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Neural stem cells

Jaber Zafari, Fatemeh Javani Jouni, Ali Ahmadvand, Parviz Abdolmaleki, Malihe Soodi, Rezvan Zendehdel
A model was set up to predict the differentiation patterns based on the data extracted from FTIR spectroscopy. For this reason, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were differentiated to primordial germ cells (PGCs). Changes in cellular macromolecules in the time of 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96h of differentiation, as different steps of the differentiation procedure were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. Also, the expression of pluripotency (Oct-4, Nanog and c-Myc) and specific genes (Mvh, Stella and Fragilis) were investigated by real-time PCR...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jean-Stéphane Joly, Gaelle Recher, Alessandro Brombin, Kathy Ngo, Volker Hartenstein
The visual systems of vertebrates and many other bilaterian clades consist of complex neural structures guiding a wide spectrum of behaviors. Homologies at the level of cell types and even discrete neural circuits have been proposed, but many questions of how the architecture of visual neuropils evolved among different phyla remain open. In this review we argue that the profound conservation of genetic and developmental steps generating the eye and its target neuropils in fish and fruit flies supports a homology between some core elements of bilaterian visual circuitries...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Paulo R D V Godoy, Ana Paula L Montaldi, Elza T Sakamoto-Hojo
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal tumor and novel strategies are required to overcome resistance. Transcription factor 12 (HEB) has been associated with neural and stem cell proliferation, is overexpressed in certain tumor types and is induced in irradiated U87MG cells. The present study aimed to determine whether HEB knockdown, with or without irradiation, may sensitize GBM cells. U87MG GBM and ACBRI‑371 primary human astrocytes were cultured in monolayers or neurospheres. Cell proliferation and death, cell cycle and sub‑G1 detection, and cluster of differentiation (CD) 133 immunofluorescence were analyzed by flow cytometry, whereas HEB protein expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and western blotting...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Koji Shimozaki
Adult neurogenesis originates from neural stem cells (NSCs) in specific regions of the adult brain. The molecular mechanisms that control the self-renewal and multipotency of NSCs have not been fully elucidated. In recent years, emerging evidence has revealed that ten-eleven translocation (TET) family DNA dioxygenases TET1 and TET2 play important roles in the central nervous system. Here, I present evidence that Tet1 and Tet2 are expressed in cultured NSCs derived from adult mouse brain and play an important role in the proliferative self-renewal of NSCs in an undifferentiated state...
October 24, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Qian Jiao, Xi-Xun DU, Jun-Xia Xie, Hong Jiang
Neural stem cells (NSCs) offer great promise for the treatment of multiple neurodegenerative diseases. However, the survival and differentiation rates of grafted cells in the host brain need to be enhanced. In this regard, understanding of the underlying mechanism of NSCs survival and death is of great importance for the implications of stem cell-based therapeutic application in the treatments of neurological disorders. Autophagy is a conserved proteolytic mechanism required for maintaining cellular homeostasis, which can affect NSCs fate through regulating their biological behaviors, such as survival and proliferation...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Zhe Wang, Fuwu Zhang, Zhantong Wang, Xiao Fu, Albert Jin, Bryant C Yung, Jing Fan, Xiangyu Yang, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Molecular design of biomaterials with unique features reca-pitulating nature's niche to influence biological activities has been a prolific area of investigation in chemistry and material science. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a wealth of bioactive molecules in supporting cell proliferation, migra-tion and differentiation. The well-patterned fibril and inter-twining architecture of the ECM profoundly influences cell behavior and development. Inspired by those features from the ECM, we attempted to integrate essential biological fac-tors from the ECM to design bioactive molecules to construct artificial self-supportive ECM mimics to advance stem cell culture...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ken-Ichiro Kamei, Yoshie Koyama, Yumie Tokunaga, Yasumasa Mashimo, Momoko Yoshioka, Christopher Fockenberg, Rowland Mosbergen, Othmar Korn, Christine Wells, Yong Chen
Human pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for applications in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Microfluidic technology is a promising approach for creating artificial microenvironments; however, although a proper 3D microenvironment is required to achieve robust control of cellular phenotypes, most current microfluidic devices provide only 2D cell culture and do not allow tuning of physical and chemical environmental cues simultaneously. Here, the authors report a 3D cellular microenvironment plate (3D-CEP), which consists of a microfluidic device filled with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-β-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel (HG), which enables systematic tuning of both chemical and physical environmental cues as well as in situ cell monitoring...
October 24, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Byung-Chul Kim, Sung-Min Jun, So Yeon Kim, Yong-Dae Kwon, Sung Chul Choe, Eun-Chul Kim, Jae-Hyung Lee, Jinseok Kim, Jun-Kyo Farancis Suh, Yu-Shik Hwang
The in vitro generation of cell-based three dimensional (3D) nerve tissue is an attractive subject to improve graft survival and integration into host tissue for neural tissue regeneration or to model biological events in stem cell differentiation. Although 3D organotypic culture strategies are well established for 3D nerve tissue formation of pluripotent stem cells to study underlying biology in nerve development, cell-based nerve tissues have not been developed using human postnatal stem cells with therapeutic potential...
October 24, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Apurva Kulkarni, Priya Ganesan, Lauren A O'Donnell
Interferon-gamma (IFNγ), a pleiotropic cytokine, is expressed in diverse neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions. Its protective mechanisms are well documented during viral infections in the brain, where IFNγ mediates non-cytolytic viral control in infected neurons. However, IFNγ also plays both protective and pathological roles in other central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Of the many neural cells that respond to IFNγ, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the only pluripotent cells in the developing and adult brain, are often altered during CNS insults...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
Dan Wang, Yi-Ming Chen, Miao-Hua Ruan, Ai-Hua Zhou, Yan Qian, Chao Chen
Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders in human studies. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of homocysteine (Hcy) cytotoxicity on the nervous system are not yet fully unknown, induction of DNA interstrand cross-links and inhibition of neural stem cells (NSCs) survival may be involved. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of Hcy on DNA interstrand cross-links in NSCs, and to explore its possible mechanisms...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Yaara Cohen-Hadad, Gheona Altarescu, Talia Eldar-Geva, Ephrat Levi-Lahad, Ming Zhang, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Marc Gotkine, Osnat Bartok, Reut Ashwal-Fluss, Sebastian Kadener, Silvina Epsztejn-Litman, Rachel Eiges
We established two human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines with a GGGGCC expansion in the C9orf72 gene (C9), and compared them with haploidentical and unrelated C9 induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We found a marked difference in C9 methylation between the cells. hESCs and parental fibroblasts are entirely unmethylated while the iPSCs are hypermethylated. In addition, we show that the expansion alters promoter usage and interferes with the proper splicing of intron 1, eventually leading to the accumulation of repeat-containing mRNA following neural differentiation...
October 17, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Kirsty J Dixon, Jose Mier, Shyam Gajavelli, Alisa Turbic, Ross Bullock, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS)...
September 28, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Bowen Niu, Bo Li, Chongyang Wu, Jiang Wu, Yuan Yan, Rui Shang, Chunling Bai, Guangpeng Li, Jinlian Hua
Melatonin has been reported to be an important endogenous hormone for regulating neurogenesis, immunityand the biological clock. Recently, the effects of melatonin on neural stem cells (NSCs), mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs) have been reported; however, the effects of melatonin on spermatogonia stem cells (SSCs) are not clear. Here, 1μM and 1nM melatonin was added to medium when goat SSCs were cultured in vitro, the results showed that melatonin could increase the formation and size of SSC colonies...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Julien Muffat, Yun Li, Rudolf Jaenisch
In vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells provides a systematic platform to investigate the physiological development and function of the human nervous system, as well as the etiology and consequence when these processes go awry. Recent development in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture systems allows modeling of the complex structure formation of the human CNS, and the intricate interactions between various resident neuronal and glial cell types. Combined with an ever-expanding genome editing and regulation toolkit such as CRISPR/Cas9, it is now a possibility to study human neurological disease in the relevant molecular, cellular and anatomical context...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Gunaseelan Narayanan, Yuan Hong Yu, Muly Tham, Hui Theng Gan, Srinivas Ramasamy, Shvetha Sankaran, Srivats Hariharan, Sohail Ahmed
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew and generate the three major neural lineages - astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes. NSCs and neural progenitors (NPs) are commonly cultured in vitro as neurospheres. This protocol describes in detail how to determine the NSC frequency in a given cell population under clonal conditions. The protocol begins with the seeding of the cells at a density that allows for the generation of clonal neurospheres. The neurospheres are then transferred to chambered coverslips and differentiated under clonal conditions in conditioned medium, which maximizes the differentiation potential of the neurospheres...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Richard J McMurtrey
Biomaterials are becoming an essential tool in the study and application of stem cell research. Various types of biomaterials enable three-dimensional culture of stem cells, and, more recently, also enable high-resolution patterning and organization of multicellular architectures. Biomaterials also hold potential to provide many additional advantages over cell transplants alone in regenerative medicine. This article describes novel designs for functionalized biomaterial constructs that guide tissue development to targeted regional identities and structures...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
R Gajendra Reddy, Lenin Veeraval, Swati Maitra, Marylène Chollet-Krugler, Sophie Tomasi, Françoise Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Joël Boustie, Sumana Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: Natural products from lichens are widely investigated for their biological properties, yet their potential as central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic agents is less explored. PURPOSE: The present study investigated the neuroactive properties of selected lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and usnic acid), for their neurotrophic, neurogenic and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activities. METHODS: Neurotrophic activity (neurite outgrowth) was determined using murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Uday B Maachani, Uma Shankavaram, Tamalee Kramp, Philip J Tofilon, Kevin Camphausen, Anita T Tandle
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed and lethal primary brain tumor. Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy remains the standard of care following surgical resection. In this study, using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs), we assessed the biological effects of radiation on signaling pathways to identify potential radiosensitizing molecular targets. We identified subsets of proteins with clearly concordant/discordant behavior between irradiated and non-irradiated GBM cells in vitro and in vivo...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Rodrigo Lopes de Lima, Rosenilde Carvalho de Holanda Afonso, Vivaldo Moura Neto, Ana Maria Bolognese, Marcos Fabio Henriques Dos Santos, Margareth Maria Gomes de Souza
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify and characterize dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) by analyzing expression of embryonic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells surface markers. Design Dental follicle cells (DFCs) were evaluated by immunocytochemistry using embryonic stem cells markers (OCT4 and SOX2), mesenchmal stem cells (MSCs) markers (Notch1, active Notch1, STRO, CD44, HLA-ABC, CD90), neural stem cells markers (Nestin and β-III-tubulin), neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) markers (p75 and HNK1) and a glial cells marker (GFAP)...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
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