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multi-drug resistant bacteria

Sanjib K Shrestha, Liliia M Kril, Keith D Green, Stefan Kwiatkowski, Vitaliy M Sviripa, Justin R Nickell, Linda P Dwoskin, David S Watt, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial and fungal strains poses a threat to human health that requires the design and synthesis of new classes of antimicrobial agents. We evaluated bis(N-amidinohydrazones) and N-(amidino)-N'-aryl-bishydrazones for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against panels of Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. We investigated their potential to develop resistance against both bacteria and fungi by a multi-step resistance-selection method, explored their potential to induce the production of reactive oxygen species, and assessed their toxicity...
October 10, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Troy A Skwor, Stephanie Klemm, Hanyu Zhang, Brianna Schardt, Stephanie Blaszczyk, Matthew A Bork
Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics threatens proper clinical treatment and jeopardizes their use in prevention. A photodynamic approach appears to be an innovative treatment option, even for multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Three components are utilized in photodynamic inactivation: a photosensitizer, light source, and oxygen. Variations in photosensitizers strongly influence microbial binding and bactericidal activity. In this study, four different cationic metalloporphyrins (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Pd(2+), Zn(2+)) were compared to the free-base ligand 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin regarding their electronic properties and generation of reactive oxygen species upon subsequent 405nm violet-blue irradiation...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Nicolás M Vázquez, Graciela Fiorilli, Paulo A Cáceres Guido, Silvia Moreno
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to different commonly used antibiotics, stressing the need for further strategies to treat this human pathogen with worldwide prevalence. The use of phytochemicals within the current pharmacology is a promising approach to enhance the antimicrobial activity of common antibiotics in the battle against these bacteria. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of carnosic acid, the major constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis L...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Sanmuga Priya Ekambaram, Senthamil Selvan Perumal, Ajay Balakrishnan, Nathiya Marappan, Sabari Srinivasan Gajendran, Vinodhini Viswanathan
AIM/BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants have ability to resist microorganisms by synthesizing secondary metabolites such as phenols. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenylpropanoid widely distributed in plants and well known as therapeutic and cosmetic agent. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is resistant to all kinds of β-lactams, threatens even most potent antibiotics. To improve the efficiency of antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria and to reduce the antibiotic dose, the antibacterial activity and the synergistic effect of RA with standard antibiotics against S...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Dar-Chone Chow, Kacie Rice, Wanzhi Huang, Robert L Atmar, Timothy G Palzkill
The β-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) binds and inhibits a wide range of class A β-lactamases including the TEM-1 β-lactamase (Ki= 0.5 nM), which is widely present in Gram-negative bacteria, and the KPC-2 β-lactamase (Ki= 1.2 nM), which hydrolyzes virtually all clinically useful β-lactam antibiotics. The extent to which the specificity of a protein that binds a broad range of targets can be modified to display narrow specificity was explored in this study by engineering BLIP to bind selectively to KPC-2 β-lactamase...
October 18, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Qingjing Wang, Zhencui Li, Jingxia Lin, Xiuna Wang, Xianbo Deng, Youjun Feng
The emergence of the mobilized colistin resistance gene, representing a novel mechanism for bacterial drug resistance, challenges the last resort against the severe infections by Gram-negative bacteria with multi-drug resistances. Very recently, we showed the diversity in the mcr-1-carrying plasmid reservoirs from the gut microbiota. Here, we reported that a similar but more complex scenario is present in the healthy swine populations, Southern China, 2016. Amongst the 1026 pieces of Escherichia coli isolates from 3 different pig farms, 302 E...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Neha Sharma, Savita Jandaik, Sanjeev Kumar
Combination therapy of antibiotics and nanoparticles can be used against multi drug resistant microorganisms. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported to show antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activities of doped ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were studied against fungi, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using the standard microdilution method. The interaction between the nanoparticle and the antibiotic was estimated by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index) of the combination through checkerboard assay...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Rajesh Palanisamy, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Jesu Arockiaraj
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are innate molecules that are found in a wide variety of species ranging from bacteria to humans. In recent years, excessive usage of antibiotics resulted in development of multi-drug resistant pathogens which made researchers to focus on AMPs as potential substitute for antibiotics. Lily type mannose-binding lectin is an extended super-family of structurally and evolutionarily related sugar binding proteins. These lectins are well-known AMPs which play important roles in fish defense mechanism...
October 8, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Igor K Voukeng, Veronique P Beng, Victor Kuete
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases due to multidrug-resistant bacteria are one of the causes of treatment failures contributing to an increase in mortality and/or morbidity. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial potential of different parts of six medicinal plants namely Alstonia boonei, Ageratum conyzoides, Croton macrostachys, Cassia obtusifolia, Catharanthus roseus and Paullinia pinnata against a panel of 36 multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. METHODS: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the methanol extracts from different parts of the plants were determined using broth microdilution method; standard phytochemical methods were used for phytochemical screening...
October 10, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
V Ntuli, P M K Njage, E M Buys
The current study was undertaken to characterize Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae in raw and pasteurized producer-distributor bulk milk (PDBM). A total of 258 samples were collected from purchase points in 8 provinces in South Africa. The samples were tested for antibiotic residues, phosphatase, total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli counts. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for identification of isolates. Escherichia coli isolates were characterized for virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance, serotypes, and presumptive E...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Soo Jin Jeon, Zhengxin Ma, Minyoung Kang, Klibs N Galvão, Kwangcheol Casey Jeong
Uterine disease such as metritis is associated with multiple bacterial infections in the uteri after parturition. However, treatment of metritis is challenging due to considerably high antibiotic treatment failure rate with unknown reason. Recently, chitosan microparticles (CM) have been developed to exert broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens, including multi-drug resistant bacteria, without raising CM resistant mutants. In this study, we tested, using metagenomics analysis, if CM maintain strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria such as Fusobacteriaceae and Bacteroidaceae in cow uteri and evaluated CM's potency as an alternative antimicrobial agent to cure metritis in cows...
December 2016: Biomaterials
S Kuzi, S E Blum, N Kahane, A Adler, O Hussein, G Segev, I Aroch
BACKGROUND: Members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex cause severe outbreaks in humans, and are increasingly reported in animals. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: A retrospective study, describing a severe outbreak in dogs and cats caused by a multidrug resistant member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in a veterinary hospital, between July 2010 and November 2012. RESULTS: The study included 19 dogs and 4 cats...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Marta Maciejewska, Delphine Adam, Loïc Martinet, Aymeric Naômé, Magdalena Całusińska, Philippe Delfosse, Monique Carnol, Hazel A Barton, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Nicolas Smargiasso, Edwin De Pauw, Marc Hanikenne, Denis Baurain, Sébastien Rigali
Moonmilk speleothems of limestone caves host a rich microbiome, among which Actinobacteria represent one of the most abundant phyla. Ancient medical texts reported that moonmilk had therapeutical properties, thereby suggesting that its filamentous endemic actinobacterial population might be a source of natural products useful in human treatment. In this work, a screening approach was undertaken in order to isolate cultivable Actinobacteria from moonmilk of the Grotte des Collemboles in Belgium, to evaluate their taxonomic profile, and to assess their potential in biosynthesis of antimicrobials...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marcus Lívio Varella Coelho, Andreza Freitas de Souza Duarte, Maria do Carmo de Freire Bastos
One of the biggest challenges faced presently by clinicians is the emergence of multi drug--resistant pathogens that can infect humans and animals.To control the infections caused by such pathogens the development of new drugs is required. Bacteria are a rich source of ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides known as bacteriocins, which are characterized by the presence of a self-defense immunity system. Labionin-containing lantibiotics and sactibiotics are post-translationally modified bacteriocins with peculiar features...
September 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Benjamin Youenou, Edmond Hien, Amélie Deredjian, Elisabeth Brothier, Sabine Favre-Bonté, Sylvie Nazaret
This study examined the long-term effects of the landfill disposal of untreated urban waste for soil fertilization on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of various human opportunistic pathogens in soils from Burkina Faso. Samples were collected at three sites in the periphery of Ouagadougou during two campaigns in 2008 and 2011. At each site, amendment led to changes in physico-chemical characteristics as shown by the increase in pH, CEC, total C, total N, and metal contents. Similarly, the numbers of total heterotrophic bacteria were higher in the amended fields than in the control ones...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Teresa Cimmino, Stéphanie Le Page, Didier Raoult, Jean-Marc Rolain
The dissemination of multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB) has become a major public health concern worldwide because of the increase in infections caused by MDRB, the difficulty in treating them, and expenditures in patient care. Areas covered: We have reviewed challenges and contemporary opportunities for rapidly confronting infections caused by MDRB in the 21st century, including surveillance, detection, identification of resistance mechanisms, and action steps. Expert commentary: In this context, the first critical point for clinical microbiologists is to be able to rapidly detect an abnormal event, an outbreak and/or the spread of a MDRB with surveillance tools so that healthcare policies and therapies adapted to a new stochastic event that will certainly occur again in the future can be implemented...
October 2, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Prabhavathi Fernandes, Evan Martens
Most pharmaceutical companies have stopped or have severely limited investments to discover and develop new antibiotics to treat the increasing prevalence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria, because the return on investment has been mostly negative for antibiotics that received marketing approved in the last few decades. In contrast, a few small companies have taken on this challenge and are developing new antibiotics. This review describes those antibiotics in late-stage clinical development...
September 26, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Chongwei Bi, Xiaoyun Dong, Xiaobo Zhong, Hongjun Cai, Dacheng Wang, Lin Wang
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major cause of infection in hospitals and communities. Widespread dissemination of multi-drug resistant S. aureus is a serious threat to the health of humans and animals. An anti-virulence strategy has been widely considered as an alternative therapeutic approach. Inhibitors of virulence factors are able to treat S. aureus infections without influencing the growth or viability of bacteria and rarely lead to bacterial resistance. Sortase A (SrtA) is a membrane-associated cysteine transpeptidase that catalyzes up to 25 surface proteins that covalently bind to cell wall peptidoglycans...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mohammad F Huque, Thamban Valappil, Mohamed Alosh, Guoxing Soon
Unmet medical need exits for serious bacterial diseases caused by multi-drug resistant infections necessitating urgent need for newer therapies with greater treatment benefits to patients. For meeting this need, the usual approach has been to conduct separate clinical trials, each trial targeting infection at a single body-site, e.g., for respiratory tract, intra-abdominal site, urinary tract, or blood. However, for the unmet medical need situations, this approach seems inefficient for developing antibacterial drugs with activity against single species or against multiple species of bacteria for a broader indication...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Zhijian Li, Peng Wang, Chengyan Jiang, Pengfei Cui, Shicui Zhang
Pt5e, a mutant peptide derived from the C-terminal 55 residues of zebrafish phosvitin, has been suggested to be a novel antibacterial peptide. However, if it is applicable to clinical MDR bacteria remains to be tested. In this study, high-purity Pt5e was first expressed and purified by fusion with cationic elastin-like polypeptide. Pt5e was then shown to be capable of effectively killing all the five clinical MDR bacteria tested. Pt5e kill the MDR bacteria at several levels, including inserting into the bacterial membranes, causing the membrane depolarization and permeabilization, and inducing the intracellular apoptosis/necrosis...
September 22, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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