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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150062/spontaneous-abortion-and-ectopic-pregnancy-case-definition-guidelines-for-data-collection-analysis-and-presentation-of-maternal-immunization-safety-data
#1
Caroline E Rouse, Linda O Eckert, Isaac Babarinsa, Emily Fay, Manish Gupta, Margo S Harrison, Alison Tse Kawai, Elyse O Kharbanda, Merita Kucuku, Lee Meller, Tamala Mallett Moore, Maja Subelj, Sonali Kochhar, Fernanda Tavares-Da-Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143674/the-role-of-human-rights-litigation-in-improving-access-to-reproductive-health-care-and-achieving-reductions-in-maternal-mortality
#2
Jennifer Templeton Dunn, Katherine Lesyna, Anna Zaret
BACKGROUND: Improving maternal health, reducing global maternal mortality, and working toward universal access to reproductive health care are global priorities for United Nations agencies, national governments, and civil society organizations. Human rights lawyers have joined this global movement, using international law and domestic constitutions to hold nations accountable for preventable maternal death and for failing to provide access to reproductive health care services. CASE PRESENTATION: This article discusses three decisions in which international treaty bodies find the nations of Brazil and Peru responsible for violations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and also two domestic decisions alleging constitutional violations in India and Uganda...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142246/a-comprehensive-structural-biochemical-and-biological-profiling-of-the-human-nudix-hydrolase-family
#3
Jordi Carreras-Puigvert, Marinka Zitnik, Ann-Sofie Jemth, Megan Carter, Judith E Unterlass, Björn Hallström, Olga Loseva, Zhir Karem, José Manuel Calderón-Montaño, Cecilia Lindskog, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Damian J Matuszewski, Hammou Ait Blal, Ronnie P A Berntsson, Maria Häggblad, Ulf Martens, Matthew Studham, Bo Lundgren, Carolina Wählby, Erik L L Sonnhammer, Emma Lundberg, Pål Stenmark, Blaz Zupan, Thomas Helleday
The NUDIX enzymes are involved in cellular metabolism and homeostasis, as well as mRNA processing. Although highly conserved throughout all organisms, their biological roles and biochemical redundancies remain largely unclear. To address this, we globally resolve their individual properties and inter-relationships. We purify 18 of the human NUDIX proteins and screen 52 substrates, providing a substrate redundancy map. Using crystal structures, we generate sequence alignment analyses revealing four major structural classes...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142123/initiation-elongation-and-realignment-during-influenza-virus-mrna-synthesis
#4
Aartjan J W Te Velthuis, Judith Oymans
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the influenza A virus replicates and transcribes the viral genome segments in the nucleus of the host cell. To transcribe these viral genome segments, the RdRp 'snatches' capped RNA oligonucleotides from nascent host cell mRNAs and aligns these primers to the ultimate or penultimate nucleotide of the segments for the initiation of viral mRNA synthesis. It has been proposed that this initiation process is not processive and that the RdRp uses a prime-realign mechanism during transcription...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139174/neural-mechanisms-of-interference-control-in-working-memory-capacity
#5
Jessica Bomyea, Charles T Taylor, Andrea D Spadoni, Alan N Simmons
The extent to which one can use cognitive resources to keep information in working memory is known to rely on (1) active maintenance of target representations and (2) downregulation of interference from irrelevant representations. Neurobiologically, the global capacity of working memory is thought to depend on the prefrontal and parietal cortices; however, the neural mechanisms involved in controlling interference specifically in working memory capacity tasks remain understudied. In this study, 22 healthy participants completed a modified complex working memory capacity task (Reading Span) with trials of varying levels of interference control demands while undergoing functional MRI...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139163/assessment-of-hard-target-modeling-in-casp12-reveals-an-emerging-role-of-alignment-based-contact-prediction-methods
#6
Luciano A Abriata, Giorgio E Tamò, Bohdan Monastyrskyy, Andriy Kryshtafovych, Matteo Dal Peraro
We present our assessment of CASP12 modeling efforts for targets with no obvious templates of high sequence/structure similarity in the PDB, i.e. for evaluation units of the free modeling (FM) and free modeling/template-based modeling (FM/TBM) categories. Models were clustered and ranked using the Global Distance Test-Total Score and five additional metrics developed in previous CASP rounds, producing short lists of models that were subject to visual inspection in comparison to the target structures. The whole procedure was implemented as a web app that facilitates model selection and visual inspection, and could become useful to facilitate and standardize future assessments...
November 15, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137513/trends-in-the-alignment-and-harmonization-of-reproductive-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-funding-2008-13
#7
Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, Arnab Acharya, Leonardo Arregoces, Lara Brearley, Catherine Pitt, Christopher Grollman, Josephine Borghi
Donor financing to low- and middle-income countries for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health increased substantially from 2008 to 2013. However, increased spending by donors might not improve outcomes, if funds are delivered in ways that undermine countries' public financial management systems and incur high transaction costs for project implementation. We combined quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the quality of funding for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health globally and in Tanzania, based on two principles of aid effectiveness: the alignment of donor financing with the recipient country's public health financial management systems, and donor harmonization for coordinated, transparent, and collectively effective actions...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122799/qualitative-study-to-understand-the-barriers-to-recruiting-young-people-with-cancer-to-brightlight-a-national-cohort-study-in-england
#8
Charlotte Kenten, Ana Martins, Lorna A Fern, Faith Gibson, Sarah Lea, Nothando Ngwenya, Jeremy S Whelan, Rachel M Taylor
OBJECTIVES: BRIGHTLIGHT is a national evaluation of cancer services for teenagers and young adults in England. Following challenges with recruitment, our aim was to understand more fully healthcare professionals' perspectives of the challenges of recruiting young people to a low-risk observational study, and to provide guidance for future recruitment processes. DESIGN: Qualitative. SETTING: National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121948/assessing-the-health-workforce-implications-of-health-policy-and-programming-how-a-review-of-grey-literature-informed-the-development-of-a-new-impact-assessment-tool
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Nove, Giorgio Cometto, James Campbell
BACKGROUND: In their adoption of WHA resolution 69.19, World Health Organization Member States requested all bilateral and multilateral initiatives to conduct impact assessments of their funding to human resources for health. The High-Level Commission for Health Employment and Economic Growth similarly proposed that official development assistance for health, education, employment and gender are best aligned to creating decent jobs in the health and social workforce. No standard tools exist for assessing the impact of global health initiatives on the health workforce, but tools exist from other fields...
November 9, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110098/do-hydrodynamically-assisted-binary-collisions-lead-to-orientational-ordering-of-microswimmers
#10
Norihiro Oyama, John Jairo Molina, Ryoichi Yamamoto
We have investigated the onset of collective motion in systems of model microswimmers, by performing a comprehensive analysis of the binary collision dynamics using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) with hydrodynamic interactions. From this data, we have constructed a simplified binary collision model (BCM) which accurately reproduces the collective behavior obtained from the DNS for most cases. Thus, we show that global alignment can mostly arise solely from binary collisions. Although the agreement between both models (DNS and BCM) is not perfect, the parameter range in which notable differences appear is also that for which strong density fluctuations are present in the system (where pseudo-sound mound can be observed (N...
November 8, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102325/surveillance-for-control-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
REVIEW
Evelina Tacconelli, Frangiscos Sifakis, Stephan Harbarth, Remco Schrijver, Maaike van Mourik, Andreas Voss, Mike Sharland, Nithya Babu Rajendran, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
Antimicrobial resistance poses a growing threat to public health and the provision of health care. Its surveillance should provide up-to-date and relevant information to monitor the appropriateness of therapy guidelines, antibiotic formulary, antibiotic stewardship programmes, public health interventions, infection control policies, and antimicrobial development. In Europe, although the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network provides annual reports on monitored resistant bacteria, national surveillance efforts are still fragmented and heterogeneous, and have substantial structural problems and issues with laboratory data...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100164/in-silico-design-of-knowledge-based-plasmodium-falciparum-epitope-ensemble-vaccines
#12
Shymaa Abdullah Damfo, Pedro Reche, Derek Gatherer, Darren R Flower
Malaria is a global health burden, and a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Africa. Here we designed a putative malaria epitope ensemble vaccine by selecting an optimal set of pathogen epitopes. From the IEDB database, 584 experimentally-verified CD8+ epitopes and 483 experimentally-verified CD4+ epitopes were collected; 89% of which were found in 8 proteins. Using the PVS server, highly conserved epitopes were identified from variability analysis of multiple alignments of Plasmodium falciparum protein sequences...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098119/process-review-for-development-of-quantitative-risk-analyses-for-transboundary-animal-disease-to-pathogen-free-territories
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan Miller, Ken Burton, Joe Fund, Adrian Self
Outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) have the potential to cause significant detriment to animal, human, and environmental health; severe economic implications; and national security. Challenges concerning data sharing, model development, decision support, and disease emergence science have recently been promoted. These challenges and recommendations have been recognized and advocated in the disciplines intersecting with outbreak prediction and forecast modeling regarding infectious diseases. To advance the effective application of computation and risk communication, analytical products ought to follow a collaboratively agreed common plan for implementation...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097907/constraints-on-the-anisotropic-contributions-to-velocity-discontinuities-at-%C3%A2-60-km-depth-beneath-the-pacific
#14
Catherine A Rychert, Nicholas Harmon
Strong, sharp, negative seismic discontinuities, velocity decreases with depth, are observed beneath the Pacific seafloor at ∼60 km depth. It has been suggested that these are caused by an increase in radial anisotropy with depth, which occurs in global surface wave models. Here we test this hypothesis in two ways. We evaluate whether an increase in surface wave radial anisotropy with depth is robust with synthetic resolution tests. We do this by fitting an example surface wave data set near the East Pacific Rise...
August 2017: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G³
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096497/a-general-intermolecular-force-field-based-on-tight-binding-quantum-chemical-calculations
#15
Stefan Grimme, Christoph Bannwarth, Eike Caldeweyher, Jana Pisarek, Andreas Hansen
A black-box type procedure is presented for the generation of a molecule-specific, intermolecular potential energy function. The method uses quantum chemical (QC) information from our recently published extended tight-binding semi-empirical scheme (GFN-xTB) and can treat non-covalently bound complexes and aggregates with almost arbitrary chemical structure. The necessary QC information consists of the equilibrium structure, Mulliken atomic charges, charge centers of localized molecular orbitals, and also of frontier orbitals and orbital energies...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092727/key-lessons-for-designing-health-literacy-professional-development-courses
#16
Lucio Naccarella, Bernice Murphy
Health literacy courses for health professionals have emerged in response to health professionals' perceived lack of understanding of health literacy issues, and their failure to routinely adopt health literacy practices. Since 2013 in Victoria, Australia, the Centre for Culture, Ethnicity and Health has delivered an annual health literacy demonstration training course that it developed. Course development and delivery partners included HealthWest Partnership and cohealth. The courses are designed to develop the health literacy knowledge, skills and organisational capacity of the health and community services sector in the western metropolitan region of Melbourne...
November 2, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090363/calcium-axonemal-microtubuli-interactions-underlie-mechanism-s-of-primary-cilia-morphological-changes
#17
Vlado A Buljan, Manuel B Graeber, R M Damian Holsinger, Daniel Brown, Brett D Hambly, Edward J Delikatny, Vladimira R Vuletic, Xavier N Krebs, Ilijan B Tomas, John J Bohorquez-Florez, Guo Jun Liu, Richard B Banati
We have used cell culture of astrocytes aligned within microchannels to investigate calcium effects on primary cilia morphology. In the absence of calcium and in the presence of flow of media (10 μL.s(-1)) the majority (90%) of primary cilia showed reversible bending with an average curvature of 2.1 ± 0.9 × 10(-4) nm(-1). When 1.0 mM calcium was present, 90% of cilia underwent bending. Forty percent of these cilia demonstrated strong irreversible bending, resulting in a final average curvature of 3...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084219/ecological-niche-modeling-and-distribution-of-ornithodoros-hermsi-associated-with-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-in-western-north-america
#18
Kylie M Sage, Tammi L Johnson, Michael B Teglas, Nathan C Nieto, Tom G Schwan
Tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium, Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Ornithodoros hermsi ticks. The pathogen is maintained in natural cycles involving small rodent hosts such as chipmunks and tree squirrels, as well as the tick vector. In order for these ticks to establish sustained and viable populations, a narrow set of environmental parameters must exist, primarily moderate temperatures and moderate to high amounts of precipitation...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077672/setting-targets-for-hiv-an-evaluation-of-indicator-quality-and-target-achievement-in-national-strategic-plans
#19
Alana Sharp, Richael OʼHagan, Brian Honermann, Gregorio Millett
BACKGROUND: National Strategic Plans (NSPs) for HIV have become foundational documents that frame responses to HIV. Both Global Fund and PEPFAR require coordination with NSPs as a component of their operations. Despite the role of NSPs in country planning, no rigorous assessment of NSP targets and performance outcomes exists. We performed a quantitative analysis of the quality of NSP indicators and targets and assessed whether historical NSP targets had been achieved. METHODS: All targets and indicators from publicly available NSPs from 35 countries are coded as structural, input, output, or impact indicators...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069938/influence-of-plate-fixation-on-cervical-height-and-alignment-after-one-or-two-level-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion
#20
Jaecheon Yu, Yoon Ha, Jun Jae Shin, Jae Keun Oh, Chang Kyu Lee, Keung Nyun Kim, Do Heum Yoon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of plate fixation on cervical alignment after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using a stand-alone cage (ACDF-CA), compared to ACDF performed using a cage and plate fixation (ACDF-CP) and ACDF using autologous iliac bone graft and plate fixation (ACDF-AP), for the treatment of one- or two-level cervical degenerative disease. A second objective was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes between the groups. METHODS: A total of 247 patients underwent ACDF and were divided into three groups: those who underwent ACDF-CA (n = 76), ACDF-CP (n = 82) or ACDF-AP (n = 89)...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
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