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multi-drug resistant bacteria

Roya Chegene Lorestani, Alisha Akya, Azam Elahi, Yazdan Hamzavi
Background and Objectives: Integrons play a major role in the transmission and accumulation of resistance factors in multidrug resistant bacteria. This study was aimed to evaluate the gene cassettes of class I integron and antimicrobial resistance in isolates of Citrobacter with multidrug resistance (MDR). Materials and Methods: Ninety isolates of Citrobacter spp. were collected from the largest hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. Antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using disc diffusion method...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Annabelle C Lee, Andrew L Jones
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is associated with a decline in lung function and overall poorer prognosis in the cystic fibrosis population. Molecular typing of P. aeruginosa has identified multiple clonal strains with increased virulence and transmissibility. P. aeruginosa ST235 is an emerging clonal strain with multi-drug resistance and is associated with more virulent infections. Novel cephalosporins, which have recently been introduced to clinical practice, may have higher efficacy against multi-drug resistant bacteria...
May 18, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Eric R Ocheretyaner, Tae Eun Park
The resistance to current antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, has continued to grow among various pathogens indicating a need for new antimicrobials to combat multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. In June 2017, delafloxacin received approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in adults caused by designated susceptible bacteria. Areas covered: This review describes the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, product information, efficacy, and safety of delafloxacin...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Philip C Andrews, Melissa Werrett, Megan Herdman, Rajini Brammananth, Uthpala Garusinghe, Warren Batchelor, Paul Crellin, Ross Coppel
A series of poorly soluble phenyl bis-phosphinato bismuth(III) complexes [BiPh(OP(=O)R1R2)2] (R1 = R2 = Ph; R1 = R2 = p-OMePh; R1 = R2 = m-NO2Ph; R1 = Ph, R2 = H; R1 = R2 = Me) have been synthesised and characterised, and shown to have effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The bismuth complexes were incorporated into microfibrillated (nano-) cellulose generating a bismuth-cellulose composite as paper sheets...
June 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jianghua Li, Kaixi Zhang, Lin Ruan, Seow Fong Chin, Nirmani Wickramasinghe, Hanbin Liu, Vikashini Ravikumar, Jinghua Ren, Hongwei Duan, Liang Yang, Mary B Chan-Park
Biofilms and rapid evolution of multi-drug resistance complicate the treatment of bacterial infections. Antibiofilm agents such as metallic/inorganic nanoparticles or peptides act by exerting anti-bacterial effects and hence do not combat biofilms of antibiotics-resistant strains. In this paper we show that the block copolymer DA95B5, dextran-block-poly((3-acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (AMPTMA)-co-butyl methacrylate (BMA)), effectively removes preformed biofilms of various clinically relevant multi-drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE V583) and Enteroccocus faecalis (OG1RF)...
June 14, 2018: Nano Letters
Fernando Santos-Beneit
BACKGROUND: Glycopeptide antibiotics inhibit bacterial cell-wall synthesis, and are important for the treatment of infections caused by multi drug-resistant strains of enterococci, streptococci and staphylococci. The main mechanism by which bacteria resist the action of glycopeptides is by producing a modified cell-wall in which the dipeptide D-Alanine-D-Alanine is substituted by D-Alanine-D-Lactate or D-Alanine-D-Serine. Recently, it has been shown that inorganic phosphate (Pi) induces hypersensitivity to vancomycin in Streptomyces coelicolor (which is highly resistant to the antibiotic in low-Pi media)...
June 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
Simone B Schmidt, Melanie Boltzmann, Markus Bertram, Christoph Bucka, Michael Hartwich, Michael Jöbges, Guido Ketter, Bernd Leineweber, Marion Mertl-Rötzer, Dennis A Nowak, Thomas Platz, Klaus Scheidtmann, Randall Thomas, Friedrich von Rosen, Claus W Wallesch, Hartwig Woldag, Peter Peschel, Jan Mehrholz, Marcus Pohl, Jens D Rollnik
BACKGROUND: Studies analyzing risk factors of weaning failure in neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation (NNER) patients are rare. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors influencing the weaning of NNER patients. DESIGN: An observational, retrospective data analysis of a German multi-center study was performed. POPULATION: Inpatient ventilated NNER patients (n=192) were enrolled in the study...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Norhan Mahfouz, Serena Caucci, Eric Achatz, Torsten Semmler, Sebastian Guenther, Thomas U Berendonk, Michael Schroeder
Wastewater treatment plants play an important role in the emergence of antibiotic resistance. They provide a hot spot for exchange of resistance within and between species. Here, we analyse and quantify the genomic diversity of the indicator Escherichia coli in a German wastewater treatment plant and we relate it to isolates' antibiotic resistance. Our results show a surprisingly large pan-genome, which mirrors how rich an environment a treatment plant is. We link the genomic analysis to a phenotypic resistance screen and pinpoint genomic hot spots, which correlate with a resistance phenotype...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuxiang Zhang, Ping Huang, Dong Wang, Jincan Chen, Wenzhen Liu, Ping Hu, Mingdong Huang, Xueyuan Chen, Zhuo Chen
An alarming worldwide increase in microbial resistance to traditional drugs and classical pharmacophores has spurred the search for new antimicrobial compounds. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has recently emerged as an effective modality for the selective destruction of bacteria and other pathogenic microorganisms. However, some of the factors, including the aggregation of the hydrophobic photosensitizer (PS) in aqueous media and the inefficient biodistribution of PS limit its expansion to clinical conditions...
June 8, 2018: Nanoscale
Abigail L Reens, Amy L Crooks, Chih-Chia Su, Toni A Nagy, David L Reens, Jessica D Podoll, Madeline E Edwards, Edward W Yu, Corrella S Detweiler
Bacterial efflux pumps transport small molecules from the cytoplasm or periplasm outside the cell. Efflux pump activity is typically increased in multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens; chemicals that inhibit efflux pumps may have potential for antibiotic development. Using an in-cell screen, we identified three efflux pump modulators (EPMs) from a drug diversity library. The screening platform uses macrophages infected with the human Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) to identify small molecules that prevent bacterial replication or survival within the host environment...
June 7, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Clara I Colino, Carmen Gutiérrez Millán, José M Lanao
Advances in nanoparticle-based systems constitute a promising research area with important implications for the treatment of bacterial infections, especially against multidrug resistant strains and bacterial biofilms. Nanosystems may be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of viral and fungal infections. Commercial diagnostic tests based on nanosystems are currently available. Different methodologies based on nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to detect specific agents or to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Oscar Daniel Ayala, Catherine Wakeman, Isaac J Pence, Eric P Skaar, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, and endocarditis. Treatment of these infections can be challenging since strains of S. aureus, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), have evolved resistance to antimicrobials. Current methods to identify infectious agents in hospital environments often rely on time-consuming, multi-step culturing techniques to distinguish problematic strains (i.e. antimicrobial resistant variants) of a particular bacterial species...
May 30, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Hugo Oliveira, Carlos São-José, Joana Azeredo
Peptidoglycan degrading enzymes are of increasing interest as antibacterial agents, especially against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Herein we present a review about the biological features of virion-associated lysins and endolysins, phage-derived enzymes that have naturally evolved to compromise the bacterial peptidoglycan from without and from within, respectively. These natural features may determine the adaptability of the enzymes to kill bacteria in different environments. Endolysins are by far the most studied group of peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes, with several studies showing that they can exhibit potent antibacterial activity under specific conditions...
May 29, 2018: Viruses
Xiaoyuan Ren, Lili Zou, Jun Lu, Arne Holmgren
Thioredoxin system is a ubiquitous disulfide reductase system evolutionarily conserved through all living organisms. It contains thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and NADPH. TrxR can use NADPH to reduce Trx which passes the reducing equivalent to its downstream substrates involved in various biomedical events, such as ribonucleotide reductase for deoxyribonucleotide and DNA synthesis, or peroxiredoxins for counteracting oxidative stress. Obviously, TrxR stays in the center of the system to maintain the electron flow...
May 25, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Chun Kiat Yeo, Yogesh Shankar Vikhe, Peng Li, Zanru Guo, Peter Greenberg, Hongwei Duan, Nguan Soon Tan, Mary B Chan-Park
Multi-drug resistance and the refractory character of bacterial biofilms are among the most difficult challenges in infection treatment. Current antimicrobial strategies typically are much more effective for prevention of biofilm formation than for eradication of established biofilms; these strategies also leave dead bacteria and endotoxin in the infection site, which impairs healing. We report a novel hydrogel that eradicates biofilm bacteria by non-leaching-based <u>d</u>ebridement followed by <u>e</u>x-<u>s</u>itu <u>c</u>ontact-<u>k</u>illing (DESCK) away from the infection site...
May 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ravichandran Vinothkannan, Manoharan Muthu Tamizh, Chellappan David Raj, S Adline Princy
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the most common cause of UTI, accounting for more than 90% infections in the normal and unobstructed urinary tracts. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is an emerging threat to the mankind and hence, there is an urge to develop alternative therapies. Targeting quorum sensing (QS), a cell-cell communication process regulates various biofilm and virulence factors would be a most promising alternate which curbs the pathogenesis without killing the bacteria, unlike antibiotics...
May 17, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Éanna Forde, Ghady Shafiy, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes, Adam A Strömstedt, Marc Devocelle
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising broad-spectrum antibiotic candidates in the wake of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Their clinical use still requires a solution based on lead optimisation and/or formulation to overcome certain limitations, such as unwanted cytotoxicity. A prodrug approach could overcome this safety barrier and can be achieved through reversible reduction or neutralisation of the AMPs' net cationic charge. By prodrug activation through pathogen associated enzymes, this approach could increase the therapeutic index of membrane active peptides...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Ruggeri Jessica, Foresti Fabio, Pavesi Roberta, Terrini Alessia, Giudici Francesca, Padoan Diego, Corradi Attilio, Ossiprandi Maria Cristina, Pasquali Paolo, Alborali Giovanni Loris
Salmonella Typhimurium (including S.Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i-) and other enteric pathogens cause acute infection in pigs during the weaning stage, often evolving into chronic infections responsible for the introduction of zoonotic bacteria into the slaughterhouse and thus determining carcass contamination. In addition to being zoonotic hazards, these pathogens are responsible for economic losses in affected farms. Traditionally, antibiotic treatments have been largely administered in order to reduce the infection burden but it favored, as a direct consequence, an increase in the number of multi-drug resistance strains...
May 22, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Arthur Neuberger, Dijun Du, Ben F Luisi
Efflux pumps are membrane proteins which contribute to multi-drug resistance. In Gram-negative bacteria, some of these pumps form complex tripartite assemblies in association with an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic fusion protein. These tripartite machineries span both membranes and the periplasmic space, and they extrude from the bacterium chemically diverse toxic substrates. In this chapter, we summarise current understanding of the structural architecture, functionality, and regulation of tripartite multi-drug efflux assemblies...
May 19, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Yue Xu, Xinyan Yu, Yu Gu, Xu Huang, Genyan Liu, Xiaoqiu Liu
The potential of bacteriophage as an alternative antibacterial agent has been reconsidered for control of pathogenic bacteria due to the widespread occurrence of multi-drug resistance bacteria. More and more lytic phages have been isolated recently. In the present study, we isolated a lytic phage named vB_EcoS-B2 from waste water. VB_EcoS-B2 has an icosahedral symmetry head and a long tail without a contractile sheath, indicating that it belongs to the family Siphoviridae . The complete genome of vB_EcoS-B2 is composed of a circular double stranded DNA of 44,283 bp in length, with 54...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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