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Molecular epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785011/a-genome-wide-cross-trait-analysis-from-uk-biobank-highlights-the-shared-genetic-architecture-of-asthma-and-allergic-diseases
#1
Zhaozhong Zhu, Phil H Lee, Mark D Chaffin, Wonil Chung, Po-Ru Loh, Quan Lu, David C Christiani, Liming Liang
Clinical and epidemiological data suggest that asthma and allergic diseases are associated and may share a common genetic etiology. We analyzed genome-wide SNP data for asthma and allergic diseases in 33,593 cases and 76,768 controls of European ancestry from UK Biobank. Two publicly available independent genome-wide association studies were used for replication. We have found a strong genome-wide genetic correlation between asthma and allergic diseases (rg  = 0.75, P = 6.84 × 10-62 ). Cross-trait analysis identified 38 genome-wide significant loci, including 7 novel shared loci...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784861/genome-variation-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-salmonella-typhimurium-pathovariants
#2
Priscilla Branchu, Matt Bawn, Robert A Kingsley
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S Typhimurium) is one of approximately 2500 distinct serovars of the genus Salmonella , but is exceptional in its wide distribution in the environment, livestock, and wild animals. S Typhimurium causes a large proportion of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) infections, accounting for a quarter of infections, second only to S Enteritidis in incidence. S Typhimurium was once considered the archetypal broad host range Salmonella serovar due to its wide distribution in livestock and wild animals and much of what we know of the interaction of Salmonella with the host comes from research using a small number of laboratory strains of the serovar (LT2, SL1344, ATCC14028)...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783822/-evaluations-of-newborn-screening-program-performance-and-enzymatic-diagnosis-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-guangzhou
#3
F Tang, Y L Huang, X Jiang, X F Jia, B Li, Y Feng, Q Y Chen, C F Tang
Objective: To reveal the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene and to evaluate based on the genetic analysis the newborn screening program performance and enzymatic diagnosis of G6PD deficiency in Guangzhou. Methods: G6PD enzyme activities were measured by quantitative fluorescence assay in dry blood spots of 16 319 newborns(8 725 males, 7 594 females) 3-7 days after birth in Guangzhou Newborn Center. They were born in Guangzhou form Oct. 1 to 20, 2016. The cutoff value of G6PD was less than 2...
May 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783161/candidate-gene-analysis-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-epidemiologic-sleep-study-episono-shows-an-association-of-variant-in-pde4d-and-sleepiness
#4
Victoria M Pak, Diego R Mazzotti, Brendan T Keenan, Camila Hirotsu, Philip Gehrman, Lia Bittencourt, Allan I Pack, Sergio Tufik
INTRODUCTION: Sleepiness and cardiovascular disease share common molecular pathways; thus, genetic risk factors for sleepiness may also predict cardiovascular disease risk. This study explored the associations between subjective sleepiness and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes within oxidative stress, inflammatory, and neuronal pathways, which may contribute to sleepiness and downstream cardiovascular disease risk: Cytochrome B-245, Alpha Polypeptide (CYBA), Cytochrome B-245, Beta Polypeptide (CYBB), Neutrophil Cytosolic Factor (NCF2), Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNFA), and Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D)...
January 12, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783023/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-infections-in-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-epidemiology-and-molecular-characterization
#5
Molka Kharrat, Yosra Chebbi, Farah Ben Tanfous, Amel Lakhal, Saloua Ladeb, Tarek Ben Othmen, Wafa Achour
BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are feared because they generate therapeutic difficulties and have high potential for dissemination. The purpose of our study was to investigate the epidemiology of these infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and to determine the genes encoding ESBL. MATERIAL/METHODS: Our retrospective study concerned adult patients hospitalized at the National Bone Marrow Transplant Center and infected with ESBL-E post HSCT between january 2006 and december 2016...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782370/a-common-polymorphism-in-the-scn5a-gene-is-associated-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#6
Cristina Mazzaccara, Giuseppe Limongelli, Mario Petretta, Rossella Vastarella, Giuseppe Pacileo, Domenico Bonaduce, Francesco Salvatore, Giulia Frisso
AIMS: SCN5A is a disease-causing gene associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDC). We examined the possible association between a common polymorphism in the SCN5A gene (c.1673A>G-p.H558R; rs1805124) and the risk of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) occurrence. METHODS: We genotyped 185 DCM cases (familial DCM, idiopathic DCM and postischemic DCM) and 251 controls for the p.H558R polymorphism in the SCN5A gene, to test the association of the molecular epidemiology of the individuals with the presence/absence of various types of DCM...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782317/dementia-research-populations-progress-problems-and-predictions
#7
Sally Hunter, Nadja Smailagic, Carol Brayne
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a clinicopathologically defined syndrome leading to cognitive impairment. Following the recent failures of amyloid-based randomized controlled trials to change the course of AD, there are growing calls for a re-evaluation of basic AD research. Epidemiology offers one approach to integrating the available evidence. Here we examine relationships between evidence from population-based, clinicopathological studies of brain aging and a range of hypotheses from all areas of AD research...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781421/molecular-phylogeny-based-on-six-nuclear-genes-suggests-that-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-lato-genotypes-g6-g7-and-g8-g10-can-be-regarded-as-two-distinct-species
#8
Teivi Laurimäe, Liina Kinkar, Epp Moks, Thomas Romig, Rihab A Omer, Adriano Casulli, Gérald Umhang, Guna Bagrade, Malik Irshadullah, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Hossein Mirhendi, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Silvia V Soriano, Antonio Varcasia, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Vanessa Andresiuk, Urmas Saarma
Tapeworms of the species complex of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) are the cause of a severe zoonotic disease - cystic echinococcosis, which is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases in humans and is prioritized by the World Health Organization. A stable taxonomy of E. granulosus s. l. is essential to the medical and veterinary communities for accurate and effective communication of the role of different species in this complex on human and animal health. E. granulosus s. l. displays high genetic diversity and has been divided into different species and genotypes...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780357/altered-circadian-rhythms-and-breast-cancer-from-the-human-to-the-molecular-level
#9
REVIEW
Hui-Hsien Lin, Michelle E Farkas
Circadian clocks are fundamental, time-tracking systems that allow organisms to adapt to the appropriate time of day and drive many physiological and cellular processes. Altered circadian rhythms can result from night-shift work, chronic jet lag, exposure to bright lights at night, or other conditioning, and have been shown to lead to increased likelihood of cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and immune dysregulation. In cases of cancer, worse patient prognoses and drug resistance during treatment have also been observed...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780013/use-of-internal-transcribed-spacer-sequence-polymorphisms-as-a-method-for-trichomonas-vaginalis-genotyping
#10
Hatice Ertabaklar, Sema Ertuğ, Serçin Özlem Çalışkan, Erdoğan Malatyalı, Bülent Bozdoğan
OBJECTIVE: Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted pathogen with a worldwide distribution. The aim of the present study was to design a new genotyping tool for T. vaginalis isolates using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. METHODS: First, a total of 20 cryopreserved T. vaginalis isolates were thawed and genomic DNA was isolated from fresh cultures. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the ITS regions and the amplicons were sequenced...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779780/on-sunspots-click-science-and-molecular-iconography
#11
Igor Mokrousov
CRISPR-spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing, SITVIT_WEB and MIRU-VNTRplus are the methods and online resources most widely used for Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype family assignment and clustering analysis. They have been proven invaluable for molecular epidemiological studies of this important human pathogen in setting up the terminology and classification framework. However, they are inherently limited by insufficient knowledge of evolution of the targeted genome loci (especially, CRISPR). The situation is aggravated by the dogmatic, iconographic perception of these increasingly user-friendly online tools...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779647/in-vitro-susceptibility-and-multilocus-sequence-typing-of-fusarium-isolates-causing-keratitis
#12
P Dallé da Rosa, A Nunes, R Borges, B Batista, A Meneghello Fuentefria, L Z Goldani
Fungal keratitis is recognized as a significant cause of ocular morbidity and blindness especially in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to present the molecular identification and susceptibility of Fusarium isolates causing fungal keratitis in a university hospital in southern Brazil. The samples were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), while the antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology...
May 17, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779155/prioritising-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-causal-inference-through-genetic-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Laura B L Wittemans, Luca A Lotta, Claudia Langenberg
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Causality has been demonstrated for few of the many putative risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) emerging from observational epidemiology. Genetic approaches are increasingly being used to infer causality, and in this review, we discuss how genetic discoveries have shaped our understanding of the causal role of factors associated with T2D. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic discoveries have led to the identification of novel potential aetiological factors of T2D, including the protective role of peripheral fat storage capacity and specific metabolic pathways, such as the branched-chain amino acid breakdown...
May 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778701/natural-history-of-avian-papillomaviruses
#14
REVIEW
Daniel A Truchado, Richard A J Williams, Laura Benítez
Papillomaviruses (Family: Papillomaviridae) are small non-enveloped viruses that cause skin and mucosa infections in diverse vertebrates. The vast majority have been detected in mammals. However, the number of papillomaviruses described in birds is growing, especially because of metagenomic studies. Seven complete genomes and one partial sequence have been described, corresponding to five papillomavirus genera. These have been detected from various sample types, including skin, internal epithelium, and faecal material, from seven highly diverse wild and captive avian species...
May 17, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778490/the-molecular-allergology-of-subtropical-grass-pollen
#15
Thina Kailaivasan, Janet M Davies
Grass pollens are amongst the most important aeroallergen sources world-wide triggering allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in sensitised patients. Much of what we know about the allergen components of grasses is informed by research on pollen of temperate (Pooideae) species that are abundant in the temperate climate zones. However, climate changes are altering the biogeographical distribution as well as timing and allergenicity of grass pollens. This provides an impetus for better understanding of the contribution of subtropical subfamilies of grasses to pollen allergy globally...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777337/molecular-epidemiology-of-parasitic-protozoa-and-ehrlichia-canis-in-wildlife-in-madrid-central-spain
#16
Angel Criado-Fornelio, T Martín-Pérez, C Verdú-Expósito, S A Reinoso-Ortiz, J Pérez-Serrano
Wildlife species are involved in the transmission of diverse pathogens. This study aimed to monitor raccoons (Procyon lotor), American minks (Neovison vison), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as potential reservoirs in central Spain. Specifically, 200 spleen and fecal samples (from 194 raccoons, 3 minks, and 3 foxes) were analyzed molecularly by PCR/qPCR and sequencing for the presence of piroplasmids, Hepatozoon spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Ehrlichia canis infections in the Community of Madrid (Spain). Biological samples were obtained in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016...
May 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776807/public-health-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-clones-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-europe-a-genomic-survey
#17
Simon R Harris, Michelle J Cole, Gianfranco Spiteri, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Daniel Golparian, Susanne Jacobsson, Richard Goater, Khalil Abudahab, Corin A Yeats, Beatrice Bercot, Maria José Borrego, Brendan Crowley, Paola Stefanelli, Francesco Tripodo, Raquel Abad, David M Aanensen, Magnus Unemo
BACKGROUND: Traditional methods for molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are suboptimal. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offers ideal resolution to describe population dynamics and to predict and infer transmission of antimicrobial resistance, and can enhance infection control through linkage with epidemiological data. We used WGS, in conjunction with linked epidemiological and phenotypic data, to describe the gonococcal population in 20 European countries. We aimed to detail changes in phenotypic antimicrobial resistance levels (and the reasons for these changes) and strain distribution (with a focus on antimicrobial resistance strains in risk groups), and to predict antimicrobial resistance from WGS data...
May 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776426/detection-of-zika-virus-infection-among-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-in-the-north-of-peru
#18
Claudia Weilg, Lucinda Troyes, Zoila Villegas, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Fernando Mazulis, Ammy Febres, Mario Troyes, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, Juana Del Valle-Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: To report an outbreak of ZIKV infection among asymptomatic pregnant women during 2016 in the city of Jaen, Cajamarca. RESULTS: Zika virus RNA was detected in 3.2% (n = 36) of cases by RT-PCR. The mean age of patients positive for ZIKV infection was 29.6 years. 7 patients (19.4%) infected with ZIKV were in their first-trimester of gestation, 13 (36.1%) were in their second-trimester, and 16 (44%) were in their third-trimester. All of the infected pregnant women were asymptomatic...
May 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776357/anopheles-arabiensis-in-sudan-a-noticeable-tolerance-to-urban-polluted-larval-habitats-associated-with-resistance-to-temephos
#19
Rasha S Azrag, Babiker H Mohammed
BACKGROUND: It has been documented that unplanned urbanization leads to the exposure of members of the Anopheles vectors to a range of water pollution in urban settings. Many surveys from African and Asian countries reported the presence of Anopheles larvae in polluted urban habitats. The present study documents an obvious tolerance of the melanic and normal forms of Anopheles arabiensis to urban polluted larval habitats accompanied by resistance to Temephos larvicide. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out to inspect apparently polluted An...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774858/genomic-epidemiology-of-global-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacter-spp-2008-2014
#20
Gisele Peirano, Yasufumi Matsumura, Mark D Adams, Patricia Bradford, Mary Motyl, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Johann D D Pitout
We performed whole-genome sequencing on 170 clinical carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter spp. isolates collected globally during 2008-2014. The most common carbapenemase was VIM, followed by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, oxacillin 48, and IMP. The isolates were of predominantly 2 species (E. xiangfangensis and E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii) and 4 global clones (sequence type [ST] 114, ST93, ST90, and ST78) with different clades within ST114 and ST90. Particular genetic structures surrounding carbapenemase genes were circulating locally in various institutions within the same or between different STs in Greece, Guatemala, Italy, Spain, Serbia, and Vietnam...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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