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Molecular epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329261/effects-of-noise-on-vascular-function-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-mechanistic-insight-from-studies-in-mice
#1
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber, Sebastian Steven, Lan P Tran, Elisabeth Ullmann, Sabine Kossmann, Frank P Schmidt, Matthias Oelze, Ning Xia, Huige Li, Antonio Pinto, Philipp Wild, Kai Pies, Erwin R Schmidt, Steffen Rapp, Swenja Kröller-Schön
Aims: Epidemiological studies indicate that traffic noise increases the incidence of coronary artery disease, hypertension and stroke. The underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Field studies with nighttime noise exposure demonstrate that aircraft noise leads to vascular dysfunction, which is markedly improved by vitamin C, suggesting a key role of oxidative stress in causing this phenomenon. Methods and results: We developed a novel animal model to study the vascular consequences of aircraft noise exposure...
February 17, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328944/respiratory-viruses-in-patients-with-influenza-like-illness-in-senegal-focus-on-human-respiratory-adenoviruses
#2
Mbayame Ndiaye Niang, Ndeye Sokhna Diop, Amary Fall, Davy E Kiori, Fatoumata Diene Sarr, Sara Sy, Déborah Goudiaby, Mamadou Aliou Barry, Malick Fall, Ndongo Dia
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens that are associated with a wide spectrum of human illnesses involving the respiratory tract. In the present study, we investigate the epidemiologic and viral molecular features of HAdVs circulating in Senegal after 4 consecutive years of sentinel surveillance of influenza-like Illness cases. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: From January 2012 to December 2015 swabs were collected from consenting ILI outpatients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327798/molecular-and-clinical-epidemiological-surveillance-of-dengue-virus-in-para%C3%A3-ba-northeast-brazil
#3
Isabel Cristina Guerra-Gomes, Bruna Macêdo Gois, Rephany Fonseca Peixoto, Camila Alves Oliveira, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel, Maria Izabel Ferreira Sarmento, Anna Stella Cysneiros Pachá, Josélio Maria Galvão Araújo, Ian Porto Gurgel Amaral, Tatjana Souza Lima Keesen
INTRODUCTION: Despite being the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide, dengue has been neglected lately. However, recent epidemics of arboviruses such as Zika and chikungunya in locations throughout the world have alerted health authorities to these diseases. This study evaluated the incidence pattern of dengue, its clinical characteristics, and co-circulation of serotypes from 2007 to 2015 in Paraiba State, Northeast Brazil. METHODS: Data on dengue cases from 2007 to 2015 were extracted from clinical reports of the National System for Notifiable Diseases [Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN)] of Brazil provided by the Paraiba Health Department...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326446/blastocystis-how-do-specific-diets-and-human-gut-microbiota-affect-its-development-and-pathogenicity
#4
REVIEW
M Lepczyńska, J Białkowska, E Dzika, K Piskorz-Ogórek, J Korycińska
Blastocystis is an enteric parasite that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many animals. This emerging parasite has a worldwide distribution. It is often identified as the most common eukaryotic organism reported in human fecal samples. This parasite is recognized and diagnosed more often than ever before. Furthermore, some strains develop resistance against currently recommended drugs, such as metronidazole; therefore, the use of natural remedies or special diets has many positive aspects that may address this problem...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326082/neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-otherwise-healthy-infants-failure-of-specific-neonatal-immune-responses
#5
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Jacques Fellay
Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325827/sessile-serrated-polyps-and-colon-cancer-prevention
#6
Shahrooz Rashtak, Rafaela Rego, Seth R Sweetser, Frank A Sinicrope
Evidence suggests that up to one fifth of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) develop from serrated polyps, named for their pattern of colonic crypts, and include the sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) that has malignant potential. SSA/Ps are typically located in the proximal colon and have molecular features of hypermethylation of CpG islands in gene promoters and activating point mutations (V600E) in the BRAF oncogene. Both of these features are seen in sporadic CRCs with microsatellite instability (MSI) which is potentially consistent with an origin of these cancers from precursor SSA/Ps...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325065/low-rates-of-transmitted-drug-resistances-among-treatment-naive-hiv-1-infected-students-in-beijing-china
#7
Mingqiang Hao, Juan Wang, Ruolei Xin, Xue Li, Yinxiao Hao, Jing Chen, Jingrong Ye, Yu Wang, Xiong He, Chun Huang, Hongyan Lu
Beijing has seen a rising epidemic of HIV among students. However, little information was known about the molecular epidemiologic data among HIV-infected students. In this study, the diversity and the prevalence of TDR in pol sequences deriving from 237 HIV-infected students were analyzed. TDR mutations were found in 5 MSM among students. The overall prevalence of TDR in students was 2.1%, comprised of 1.3% to protease inhibitors and 0.8 % to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Our finding indicates a low-level prevalence of TDR mutations among students in Beijing...
March 22, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325060/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-in-northeastern-brazil-high-prevalence-of-non-b-subtypes
#8
Edson Delatorre, José C Couto-Fernandez, Gonzalo Bello
The Northeastern Brazilian region has experienced a constant increase in the number of newly reported AIDS cases over the last decade, but the genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains currently disseminated in this region remains poorly explored. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained from 140 patients followed at outpatient clinics from four Northeastern Brazilian states (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará and Piauí) between 2014 and 2015. Subtype B was the most prevalent HIV-1 clade (72%) detected in the Northeastern region, followed by subtypes F1 (6%), C (5%) and D (1%)...
March 22, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323835/molecular-epidemiology-of-cryptococcal-genotype-vnic-st5-in-siriraj-hospital-thailand
#9
Chanin Hatthakaroon, Sujiraphong Pharkjaksu, Piriyaporn Chongtrakool, Kamol Suwannakarn, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj
Despite the strong association between Cryptococcus neoformans infection and the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of patients globally, most cryptococcosis cases in Far East Asia occur in non-HIV individuals. Molecular epidemiological studies, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), have shown that more than 95% of cryptococcal strains belong to a specific subtype of VNI. However, this association has never been specifically examined in other parts of Asia. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the VNIc/ST5 genotype distribution among cryptococcosis patients in Thailand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323193/spread-of-a-new-c-trachomatis-variant-from-men-who-have-sex-with-men-to-the-heterosexual-population-after-the-replacement-and-recombination-in-ompa-and-pmph-genes
#10
Mario Rodríguez-Domínguez, José María González-Alba, Teresa Puerta, Laura Martínez-García, Blanca Menéndez, Rafael Cantón, Jorge Del Romero, Juan Carlos Galán
OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections are frequently related to outbreaks in high-risk populations due to the dense sexual networks. We wanted to determine the dissemination of a C. trachomatis variant characterized by pmpH-recombinant gene between L and G genotypes, which was previously described in a high-risk population. METHODS: 449 samples were analysed in two periods ranging from 2009-2015 for detection of pmpH-recombinant gene. For those samples yielding positive amplification, a sampling was selected for phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequencing of five chromosomal genes...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320263/duck-virus-enteritis-duck-plague-a-comprehensive-update
#11
Kuldeep Dhama, Naveen Kumar, Mani Saminathan, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, M Asok Kumar, M Palanivelu, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Yashpal Singh Malik, Raj Kumar Singh
Duck virus enteritis (DVE), also called duck plague, is one of the major contagious and fatal diseases of ducks, geese and swan. It is caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV)/Anatid herpesvirus-1 of the genus Mardivirus, family Herpesviridae, and subfamily Alpha-herpesvirinae. Of note, DVE has worldwide distribution, wherein migratory waterfowl plays a crucial role in its transmission within and between continents. Furthermore, horizontal and/ or vertical transmission plays a significant role in disease spread through oral-fecal discharges...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320174/etiological-agents-of-viral-meningitis-in-children-from-a-dengue-endemic-area-southeast-region-of-brazil
#12
Danilo B de Oliveira, Talitah M Candiani, Ana Paula M Franco-Luiz, Gabriel M F Almeida, Jônatas S Abrahão, Maria Rios, Roney S Coimbra, Erna G Kroon
Meningitis is a disease with a global distribution that constitutes a worldwide burden, with viruses as the primary etiologic agents. The range of viral meningitis severity depends mainly on age, immune status and etiological agent. The aim of this work was to investigate the suspected cases of viral meningitis using molecular techniques to confirm the viral infection. The diagnosed virus was correlated with clinical findings and cytochemical parameters in cerebrospinal liquid (CSF) of patients. CSF of 70 children with the presumptive diagnosis of viral meningitis was analyzed by real time PCR (qPCR)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319790/within-host-rna-virus-persistence-mechanisms-and-consequences
#13
REVIEW
Richard E Randall, Diane E Griffin
In a prototypical response to an acute viral infection it would be expected that the adaptive immune response would eliminate all virally infected cells within a few weeks of infection. However many (non-retrovirus) RNA viruses can establish 'within host' persistent infections that occasionally lead to chronic or reactivated disease. Despite the importance of 'within host' persistent RNA virus infections, much has still to be learnt about the molecular mechanisms by which RNA viruses establish persistent infections, why innate and adaptive immune responses fail to rapidly clear these infections, and the epidemiological and potential disease consequences of such infections...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319050/extracellular-matrix-proteomics-identifies-molecular-signature-of-symptomatic-carotid-plaques
#14
Sarah R Langley, Karin Willeit, Athanasios Didangelos, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Philipp Skroblin, Javier Barallobre-Barreiro, Mariette Lengquist, Gregor Rungger, Alexander Kapustin, Ludmilla Kedenko, Chris Molenaar, Ruifang Lu, Temo Barwari, Gonca Suna, Xiaoke Yin, Bernhard Iglseder, Bernhard Paulweber, Peter Willeit, Joseph Shalhoub, Gerard Pasterkamp, Alun H Davies, Claudia Monaco, Ulf Hedin, Catherine M Shanahan, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Manuel Mayr
BACKGROUND: The identification of patients with high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to the manifestation of clinical events remains challenging. Recent findings question histology- and imaging-based definitions of the "vulnerable plaque," necessitating an improved approach for predicting onset of symptoms. METHODS: We performed a proteomics comparison of the vascular extracellular matrix and associated molecules in human carotid endarterectomy specimens from 6 symptomatic versus 6 asymptomatic patients to identify a protein signature for high-risk atherosclerotic plaques...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318817/clinical-and-mutational-characteristics-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients-based-on-a-comprehensive-database-in-south-china
#15
Dan-Ni Wang, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Lei Yan, Jin He, Min-Ting Lin, Wan-Jin Chen, Ning Wang
The development of clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in China faces many challenges due to limited information about epidemiological data, natural history and clinical management. To provide these detailed data, we developed a comprehensive database based on registered DMD patients from South China and analysed their clinical and mutational characteristics. The database included DMD registrants confirmed by clinical presentation, family history, genetic detection, prognostic outcome, and/or muscle biopsy...
February 21, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317799/a-first-insight-into-the-genetic-diversity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-veracruz-mexico
#16
Raquel Almaraz-Velasco, Daniela Munro-Rojas, Javier Fuentes-Domínguez, Raquel Muñiz-Salazar, Maria Angélica Ibarra-Estela, Alma Delia Guevara-Méndez, Rosa Icela Chaparro-Martinez, Monserrat Perez-Navarro, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important infectious diseases. Although Mexico is one of the Latin American countries with the largest contribution to these statistics, there are few reports that describe the genotypic characteristics of TB. The aim of this study was to use the MIRU-VNTR-24 loci to analyze the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis circulating in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. METHODS: Here, we analyze by MIRU-VNTR-24 loci 80 clinical isolates from individuals with confirmed TB from Veracruz México, also clinical and epidemiological variables were recovered and analyzed...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316401/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-species-in-cattle-and-buffalo-calves-in-mumbai-region-of-india
#17
A C Hingole, J G Gudewar, R P Pednekar, M L Gatne
Faecal samples of cattle and buffaloes of Mumbai region collected between November 2012 to June 2013 were analysed by conventional and molecular tools to note the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and species involved in the infection. Conventional analysis viz., direct faecal smear examination, faecal smear examination after normal saline sedimentation, Sheather's floatation and Sheather's floatation sedimentation smear methods demonstrated oocysts of Cryptosporidium in 141 (36.06 %) of 391 samples with higher occurrence in buffaloes (36...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316138/irx3-is-a-genetic-modifier-for-birth-weight-adolescent-obesity-and-transaminase-metabolism
#18
C Liu, C Chu, J Zhang, D Wu, D Xu, P Li, Y Chen, B Liu, L Pei, L Zhang, S Liu, T Qi, X-Y Lou, L Li
OBJECTIVE: IRX3 expression has been functionally associated in obesity-associated long-distance susceptibility loci, but the effect of the IRX3 genetic variants on human obesity and obesity-related metabolism remains uncertain. METHODS: To determine the genetic role of IRX3, we conducted a molecular epidemiological analysis using three haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs8053360, rs3751723 and rs12445085) and one nonsynonymous SNP (rs1126960) at the IRX3 locus in 333 junior and senior high school students from a northeast Chinese population...
March 19, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315724/molecular-detection-of-six-virulence-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-detected-in-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#19
Ali Badamchi, Hossein Masoumi, Shima Javadinia, Ramin Asgarian, Azardokht Tabatabaee
Although a vast majority of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by E. coli, epidemiological reports have indicated an increasing rate of such infections caused by some other opportunistic organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenesis mechanisms of P. aeruginosa are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect some virulence factor genes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates detected in patients with UTI, in children hospital of Tehran, Tehran, Iran...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315306/molecular-characterization-of-camelpox-virus-isolates-from-bikaner-india-evidence-of-its-endemicity
#20
Shyam Singh Dahiya, Sachin Kumar, Sharat Chandra Mehta, Raghvendar Singh, Kashi Nath, Shirish D Narnaware, Fateh Chand Tuteja
Camelpox is an important viral disease of camels, which may produce mild skin lesions or severe systemic infections. Camelpox virus (CMLV) isolates retrieved from an incidence of camelpox in camels at Bikaner, India were characterized on the basis of genotype and pathotype. Histopathological examination of the CMLV scab revealed intracytoplasmic-eosinophilic inclusion bodies. The phylogenetic analysis of all eight CMLV isolates for C18L gene nucleotide sequence revealed its clustering with its strains M-96 from Kazakhstan and CMS from Iran...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
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