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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911770/the-right-incentives-enable-ocean-sustainability-successes-and-provide-hope-for-the-future
#1
Jane Lubchenco, Elizabeth B Cerny-Chipman, Jessica N Reimer, Simon A Levin
Healthy ocean ecosystems are needed to sustain people and livelihoods and to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Using the ocean sustainably requires overcoming many formidable challenges: overfishing, climate change, ocean acidification, and pollution. Despite gloomy forecasts, there is reason for hope. New tools, practices, and partnerships are beginning to transform local fisheries, biodiversity conservation, and marine spatial planning. The challenge is to bring them to a global scale...
December 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910922/the-influence-of-laser-scribing-on-magnetic-domain-formation-in-grain-oriented-electrical-steel-visualized-by-directional-neutron-dark-field-imaging
#2
P Rauscher, B Betz, J Hauptmann, A Wetzig, E Beyer, C Grünzweig
The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905942/a-novel-method-for-estimating-distributions-of-body-mass-index
#3
Marie Ng, Patrick Liu, Blake Thomson, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding trends in the distribution of body mass index (BMI) is a critical aspect of monitoring the global overweight and obesity epidemic. Conventional population health metrics often only focus on estimating and reporting the mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity, which do not fully characterize the distribution of BMI. In this study, we propose a novel method which allows for the estimation of the entire distribution. METHODS: The proposed method utilizes the optimization algorithm, L-BFGS-B, to derive the distribution of BMI from three commonly available population health statistics: mean BMI, prevalence of overweight, and prevalence of obesity...
March 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896723/large-scale-sequence-comparison
#4
Devi Lal, Mansi Verma
There are millions of sequences deposited in genomic databases, and it is an important task to categorize them according to their structural and functional roles. Sequence comparison is a prerequisite for proper categorization of both DNA and protein sequences, and helps in assigning a putative or hypothetical structure and function to a given sequence. There are various methods available for comparing sequences, alignment being first and foremost for sequences with a small number of base pairs as well as for large-scale genome comparison...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889410/multiple-states-of-environmental-regulation-in-well-mixed-model-biospheres
#5
Arwen E Nicholson, David M Wilkinson, Hywel T P Williams, Timothy M Lenton
The Gaia hypothesis postulates that life influences Earth's feedback mechanisms to form a self regulating system. This provokes the question: how can global self-regulation evolve? Most models demonstrating environmental regulation involving life have relied on alignment between local selection and global regulation. In these models environment-improving individuals or communities spread to outcompete environment degrading individuals/communities, leading to global regulation, but this depends on local differences in environmental conditions...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889355/cervical-sagittal-alignment-in-adult-hyperkyphosis-treated-by-posterior-instrumentation-and-in-situ-bending
#6
F Paternostre, Y P Charles, E A Sauleau, J-P Steib
BACKGROUND: In the normal adult spine, a link between thoracolumbar and cervical sagittal alignment exists, suggesting adaptive cervical positional changes allowing horizontal gaze. In patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis, cervical adaptation to sagittal global alignment might be different from healthy individuals. However, this relationship has not clearly been reported in hyperkyphotic deformity. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify cervical sagittal alignment types observed on radiographs in young adults with thoracic hyperkyphosis...
November 23, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882909/european-initiative-for-the-application-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-development-of-clinical-assessment-schedules-for-specified-rehabilitation-services
#7
Birgit Prodinger, Anke Scheel-Sailer, Reuben Escorpizo, Gerold Stucki
BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment schedule (CLAS) is a core part of the ICF-based implementation of functioning reporting across health conditions and along the continuum of care. AIM: The Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Section and Board of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS PRM) workshop held in January 2016 aimed to develop and specify a CLAS within the context of rehabilitation services. SETTING: UEMS PRM Workshop in Nottwil, Switzerland, January 2016...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872308/atomistic-insight-into-lipid-translocation-by-a-tmem16-scramblase
#8
Neville P Bethel, Michael Grabe
The transmembrane protein 16 (TMEM16) family of membrane proteins includes both lipid scramblases and ion channels involved in olfaction, nociception, and blood coagulation. The crystal structure of the fungal Nectria haematococca TMEM16 (nhTMEM16) scramblase suggested a putative mechanism of lipid transport, whereby polar and charged lipid headgroups move through the low-dielectric environment of the membrane by traversing a hydrophilic groove on the membrane-spanning surface of the protein. Here, we use computational methods to explore the membrane-protein interactions involved in lipid scrambling...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868360/global-transcriptome-responses-including-small-rnas-during-mixed-species-interactions-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Christine L Miller, Tricia A Van Laar, Tsute Chen, S L Rajasekhar Karna, Ping Chen, Tao You, Kai P Leung
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus mixed-species biofilm infections are more resilient to biocide attacks compared to their single-species counterparts. Therefore, this study used an in vitro model recapitulating bacterial burdens seen in in vivo infections to investigate the interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus in biofilms. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was utilized to identify the entire genomic response, both open reading frames (ORFs) and small RNAs (sRNAs), of each species. Using competitive indexes, transposon mutants validated uncharacterized PA1595 of P...
November 21, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866496/building-a-translational-science-on-children-and-youth-affected-by-political-violence-and-armed-conflict-a-commentary
#10
Ann S Masten
Articles in this timely Special Section represent an important milestone in the developmental science on children and youth involved in political violence and armed conflict. With millions of children worldwide affected by past and present wars and conflicts, there is an urgent and growing need for research to inform efforts to understand, prevent, and mitigate the possible harm of such violence to individual children, families, communities, and societies, for present as well as future generations. The four programs of research highlighted in this Special Section illustrate key advances and challenges in contemporary development research on young people growing up in the midst or aftermath of political violence...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854315/3d-scene-reconstruction-using-omnidirectional-vision-and-lidar-a-hybrid-approach
#11
Michiel Vlaminck, Hiep Luong, Werner Goeman, Wilfried Philips
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to obtain accurate 3D reconstructions of large-scale environments by means of a mobile acquisition platform. The system incorporates a Velodyne LiDAR scanner, as well as a Point Grey Ladybug panoramic camera system. It was designed with genericity in mind, and hence, it does not make any assumption about the scene or about the sensor set-up. The main novelty of this work is that the proposed LiDAR mapping approach deals explicitly with the inhomogeneous density of point clouds produced by LiDAR scanners...
November 16, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854109/effect-of-mono-or-bisegmental-lordosizing-fusion-on-short-term-global-and-index-sagittal-balance-a-radiographic-study
#12
Enrico Tessitore, Ilaria Melloni, Oliver P Gautschi, Gianluigi Zona, Karl Schaller, Pedro Berjano
BACKGROUND: Sagittal balance is widely recognized as an important outcome factor in reconstructive spinal surgery for lumbar degenerative conditions. However, its role in short segmental fixation is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the preoperative and short-term postoperative spino-pelvic balance after short (1 or 2 levels) lordosizing lumbar fusion for degenerative disc disease (DDD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six consecutive patients (13 males and 13 females) undergoing mono- or bisegmental lordosizing lumbar fusion (XLIF/TLIF) for lumbar DDD were included in the study...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854054/impact-of-treatment-related-beliefs-on-medication-adherence-in-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-results-of-the-global-align-study
#13
Pierre Michetti, John Weinman, Ulrich Mrowietz, Josef Smolen, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Edouard Louis, Dieter Schremmer, Namita Tundia, Pascal Nurwakagari, Nicole Selenko-Gebauer
INTRODUCTION: Medication adherence is critical in chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) and could be affected by patients' treatment-related beliefs. The objective of this study was to determine beliefs about systemic medications in patients with IMIDs and to explore the association of those beliefs and other factors with adherence. METHODS: This was a multi-country, cross-sectional, self-administered survey study. Included were adults diagnosed with one of six IMIDs receiving conventional systemic medications and/or tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi)...
November 16, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832530/efficient-preparation-of-high-complexity-chip-seq-profiles-from-early-xenopus-embryos
#14
George E Gentsch, James C Smith
Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) has become a powerful tool to acquire a precise and genome-wide snapshot of many chromatin features in vivo. These chromatin profiles are obtained by immunoprecipitation of cross-linked chromatin fragments to enrich the feature of interest. Sequencing and aligning the underlying DNA sequences to the genome make it possible to virtually reconstruct the global distribution of most chromatin features. We present here recent improvements to the ChIP-seq protocol by means of Xenopus embryos to prepare high-complexity DNA libraries from small amounts of biological material...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831893/face-alignment-with-deep-regression
#15
Baoguang Shi, Xiang Bai, Wenyu Liu, Jingdong Wang
In this paper, we present a deep regression approach for face alignment. The deep regressor is a neural network that consists of a global layer and multistage local layers. The global layer estimates the initial face shape from the whole image, while the following local layers iteratively update the shape with local image observations. Combining standard derivations and numerical approximations, we make all layers able to backpropagate error differentials, so that we can apply the standard backpropagation to jointly learn the parameters from all layers...
November 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828972/coral-reefs-and-people-in-a-high-co2-world-where-can-science-make-a-difference-to-people
#16
Linwood Pendleton, Adrien Comte, Chris Langdon, Julia A Ekstrom, Sarah R Cooley, Lisa Suatoni, Michael W Beck, Luke M Brander, Lauretta Burke, Josh E Cinner, Carolyn Doherty, Peter E T Edwards, Dwight Gledhill, Li-Qing Jiang, Ruben J van Hooidonk, Louise Teh, George G Waldbusser, Jessica Ritter
REEFS AND PEOPLE AT RISK: Increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere put shallow, warm-water coral reef ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them at risk from two key global environmental stresses: 1) elevated sea surface temperature (that can cause coral bleaching and related mortality), and 2) ocean acidification. These global stressors: cannot be avoided by local management, compound local stressors, and hasten the loss of ecosystem services. Impacts to people will be most grave where a) human dependence on coral reef ecosystems is high, b) sea surface temperature reaches critical levels soonest, and c) ocean acidification levels are most severe...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821520/chirality-of-the-cytoskeleton-in-the-origins-of-cellular-asymmetry
#17
REVIEW
Peter Satir
Self-assembly of two important components of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells, actin microfilaments and microtubules (MTs) results in polar filaments of one chirality. As is true for bacterial flagella, in actin microfilaments, screw direction is important for assembly processes and motility. For MTs, polar orientation within the cell is paramount. The alignment of these elements in the cell cytoplasm gives rise to emergent properties, including the potential for cell differentiation and specialization...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821148/understanding-pneumococcal-serotype-1-biology-through-population-genomic-analysis
#18
Chrispin Chaguza, Jennifer E Cornick, Simon R Harris, Cheryl P Andam, Laura Bricio-Moreno, Marie Yang, Feyruz Yalcin, Sani Ousmane, Shanil Govindpersad, Madikay Senghore, Chinelo Ebruke, Mignon Du Plessis, Anmol M Kiran, Gerd Pluschke, Betuel Sigauque, Lesley McGee, Keith P Klugman, Paul Turner, Jukka Corander, Julian Parkhill, Jean-Marc Collard, Martin Antonio, Anne von Gottberg, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Aras Kadioglu, William P Hanage, Dean B Everett, Stephen D Bentley
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcus kills over one million children annually and over 90 % of these deaths occur in low-income countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where HIV exacerbates the disease burden. In SSA, serotype 1 pneumococci particularly the endemic ST217 clone, causes majority of the pneumococcal disease burden. To understand the evolution of the virulent ST217 clone, we analysed ST217 whole genomes from isolates sampled from African and Asian countries. METHODS: We analysed 226 whole genome sequences from the ST217 lineage sampled from 9 African and 4 Asian countries...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817139/three-dimensional-reconstruction-using-stereoradiography-for-evaluating-adult-spinal-deformity-a-reproducibility-study
#19
Emmanuelle Ferrero, Renaud Lafage, Shaleen Vira, Pierre-Yves Rohan, Jonathan Oren, Edward Delsole, Pierre Guigui, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Wafa Skalli
PURPOSE: In addition to the sagittal alignment, impact of transverse plane parameters (TPP) and rotatory subluxation on patients reported outcomes were highlighted. One of the hypotheses for genesis of degenerative scoliosis is disc degeneration with increased axial vertebral (AVR) and intervertebral rotation (AIR). Therefore, TPP analysis at early stage of the scoliosis seems of particular interest. This study aims at assessing reliability of tridimensional (3D) reconstructions of adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients...
November 5, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814734/esip-sa%C3%A3%C2%BAde-mozambique-s-novel-approach-for-a-sustainable-human-resources-for-health-information-system
#20
Keith P Waters, Moises Ernesto Mazivila, Martinho Dgedge, Edgar Necochea, Devan Manharlal, Alexandra Zuber, Beatriz de Faria Leão, Debora Bossemeyer, Alfredo E Vergara
INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, governments and international partners have responded to calls for health workforce data with ambitious investments in human resources information systems (HRIS). However, documentation of country experiences in the use of HRIS to improve strategic planning and management has been lacking. The purpose of this case presentation is to document for the first time Mozambique's novel approach to HRIS, sharing key success factors and contributing to the scant global knowledge base on HRIS...
November 5, 2016: Human Resources for Health
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