal study, we followed the dynamics of co-existing Escherichia coli lineages in an infant not receiving antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988774/competition-assays-between-esbl-producing-e-coli-and-k-pneumoniae-isolates-collected-from-lebanese-elderly-an-additional-cost-on-fitness
#10
Nourhane Hafza, Caren Challita, Iman Dandachi, Elias Dahdouh, Ziad Daoud
The dissemination of Multi Drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) is one of the major public health problems addressed nowadays. High fecal carriage rates of MDR Enterobacteriaceae were reported from Lebanese nursing homes. Studies have shown that the acquisition of resistance genes by bacteria might confer a fitness cost detected as a decrease in the frequency of these bacteria as compared to sensitive isolates. In this study, the competitive growth of MDR Enterobacteriaceae isolated from elderly is assessed. Sensitive and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were identified...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988505/clinical-and-pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-delafloxacin-for-the-treatment-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections
#11
Matteo Bassetti, Davide Pecori, Piergiorgio Cojutti, Federico Pea
In the era of multi-drug resistant pathogens, the adequate treatment of skin and skin structure infections remains a challenge for clinicians. Delafloxacin, with its broad spectrum against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic organisms, represents a new therapeutic option in this setting, especially when coverage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is required in the empirical or targeted approach. Areas covered: In this drug evaluation, the Authors have reviewed the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of delafloxacin...
October 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984234/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-produces-an-entc-dependent-catecholate-siderophore-that-is-distinct-from-enterobactin
#12
Megan Y Nas, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a Gram-negative, multi-drug-resistant bacterium, is increasingly recognized as a key opportunistic pathogen. Thus, we embarked upon an investigation of S. maltophilia iron acquisition. To begin, we determined that the genome of strain K279a is predicted to encode a complete siderophore system, including a biosynthesis pathway, an outer-membrane receptor for ferrisiderophore, and other import and export machinery. Compatible with these data, K279a and other clinical isolates of S...
October 6, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970096/epidemiology-and-microbiological-profile-comparison-between-community-and-hospital-acquired-infections-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-in-lebanon
#13
Roula Matta, Souheil Hallit, Rabih Hallit, Wafaa Bawab, Anne-Marie Rogues, Pascale Salameh
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to identify and characterize the species resistance of different pathogens between community acquired and hospital acquired infections pointing at patients' related independent co-morbidities and socio-demographic factors. METHODS: It was a retrospective cohort, multicenter study from five private hospitals located in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. Two hundred fifty-eight adult patients were included. RESULTS: 110 Gram negative pathogens and 26 Gram positive pathogens were implicated in hospital acquired infections...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968393/correlates-of-multi-drug-non-susceptibility-in-enteric-bacteria-isolated-from-kenyan-children-with-acute-diarrhea
#14
Rebecca L Brander, Judd L Walson, Grace C John-Stewart, Jacqueline M Naulikha, Janet Ndonye, Nancy Kipkemoi, Doreen Rwigi, Benson O Singa, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens treatment efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa, where data on the burden and correlates of antibiotic resistance among enteric pathogens are limited. METHODS: Fecal samples from children aged 6 mos-15 yrs presenting with acute diarrhea in western Kenya were cultured for bacterial pathogens. HIV-uninfected children with identified Shigella or Salmonella species or pathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC or EIEC) were included in this cross-sectional sub-study...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964884/a-cross-sectional-point-prevalence-survey-to-study-the-environmental-contamination-of-nosocomial-pathogens-in-intensive-care-units-under-real-life-conditions
#15
I Wille, A Mayr, P Kreidl, C Brühwasser, G Hinterberger, A Fritz, W Posch, S Fuchs, A Obwegeser, D Orth-Höller, C Lass-Flörl
BACKGROUND: In intensive care units (ICUs) inanimate surfaces and equipment may be contaminated by nosocomial pathogens, including multi-drug resistant microorganisms. AIMS: To assess the degree of patients' close and distant environmental contamination including healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands with nosocomial pathogens under real life situations and to investigate potential transmission events. METHODS: For the course of three weeks agar contact samples were taken close and distant to the patient area and from HCWs' hands in eight ICUs of a tertiary care hospital in Innsbruck, Austria...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964812/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-bacteriophage-and-its-utilization-against-multi-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-2995
#16
Muhsin Jamal, Saadia Andleeb, Fazal Jalil, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Tahir Hussain, Muhammad Ali, Chythanya Rajanna Das
AIMS: To identify, isolate, and characterize a lytic bacteriophage against the multiple-drug resistant clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-2995 and to determine the phage efficacy against the bacterial planktonic cells and the biofilm. MAIN METHODS: Wastewater was used to isolate a bacteriophage. The phage was characterized with Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) was used to identify the expressed proteins...
September 27, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962863/polymyxin-susceptibility-testing-interpretative-breakpoints-and-resistance-mechanism-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Indranil Biswas, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogens is a great threat. Polymyxin, an old cationic polypeptide, is considered as the last resort drug in treating infections associated with MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Increased use of polymyxins in treating critical patient necessitates, routine testing of polymyxins. However, susceptibility testing of both colistin and polymyxin B are challenging. Currently, available susceptibility testing methods are briefly discussed in this review. The multicomponent composition of colistin and polymyxin B influences significantly the susceptibility testing...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961485/the-development-and-validation-of-a-simple-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-polymyxin-b1-and-b2-quantification-in-different-matrices
#18
Jenna Covelli, Donna Ruszaj, Robert Straubinger, Jian Li, Gauri G Rao
Polymyxin B has resurfaced as a last-line treatment for multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Accurate characterization and quantification of polymyxin B components is necessary to optimize this therapy. We developed and validated a robust, straightforward LC-MS/MS method to quantify polymyxin B1 and B2, the primary polymyxin B components, in various matrices (cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB), human and rat plasma). Of sample preparation approaches investigated, two protein precipitation/extraction methods were developed as part of an analytical strategy based upon reverse-phase LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization in positive multiple-reaction monitoring mode...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955612/endophytic-bacteria-a-new-source-of-bioactive-compounds
#19
REVIEW
Monika Singh, Ajay Kumar, Ritu Singh, Kapil Deo Pandey
In recent years, bioactive compounds are in high demand in the pharmaceuticals and naturopathy, due to their health benefits to human and plants. Microorganisms synthesize these compounds and some enzymes either alone or in association with plants. Microbes residing inside the plant tissues, known as endophytes, also produce an array of these compounds. Endophytic actinomycetes act as a promising resource of biotechnologically valuable bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites. Endophytic Streptomyces sp...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951954/evolution-of-structural-fitness-and-multifunctional-aspects-of-mycobacterial-rnd-family-transporters
#20
REVIEW
Padmani Sandhu, Yusuf Akhter
Drug resistance is a major concern due to the evolution and emergence of pathogenic bacterial strains with novel strategies to resist the antibiotics in use. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of such pathogens with reported strains, which are not treatable with any of the available anti-TB drugs. This scenario has led to the need to look for some novel drug targets in Mtb, which may be exploited to design effective treatment strategies against the infection. The goal of this review is to discuss one such class of emerging drug targets in Mtb...
September 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
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