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Neural stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222148/microrna-200a-silencing-protects-neural-stem-cells-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Ji Ma, Shaofeng Shui, Xinwei Han, Dong Guo, Tengfei Li, Lei Yan
Neural stem cells (NSCs) play major roles in neurological recovery after cerebral infarction (CI). This study was trying to investigate whether miR-200a, a vital regulator in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis, also has a role in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injured NSCs. In this study, primary NSCs were subjected to OGD/R conditions to mimic an in vitro CI model. Before OGD/R induction, NSCs were transfected with vector or shRNA against miR-200a to overexpress or suppress miR-200a expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220575/generation-of-storable-retinal-organoids-and-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-adherent-human-ips-cells-in-xeno-free-and-feeder-free-conditions
#2
Sacha Reichman, Amélie Slembrouck, Giuliana Gagliardi, Antoine Chaffiol, Angélique Terray, Céline Nanteau, Anais Potey, Morgane Belle, Oriane Rabesandratana, Jens Duebel, Gael Orieux, Emeline F Nandrot, José-Alain Sahel, Olivier Goureau
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in regenerative therapies for retinal disease. For medical applications, therapeutic retinal cells, such as retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells or photoreceptor precursors, must be generated under completely defined conditions. To this purpose, we have developed a two-step xeno-free/feeder-free (XF/FF) culture system to efficiently differentiate hiPSCs into retinal cells. This simple method, relies only on adherent hiPSCs cultured in chemically defined media, bypassing embryoid body formation...
February 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219951/generation-of-thalamic-neurons-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Atsushi Shiraishi, Keiko Muguruma, Yoshiki Sasai
Thalamus is a diencephalic structure that plays crucial roles in relaying and modulating sensory and motor information to the neocortex. The thalamus develops in the dorsal part of the neural tube at the level of the caudal forebrain. However, the molecular mechanisms that are essential for thalamic differentiation are still unknown. Here we have succeeded in the generation of thalamic neurons from mouse ES cells (mESCs) by modifying the default method that induces the most-anterior neural type in self-organizing culture...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219641/neural-stem-cell-therapy-for-neurodegenerative-disorders-the-role-of-neurotrophic-support
#4
Samuel E Marsh, Mathew Blurton-Jones
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease currently affect tens of millions of people worldwide. Unfortunately, as the world's population ages, the incidence of many of these diseases will continue to rise and is expected to more than double by 2050. Despite significant research and a growing understanding of disease pathogenesis, only a handful of therapies are currently available and all of them provide only transient benefits. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel disease-modifying therapies to prevent the development or slow the progression of these debilitating disorders...
February 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218899/prospective-identification-of-hematopoietic-lineage-choice-by-deep-learning
#5
Felix Buggenthin, Florian Buettner, Philipp S Hoppe, Max Endele, Manuel Kroiss, Michael Strasser, Michael Schwarzfischer, Dirk Loeffler, Konstantinos D Kokkaliaris, Oliver Hilsenbeck, Timm Schroeder, Fabian J Theis, Carsten Marr
Differentiation alters molecular properties of stem and progenitor cells, leading to changes in their shape and movement characteristics. We present a deep neural network that prospectively predicts lineage choice in differentiating primary hematopoietic progenitors using image patches from brightfield microscopy and cellular movement. Surprisingly, lineage choice can be detected up to three generations before conventional molecular markers are observable. Our approach allows identification of cells with differentially expressed lineage-specifying genes without molecular labeling...
February 20, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216417/expression-profiling-of-clinical-specimens-supports-the-existence-of-neural-progenitor-like-stem-cells-in-basal-breast-cancers
#6
Alex Panaccione, Yan Guo, Wendell G Yarbrough, Sergey V Ivanov
BACKGROUND: We previously characterized in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) a novel population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) marked by coexpression of 2 stemness genes, sex-determining region Y (SRY)-related HMG box-containing factor 10 (SOX10) and CD133. We also reported that in ACC and basal-like breast carcinoma (BBC), a triple-negative breast cancer subtype, expression of SOX10 similarly demarcates a highly conserved gene signature enriched with neural stem cell genes. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that BBC might be likewise driven by SOX10-positive (SOX10(+))/CD133(+) cells with neural stem cell properties...
January 27, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216299/hipsc-derived-retinal-ganglion-cells-grow-dendritic-arbors-and-functional-axons-on-a-tissue-engineered-scaffold
#7
Kangjun Li, Xiufeng Zhong, Sijing Yang, Ziming Luo, Kang Li, Ying Liu, Song Cai, Huaiyu Gu, Shoutao Lu, Haijun Zhang, Yantao Wei, Jing Zhuang, Yehong Zhuo, Zhigang Fan, Jian Ge
: Numerous therapeutic procedures in modern medical research rely on the use of tissue engineering for the treatment of retinal diseases. However, the cell source and the transplantation method are still a limitation. Previously, we reported on the induction of a self-organizing three-dimensional neural retina from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, we disclose the generation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from the neural retina and their seeding on a biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold to create an engineered RGC-scaffold biomaterial...
February 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216147/differential-responses-of-human-fetal-brain-neural-stem-cells-to-zika-virus-infection
#8
Erica L McGrath, Shannan L Rossi, Junling Gao, Steven G Widen, Auston C Grant, Tiffany J Dunn, Sasha R Azar, Christopher M Roundy, Ying Xiong, Deborah J Prusak, Bradford D Loucas, Thomas G Wood, Yongjia Yu, Ildefonso Fernández-Salas, Scott C Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis, Ping Wu
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes microcephaly in a subset of infants born to infected pregnant mothers. It is unknown whether human individual differences contribute to differential susceptibility of ZIKV-related neuropathology. Here, we use an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain, isolated from the 2015 Mexican outbreak (Mex1-7), to infect primary human neural stem cells (hNSCs) originally derived from three individual fetal brains. All three strains of hNSCs exhibited similar rates of Mex1-7 infection and reduced proliferation...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216146/divergent-levels-of-marker-chromosomes-in-an-hipsc-based-model-of%C3%A2-psychosis
#9
Julia Tcw, Claudia M B Carvalho, Bo Yuan, Shen Gu, Alyssa N Altheimer, Shane McCarthy, Dheeraj Malhotra, Jonathan Sebat, Arthur J Siegel, Uwe Rudolph, James R Lupski, Deborah L Levy, Kristen J Brennand
In the process of generating presumably clonal human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from two carriers of a complex structural rearrangement, each having a psychotic disorder, we also serendipitously generated isogenic non-carrier control hiPSCs, finding that the rearrangement occurs as an extrachromosomal marker (mar) element. All confirmed carrier hiPSCs and differentiated neural progenitor cell lines were found to be mosaic. We caution that mar elements may be difficult to functionally evaluate in hiPSC cultures using currently available methods, as it is difficult to distinguish cells with and without mar elements in live mosaic cultures...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216145/a-human-neural-crest-stem-cell-derived-dopaminergic-neuronal-model-recapitulates-biochemical-abnormalities-in-gba1-mutation-carriers
#10
Shi-Yu Yang, Michelle Beavan, Kai-Yin Chau, Jan-Willem Taanman, Anthony H V Schapira
Numerically the most important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the presence of mutations in the glucocerebrosidase GBA1 gene. In vitro and in vivo studies show that GBA1 mutations reduce glucocerebrosidase (GCase) activity and are associated with increased α-synuclein levels, reflecting similar changes seen in idiopathic PD brain. We have developed a neural crest stem cell-derived dopaminergic neuronal model that recapitulates biochemical abnormalities in GBA1 mutation-associated PD...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216143/enhanced-functional-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury-in-aged-mice-after-stem-cell-transplantation-through-hgf-induction
#11
Morito Takano, Soya Kawabata, Shinsuke Shibata, Akimasa Yasuda, Satoshi Nori, Osahiko Tsuji, Narihito Nagoshi, Akio Iwanami, Hayao Ebise, Keisuke Horiuchi, Hideyuki Okano, Masaya Nakamura
The number of elderly patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) is increasing worldwide, representing a serious burden for both the affected patients and the community. Previous studies have demonstrated that neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is an effective treatment for SCI in young animals. Here we show that NSC transplantation is as effective in aged mice as it is in young mice, even though aged mice exhibit more severe neurological deficits after SCI. NSCs grafted into aged mice exhibited better survival than those grafted into young mice...
February 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216142/astrocytic-calcium-waves-signal-brain-injury-to-neural-stem-and%C3%A2-progenitor%C3%A2-cells
#12
Anna Kraft, Eduardo Rosales Jubal, Ruth von Laer, Claudia Döring, Adriana Rocha, Moyo Grebbin, Martin Zenke, Helmut Kettenmann, Albrecht Stroh, Stefan Momma
Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather than by diffusible factors or hypoxia...
February 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215302/the-role-of-neurotrophin-signaling-in-gliomagenesis-a-focus-on-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-p75-ntr-cd271
#13
M M Alshehri, S M Robbins, D L Senger
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR), a.k.a. CD271), a transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the tumor necrosis family (TNF) of receptors, was originally identified as a nerve growth factor receptor in the mid-1980s. While p75(NTR) is recognized to have important roles during neural development, its presence in both neural and nonneural tissues clearly supports the potential to mediate a broad range of functions depending on cellular context. Using an unbiased in vivo selection paradigm for genes underlying the invasive behavior of glioma, a critical characteristic that contributes to poor clinical outcome for glioma patients, we identified p75(NTR) as a central regulator of glioma invasion...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214829/ephb4-regulates-self-renewal-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#14
Tingting Liu, Xianwei Zeng, Fangling Sun, Hongli Hou, Yunqian Guan, Deyu Guo, Houxi Ai, Wen Wang, Guojun Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: EphB4 belongs to the largest family of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. It contributes to a variety of pathological progresses of cancer malignancy. However, little is known about its role in neural stem cells (NSCs). This study examined whether EphB4 is required for proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells (hNSCs) in vitro. METHODS: We up- and down-regulated EphB4 expression in hNSCs using lentiviral over-expression and shRNA knockdown constructs and then investigated the influence of EphB4 on the properties of hNSCs...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214347/involvement-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-vav3-in-central-nervous-system-development-and-plasticity
#15
Annika Ulc, Christine Gottschling, Ina Schäfer, David Wegrzyn, Simon van Leeuwen, Veronika Luft, Jacqueline Reinhard, Andreas Faissner
Small GTP-hydrolysing enzymes (GTPases) of the RhoA family play manifold roles in cell biology and are regulated by upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we focus on the GEFs of the Vav subfamily. Vav1 was originally described as a protooncogene of the hematopoietic lineage. The GEFs Vav2 and Vav3 are more broadly expressed in various tissues. In particular, the GEF Vav3 may play important roles in the developing nervous system during the differentiation of neural stem cells into the major lineages, namely neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes...
February 18, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213969/highly-efficient-neural-conversion-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-adherent-and-animal-free-conditions
#16
Dunja Lukovic, Andrea Diez Lloret, Petra Stojkovic, Daniel Rodríguez-Martínez, Maria Amparo Perez Arago, Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez, Patricia González-Rodríguez, José López-Barneo, Eva Sykova, Pavla Jendelova, Jelena Kostic, Victoria Moreno-Manzano, Miodrag Stojkovic, Shomi S Bhattacharya, Slaven Erceg
Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can produce a valuable and robust source of human neural cell subtypes, holding great promise for the study of neurogenesis and development, and for treating neurological diseases. However, current hESCs and hiPSCs neural differentiation protocols require either animal factors or embryoid body formation, which decreases efficiency and yield, and strongly limits medical applications. Here we develop a simple, animal-free protocol for neural conversion of both hESCs and hiPSCs in adherent culture conditions...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213929/exploration-of-the-brn4-regulated-genes-enhancing-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-rna-sequencing
#17
Jingjing Guo, Xiang Cheng, Lei Zhang, Linmei Wang, Yongxin Mao, Guixiang Tian, Wenhao Xu, Yuhao Wu, Zhi Ma, Jianbing Qin, Meiling Tian, Guohua Jin, Wei Shi, Xinhua Zhang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is essential for learning and memory, and its dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis are still largely unknown. Our previous studies indicated that the transcription factor Brn4 was upregulated and promoted neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the surgically denervated hippocampus in rats. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis induced by lentivirus-mediated Brn4 overexpression in vivo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213588/a-differential-autophagy-dependent-response-to-dna-double-strand-brakes-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-sporadic-als-patients
#18
Shane Wald-Altman, Edward Pichinuk, Or Kakhlon, Miguel Weil
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable motor neurodegenerative disease caused by a diversity of genetic and environmental factors leading to neuromuscular degeneration and pathophysiological implications in non-neural systems. Our previous work showed abnormal transcriptional expression levels of biomarker genes in non-neuronal cell samples from ALS patients. The same genes proved to be differentially expressed in brain, spinal cord and muscle of the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. These observations support the pathophysiological relevance of the ALS biomarkers discovered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from bone marrow samples of ALS patients (ALS-hMSC)...
February 16, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212724/mechanistic-insight-into-neurotoxicity-induced-by-developmental-insults
#19
REVIEW
Christoffer Tamm, Sandra Ceccatelli
Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210976/regenerative-medicine-for-parkinson-s-disease-using-differentiated-nerve-cells-derived-from-human-buccal-fat-pad-stem-cells
#20
Haruka Takahashi, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Akira Tanaka
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of human adipose stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad (hBFP-ASCs) for nerve regeneration. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons. PD is a candidate disease for cell replacement therapy because it has no fundamental therapeutic methods. We examined the properties of neural-related cells induced from hBFP-ASCs as a cell source for PD treatment. hBFP-ASCs were cultured in neurogenic differentiation medium for about 2 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Human Cell
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