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Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Hyeon Chang Kim
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Fortunately, cardiovascular mortality has been decreasing in high-income countries, but the rate is still increasing in some middle-income and low-income countries. Even within the Asian region, cardiovascular disease mortality is decreasing in some countries but increasing in others. However, population ageing is common to all Asian countries, and East Asia is among the most aged region in the world. Accordingly, cardiovascular disease prevention in the elderly is becoming more and more important public health issue in East Asia...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Norikazu Kiguchi, Huiping Ding, Christopher M Peters, Nancy D Kock, Shiroh Kishioka, J Mark Cline, Janice D Wagner, Mei-Chuan Ko
Neuroinflammation is a pathological condition that underlies diabetes and affects sensory processing. Given the high prevalence of pain in diabetic patients and crosstalk between chemokines and opioids, it is pivotal to know whether neuroinflammation-associated mediators are dysregulated in the central nervous system of diabetic primates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether mRNA expression levels of glial markers, chemokines, and opioid receptors are altered in the spinal cord and thalamus of naturally occurring type 2 diabetic monkeys (n=7) compared with age-matched non-diabetic monkeys (n=6)...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maureen O'Sullivan
Since its foundation by remarkably talented and insightful individuals, prominently including Pepper Dehner, pediatric soft tissue tumor pathology has developed at an immense rate. The morphologic classification of tumoral entities has extensively been corroborated, but has also evolved with refinement or realignment of these classifications, through accruing molecular data, with many derivative ancillary diagnostic assays now already well-established. Tumors of unclear histogenesis, classically morphologically undifferentiated, are prominent amongst pediatric sarcomas, however, the classes of undifferentiated round- or spindle-cell-tumors-not-otherwise-specified are being dismantled gradually with the identification of their molecular underpinnings...
September 5, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Sebastian Pollandt, Bichun Ouyang, Thomas P Bleck, Katharina M Busl
PURPOSE: Subdural hematomas (SDH) are associated with seizures and epileptiform discharges, but little is known about the prevalence and impact of seizures, status epilepticus and epileptiform discharges on outcomes in patients with isolated acute SDH (aSDH). METHODS: Continuous EEG reports from 76 adult patients admitted to Rush University Medical Center with aSDH between 01/2009 and 03/2012 were reviewed. Clinical and radiographic findings, comorbidities, treatment, and outcome parameters mortality, discharge destination, need for tracheostomy/percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement and length of stay (LOS) were assessed...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Jacob R Joseph, Brandon W Smith, Hugh J L Garton
Blunt prenatal trauma is known to have consequences to the developing brain, and can result in subdural hematoma (SDH) or epidural hematoma (EDH). The authors present a case of blunt prenatal trauma resulting in a fetal SDH, intraparenchymal hematoma, and intraventricular hemorrhage, and perform a systematic review of the literature. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Relevant studies (up to April 2016) that reported on cases of fetal SDH or EDH after blunt prenatal trauma were identified from the PubMed database...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Stefan Candefjord, Johan Winges, Ahzaz Ahmad Malik, Yinan Yu, Thomas Rylander, Tomas McKelvey, Andreas Fhager, Mikael Elam, Mikael Persson
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and severe disability for young people and a major public health problem for elderly. Many patients with intracranial bleeding are treated too late, because they initially show no symptoms of severe injury and are not transported to a trauma center. There is a need for a method to detect intracranial bleedings in the prehospital setting. In this study, we investigate whether broadband microwave technology (MWT) in conjunction with a diagnostic algorithm can detect subdural hematoma (SDH)...
October 13, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Xinyan Ma, Xiudong Liao, Lin Lu, Sufen Li, Liyang Zhang, Xugang Luo
BACKGROUND: The current dietary iron requirement (80 mg/kg) of broilers is mainly based on growth, hemoglobin concentration, or hematocrit data obtained in a few early studies; however, expressions of iron-containing enzymes might be more sensitive novel criteria to evaluate dietary iron requirements. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine dietary iron requirements of broilers for the full expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), catalase, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in various tissues...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Juan Wang, Ran-Ran Zhang, Guan-Qun Gao, Ming-Yuan Ma, Hui Chen
The values of physiological indices and the enzymes activities involved in the overwintering stage were studied in D. armandi larvae in each month from October 2014 to March 2015. The sorbitol, trehalose and glycerol values initially tended to increase as the ambient temperature decreased, before declining until the end of the winter. The activities of four enzymes (SOD, CAT, LDH and AchE) decreased, whereas POD, PK and MDH showed opposite trends in activity. Other enzyme activities (those of TPS, SDH and GLK) were low during the overwintering period and later increased and stabilized during spring...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bora Gürer, Hayri Kertmen, Habibullah Dolgun, Zeki Sekerci
Cerebral cortical contusions are one of the most common computed tomography findings in head-injured patients and common sequel of traumatic brain injury. These contusions tend to show a progressive increase in mass effect on repeated imaging, most small contusions do not require surgical evacuation. However, progression to subdural hematoma (SDH) in a late aspect is unique. Here we present a 71-year-old man with bifrontal contusion, who deteriorated 43 days after initial trauma with sudden onset of acute SDH...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Leigh A Rettenmaier, Brian J Park, Marshall T Holland, Youssef J Hamade, Shuchita Garg, Rahul Rastogi, Chandan G Reddy
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a more common than previously noted condition (1-2.5 per 50,000) typically caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Initial treatment involves conservative therapies, but the mainstay of treatment for patients who fail conservative management is the epidural blood patch (EBP). Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common complication occurring with SIH, but its management remains controversial. In this report, we discuss a 62-year-old female who presented with a 5-week history of orthostatic headaches associated with nausea, emesis, and neck pain...
September 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Muktanand Tripathi, Akhand Pratap Singh, Gopal Gupta, Singh Rajender
This study aimed at investigating the expression and localization of the polyol pathway enzymes; aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), in the male reproductive tract of rat. Gene expression analysis showed maximum expression of AR and SDH in the coagulating glands. Western blot analysis showed a coordinated presence of the two enzymes in the coagulating glands, seminal vesicle and epididymis. Immunohistochemistry showed a concordant expression of the two enzymes in the coagulating gland, which goes well with its function of fructose production in rats...
September 29, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Carolina Courage, Christopher B Jackson, Dagmar Hahn, Liliya Euro, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Sabina Gallati, André Schaller
Isolated defects of the mitochondrial respiratory complex II (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH) are rare, accounting for approximately 2% of all respiratory chain deficiency diagnoses. Here, we report clinical and molecular investigations of three family members with a heterozygous mutation in the large flavoprotein subunit SDHA previously described to cause complex II deficiency. The index patient presented with bilateral optic atrophy and ocular movement disorder, a progressive polyneuropathy, psychiatric involvement, and cardiomyopathy...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
O V Voloshina, Y V Bolychevtseva, F I Kuzminov, M Y Gorbunov, I V Elanskaya, V V Fadeev
To assess the role of redox state of photosystem II (PSII) acceptor side electron carriers in PSII photochemical activity, we studied sub-millisecond fluorescence kinetics of the wild type Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its mutants with natural variability in the redox state of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. In cyanobacteria, dark adaptation tends to reduce PQ pool and induce a shift of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic apparatus to State 2, whereas illumination oxidizes PQ pool, leading to State 1 (Mullineaux, C...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Hong Wei, Hai-Yun Wu, Zuyue Chen, Ai-Niu Ma, Xiao-Fang Mao, Teng-Fei Li, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang, Antti Pertovaara
Spinal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is associated with various pain hypersensitivity conditions. Spinally, TRPA1 is expressed by central terminals of nociceptive nerve fibers and astrocytes. Among potential endogenous agonists of TRPA1 is H2O2 generated by d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) in astrocytes. Here we studied whether prolonged block of the spinal TRPA1 or astrocytes starting at time of injury attenuates development and/or maintenance of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Additionally, TRPA1 and DAAO mRNA were determined in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn (SDH)...
September 24, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Evanna L Mills, Beth Kelly, Angela Logan, Ana S H Costa, Mukund Varma, Clare E Bryant, Panagiotis Tourlomousis, J Henry M Däbritz, Eyal Gottlieb, Isabel Latorre, Sinéad C Corr, Gavin McManus, Dylan Ryan, Howard T Jacobs, Marten Szibor, Ramnik J Xavier, Thomas Braun, Christian Frezza, Michael P Murphy, Luke A O'Neill
Activated macrophages undergo metabolic reprogramming, which drives their pro-inflammatory phenotype, but the mechanistic basis for this remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages shift from producing ATP by oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis while also increasing succinate levels. We show that increased mitochondrial oxidation of succinate via succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and an elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential combine to drive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Christopher S Graffeo, Avital Perry, Eelco F M Wijdicks
BACKGROUND: Intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) are rare complications of spine surgery, thought to be precipitated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension in the setting of an intraoperative durotomy or postoperative CSF leak. Considerable clinical variability has been reported, requiring a high level of clinical suspicion in patients with a new, unexplained neurologic deficit after spine surgery. METHODS: Case report...
September 22, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Laura M Gottlieb, Andrea Quiñones-Rivera, Rishi Manchanda, Holly Wing, Sara Ackerman
INTRODUCTION: Relationships between socioeconomic adversity and poor health have been well documented. Given these associations, Medicaid MCOs (MMCOs) have shown increasing interest in addressing social determinants of health (SDH) to improve health and decrease healthcare costs. The authors sought to better understand how contractual relationships with State Medicaid Agencies influence MMCO investments in addressing members' SDH. METHODS: In 52 semi-structured key informant interviews, MMCO executives representing 17 geographically diverse MMCOs ranging in size, commercial status, and state participation in Medicaid expansion were asked to describe existing state and other influences on MMCO SDH-related activities...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Dae-In Kim, Jae-Hoon Kim, Hee-In Kang, Byung-Gwan Moon, Joo-Seung Kim, Deok-Ryeong Kim
OBJECTIVE: Although subdural hematoma (SDH) is commonly treatable by burr hole surgery in the late subacute or chronic stage, there is no clear consensus regarding appropriate management and exact predictive factors for postoperative recurrence also remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with recurrence of SDH that requires burr hole surgery in the late subacute or chronic stage. We also identified the appropriate timing of surgery for reducing the recurrence...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Zefei Wu, Shuigang Xu, Huanhuan Lu, Armin Khamoshi, Gui-Bin Liu, Tianyi Han, Yingying Wu, Jiangxiazi Lin, Gen Long, Yuheng He, Yuan Cai, Yugui Yao, Fan Zhang, Ning Wang
In few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), the conduction bands along the ΓK directions shift downward energetically in the presence of interlayer interactions, forming six Q valleys related by threefold rotational symmetry and time reversal symmetry. In even layers, the extra inversion symmetry requires all states to be Kramers degenerate; whereas in odd layers, the intrinsic inversion asymmetry dictates the Q valleys to be spin-valley coupled. Here we report the transport characterization of prominent Shubnikov-de Hass (SdH) oscillations and the observation of the onset of quantum Hall plateaus for the Q-valley electrons in few-layer TMDCs...
September 21, 2016: Nature Communications
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