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Neural stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728023/persistent-expression-of-vcam1-in-radial-glial-cells-is-required-for-the-embryonic-origin-of-postnatal-neural-stem-cells
#1
Xiao-Ling Hu, Guo Chen, Sanguo Zhang, Jiangli Zheng, Jun Wu, Qing-Ran Bai, Yue Wang, Ji Li, Huanhuan Wang, Han Feng, Jia Li, Xicai Sun, Qijun Xia, Fan Yang, Jing Hang, Chang Qi, Timothy N Phoenix, Sally Temple, Qin Shen
During development, neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo transitions from neuroepithelial cells to radial glial cells (RGCs), and later, a subpopulation of slowly dividing RGCs gives rise to the quiescent adult NSCs that populate the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). Here we show that VCAM1, a transmembrane protein previously found in quiescent adult NSCs, is expressed by a subpopulation of embryonic RGCs, in a temporal and region-specific manner. Loss of VCAM1 reduced the number of active embryonic RGCs by stimulating their premature neuronal differentiation while preventing quiescence in the slowly dividing RGCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727686/fbxw7-regulates-disc1-stability-via-the-ubiquitin-proteosome-system
#2
K Yalla, C Elliott, J P Day, J Findlay, S Barratt, Z A Hughes, L Wilson, E Whiteley, M Popiolek, Y Li, J Dunlop, R Killick, D R Adams, N J Brandon, M D Houslay, B Hao, G S Baillie
Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a multi-functional scaffolding protein that has been associated with neuropsychiatric disease. The role of DISC1 is to assemble protein complexes that promote neural development and signaling, hence tight control of the concentration of cellular DISC1 in neurons is vital to brain function. Using structural and biochemical techniques, we show for we believe the first time that not only is DISC1 turnover elicited by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) but that it is orchestrated by the F-Box protein, FBXW7...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726548/wnt-yap-interactions-during-neural-tissue-patterning-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Julie Bejoy, Liqing Song, Yi Zhou, Yan Li
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have special ability to self-assemble into neural spheroids or mini-brain like structures. During the self-assembly process, Wnt signaling plays an important role in regional patterning and establishing positional identity of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors. Recently, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression (nuclear or cytoplasmic), the pivotal regulator during organ growth and tissue generation, has attracted increasing interests...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725659/explant-methodology-for-analyzing-neuroblast-migration
#4
Kirsty J Dixon, Alisa Turbic, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
The subventricular zone (SVZ) in the mammalian forebrain contains stem/progenitor cells that migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood. SVZ-derived explant cultures provide a convenient method to assess factors regulating the intermediary stage of neural stem/progenitor cell migration. Here, we describe the isolation of SVZ-derived RMS explants from the neonatal mouse brain, and the conditions required to culture and evaluate their migration.
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725655/cell-replacement-therapy-is-the-remedial-solution-for-treating-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Venkatesan Dhivya, Vellingiri Balachandar
The selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) has made an idol target for cell replacement therapies and other emerging surgical treatments. Certainly, by transplantation method, the therapeutic regimens such as human fetal ventral midbrain (hfVM) cells, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human neural stem/precursor/ progenitor cells (hNSCs/hNPCs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), human induced neural stem cells (hiNSCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been used into DA deficient striatum...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720867/graphene-microfiber-as-a-scaffold-for-regulation-of-neural-stem-cells-differentiation
#6
Weibo Guo, Jichuan Qiu, Jingquan Liu, Hong Liu
We report the cytocompatibility and regulating effects of the nanostructured reduced graphene oxide (rGO) microfibers, which are synthesized through a capillary hydrothermal method, on neural differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). Our findings indicate that the flexible, mechanically strong, surface nanoporous, biodegradable, and cytocompatible nanostructured rGO microfibers not only offer a more powerful substrate for NSCs adhesion and proliferation compared with 2D graphene film and tissue cluture plate but also regulate the NSCs differentiation into neurons and form a dense neural network surrounding the microfiber...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719819/electrical-preconditioning-of-stem-cells-with-a-conductive-polymer-scaffold-enhances-stroke-recovery
#7
Paul M George, Tonya M Bliss, Thuy Hua, Alex Lee, Byeongtaek Oh, Alexa Levinson, Swapnil Mehta, Guohua Sun, Gary K Steinberg
Exogenous human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are promising stroke therapeutics, but optimal delivery conditions and exact recovery mechanisms remain elusive. To further elucidate repair processes and improve stroke outcomes, we developed an electrically conductive, polymer scaffold for hNPC delivery. Electrical stimulation of hNPCs alters their transcriptome including changes to the VEGF-A pathway and genes involved in cell survival, inflammatory response, and synaptic remodeling. In our experiments, exogenous hNPCs were electrically stimulated (electrically preconditioned) via the scaffold 1 day prior to implantation...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719640/short-lived-long-non-coding-rnas-as-surrogate-indicators-for-chemical-exposure-and-linc00152-and-malat1-modulate-their-neighboring-genes
#8
Hidenori Tani, Sayaka Okuda, Kaoru Nakamura, Motohide Aoki, Tomonari Umemura
Whole transcriptome analyses have revealed a large number of novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although accumulating evidence demonstrates that lncRNAs play important roles in regulating gene expression, the detailed mechanisms of action of most lncRNAs remain unclear. We previously reported that a novel class of lncRNAs with a short half-life (t1/2 < 4 h) in HeLa cells, termed short-lived non-coding transcripts (SLiTs), are closely associated with physiological and pathological functions. In this study, we focused on 26 SLiTs and nuclear-enriched abundant lncRNA, MALAT1(t1/2 of 7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719579/using-primate-neural-stem-cells-cultured-in-self-assembling-peptide-nanofiber-scaffolds-to-repair-injured-spinal-cords-in-rats
#9
J-C Ye, Y Qin, Y-F Wu, P Wang, Y Tang, L Huang, M-J Ma, Y-S Zeng, H-Y Shen
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/sc.2016.36.
July 18, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719101/neuronal-degeneration-and-regeneration-induced-by-axotomy-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-xenopus-laevis
#10
A S Cervino, D A Paz, J L Frontera
The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capability to constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) due to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs). For this reason, the OE provides an excellent model to study neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In the present work, we induced neuronal degeneration in the OE of Xenopus laevis larvae by bilateral axotomy of the olfactory nerves. We found that axotomy induces specific- neuronal death through apoptosis between 24 and 48h post-injury. In concordance, there was a progressive decrease of the mature-ORN marker OMP until it was completely absent 72h post-injury...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718448/neuronal-activity-in-ontogeny-and-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Humsa Venkatesh, Michelle Monje
The nervous system plays a central role in regulating the stem cell niche in many organs, and thereby pivotally modulates development, homeostasis, and plasticity. A similarly powerful role for neural regulation of the cancer microenvironment is emerging. Neurons promote the growth of cancers of the brain, skin, prostate, pancreas, and stomach. Parallel mechanisms shared in development and cancer suggest that neural modulation of the tumor microenvironment may prove a universal theme, although the mechanistic details of such modulation remain to be discovered for many malignancies...
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715930/transcription-analysis-of-cochlear-development-in-minipigs
#12
Qinghua Wang, Yan Zhang, Weiwei Guo, Yu Liu, Hong Wei, Shiming Yang
CONCLUSIONS: The critical stage for cochlear gene regulation in the embryo is E49-E56. These data provide a valuable resource to help elucidate gene regulation in cochlear development and will benefit ear-related studies, especially those that focus on gene and stem cell therapies in hearing loss. OBJECTIVES: To investigate gene regulation in cochlear development and provide reference information for ear-related research. METHODS: Total RNA extraction from the Bama miniature pig cochlea was performed at five time points that covered most of the cochlea development process (E42, E49, E56, E91, P13)...
July 18, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714031/effects-of-neuritin-on-the-differentiation-of-bone-marrow%C3%A2-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neuron%C3%A2-like-cells
#13
Jingling Zhu, Pingping Meng, Qian Wang, Haiyan Wang, Jinli Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Dongzheng Li, Xiaohua Tan, Lei Yang, Jin Huang
While the neurotrophic factor neuritin is known to be involved in neurodevelopment, the effects of this compound on cell differentiation remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that neuritin treatment induced the differentiation of rat bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBM‑MSCs) into neuron‑like (NL) cells. For these analyses, rBM‑MSCs were incubated with 0.5 µg/ml neuritin for 24 h. Following induction, 27% of the rBM‑MSCs exhibited typical NL cell morphologies. Subsequently, NL cells were characterized by examining the expression of neuronal markers and by analysis of cell functions...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713933/mir%C3%A2-146b%C3%A2-5p-promotes-the-neural-conversion-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-targeting-smad4
#14
Nianping Zhang, Ying Lyu, Xuebing Pan, Liping Xu, Aiguo Xuan, Xiaosong He, Wandan Huang, Dahong Long
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are regarded as potential sources that provide specific neural cells for cell therapy in some nervous system diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the neural differentiation of PSCs remain largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a class of small non‑pro-tein-coding RNAs that act as critical regulatory molecules in many cellular processes. In this study, we found that miR‑146b‑5p expression was markedly increased following the neural induction of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced PSCs (iPSCs)...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713638/neurovascular-cell-sheet-transplantation-in-a-canine-model-of-intracranial-hemorrhage
#15
Woo-Jin Lee, Jong Young Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Soon-Tae Lee, Hyo Yeol Kim, Dong-Kyu Park, Jung-Suk Yu, So-Yun Kim, Daejong Jeon, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Jae-Kyu Roh, Kon Chu
Cell-based therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has a great therapeutic potential. However, methods to effectively induce direct regeneration of the damaged neural tissue after cell transplantation have not been established, which, if done, would improve the efficacy of cell-based therapy. In this study, we aimed to develop a cell sheet with neurovasculogenic potential and evaluate its usefulness in a canine ICH model. We designed a composite cell sheet made of neural progenitors derived from human olfactory neuroepithelium and vascular progenitors from human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells...
2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713615/effects-of-radiofrequency-exposure-emitted-from-a-gsm-mobile-phone-on-proliferation-differentiation-and-apoptosis-of-neural-stem-cells
#16
Mahsa Eghlidospour, Amir Ghanbari, Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi, Hassan Azari
Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713614/condition-medium-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-retinoic-acid-induces-the-transdifferentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-neuroglia-and-neural-like-cells
#17
Sara Haratizadeh, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Shahram Darabi, Narges Karimi, Mehrdad Naghikhani, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Morteza Seifi
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains several molecules which are essential for neurogenesis. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are putatively neural crest cell-derived that can differentiate into neurons and glial cells under appropriate neurotrophic factors. The aim of this study was to induce differentiation of hDPSCs into neuroglial phenotypes using retinoic acid (RA) and CSF. The hDPSCs from an impacted third molar were isolated by mechanical and digestion and cultured. The cells have treated by 10(-7) µM RA (RA group) for 8 days, 10% CSF (CSF group) for 8 days and RA with CSF for 8 days (RA/CSF group)...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712722/cell-polarity-regulates-biased-myosin-activity-and-dynamics-during-asymmetric-cell-division-via-drosophila-rho-kinase-and-protein-kinase-n
#18
Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, David Salvador Garcia, Fabian Otte, Clemens Cabernard
Cell and tissue morphogenesis depends on the correct regulation of non-muscle Myosin II, but how this motor protein is spatiotemporally controlled is incompletely understood. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, we found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB)...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711494/development-of-membrane-ion-channels-during-neural-differentiation-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#19
Sara Mirsadeghi, Ebrahim Shahbazi, Katayoun Hemmesi, Shiva Nemati, Hossein Baharvand, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Sahar Kiani
OBJECTIVE: For human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into neurons, enormous changes has to occur leading to trigger action potential and neurotransmitter release. We attempt to determine the changes in expression of voltage gated channels (VGCs) and their electrophysiological properties during neural differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative expressions of α-subunit of voltage gated potassium, sodium and calcium channels were characterized by qRT-PCR technique...
July 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710142/perspective-neuroregenerative-nutrition
#20
Dennis A Steindler, Brent A Reynolds
Good health while aging depends upon optimal cellular and organ functioning that contribute to the regenerative ability of the body during the lifespan, especially when injuries and diseases occur. Although diet may help in the maintenance of cellular fitness during periods of stability or modest decline in the regenerative function of an organ, this approach is inadequate in an aged system, in which the ability to maintain homeostasis is further challenged by aging and the ensuing suboptimal functioning of the regenerative unit, tissue-specific stem cells...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
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