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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087306/molecular-epidemiological-analysis-of-human-and-chicken-derived-isolates-of-campylobacter-jejuni-in-japan-using-next-generation-sequencing
#2
Takayuki Ohishi, Kotaro Aoki, Yoshikazu Ishii, Masaru Usui, Yutaka Tamura, Michiko Kawanishi, Ohnishi Kenji, Kazuhiro Tateda
In this research, we analyzed the main sequence types (ST) and ST complexes of human- and chicken-derived isolates of Campylobacter jejuni in Japan by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We also analyzed lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis locus classes (LOS locus classes) and the numbers of isolates carrying genes coding resistance factors against various antibiotics, and observed their relationships. ST-21 complex was the main ST complex in isolates from humans (n = 38) and chickens (n = 25). None of the isolates showed resistance to imipenem, chloramphenicol, or erythromycin...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079614/the-role-of-gene-environment-interplay-in-occupational-and-environmental-diseases-current-concepts-and-knowledge-gaps
#3
Elizabeth Kwo, David Christiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The interplay between genetic susceptibilities and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases is an area of increased scientific, epidemiologic, and social interest. Given the variation in methodologies used in the field, this review aims to create a framework to help understand occupational exposures as they currently exist and provide a foundation for future inquiries into the biological mechanisms of the gene-environment interactions. Understanding of this complex interplay will be important in the context of occupational health, given the public health concerns surrounding a variety of occupational exposures...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079011/molecular-mechanisms-of-anticancer-effects-of-phytoestrogens-in-breast-cancer
#4
Chia-Jung Hsieh, Ya-Ling Hsu, Ya-Fang Huang, Eing-Mei Tsai
Phytoestrogens derived from plants exert estrogenic as well as antiestrogenic effects and multiple actions within breast cancer cells. Chemopreventive properties of phytoestrogens have emerged from epidemiological observations. In recent clinical research studies, phytoestrogens are safe and may even protect against breast cancer. In this brief review, the molecular mechanisms of phytoestrogens on regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, estrogen receptors, cell signaling pathways, and epigenetic modulations in relation to breast cancer are discussed...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077747/first-molecular-identifications-of-necator-americanus-and-ancylostoma-ceylanicum-infecting-rural-communities-in-lower-myanmar
#5
Win Pa Pa Aung, Thi Thi Htoon, Htay Htay Tin, Oranuch Sanpool, Jurairat Jongthawin, Lakkhana Sadaow, Issarapong Phosuk, Rutchanee Ropai, Pewpan M Intapan, Wanchai Maleewong
Hookworms are enteric parasitic roundworms infecting an estimated 400 million persons worldwide. Herein, we provide the first molecular identifications of human hookworms from certain parts of rural Lower Myanmar. DNA was extracted from hookworm-positive stool samples, as determined by microscopy. DNA sequences of the partial internal transcribed spacer 1, full length 5.8S gene, and partial internal transcribed spacer 2 were determined and compared with available hookworm sequences from public databases. Of the 11 polymerase chain reaction-positive samples, eight (Bago Region, N = 4; Mon State, N = 4) yielded sequences with high similarity to those of Necator americanus A further three sequences (Mon State, N = 2; Bago Region, N = 1) showed high similarity with those of Ancylostoma ceylanicum The latter is primarily a parasite of dogs and represents a zoonosis...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077701/a-comparison-of-eleven-phenotypic-assays-for-the-accurate-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#6
Pranita D Tamma, Belita N A Opene, Andrew Gluck, Krizia K Chambers, Karen C Carroll, Patricia J Simner
BACKGROUND: Early identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is essential to prevent their dissemination within healthcare settings. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of 11 phenotypic assays for the detection of CPE. METHODS: Two collections of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates were evaluated including 191 retrospective isolates (122 CP-CRE and 69 non-CP isolates) as well as 45 prospective clinical isolates (15 CP-CRE and 30 non-CP-CRE) obtained over a 3-month period...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077590/molecular-epidemiology-of-ascaris-infection-among-pigs-in-iowa
#7
Jeba Jesudoss Chelladurai, Kaitlyn Murphy, Tymbrie Snobl, Christopher Bader, Cody West, Kylie Thompson, Matthew T Brewer
Ascaris is a large roundworm parasite that infects humans and pigs throughout the world. Molecular markers have been used to study parasite transmission in Ascaris-endemic and -nonendemic regions of the world. In the United States, ascariasis still persists in commercial swine and has been designated a neglected disease of poverty in humans. However, relatively few data are available for evaluation of zoonotic transmission. In the present study, we obtained adult worms from abattoirs and characterized each worm on the basis of the gene encoding nuclear internal transcribed sequence (ITS) and mitochondrial cox1 Restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of ITS revealed swine, human, and hybrid genotypes...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077517/two-phase-hospital-associated-outbreak-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-investigation-and-mitigation
#8
Arthur W Baker, Sarah S Lewis, Barbara D Alexander, Luke F Chen, Richard J Wallace, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Pamela J Isaacs, Lisa C Pickett, Chetan B Patel, Peter K Smith, John M Reynolds, Jill Engel, Cameron R Wolfe, Carmelo A Milano, Jacob N Schroder, Robert D Davis, Matthew G Hartwig, Jason E Stout, Nancy Strittholt, Eileen K Maziarz, Jennifer Horan Saullo, Kevin C Hazen, Richard J Walczak, Ravikiran Vasireddy, Sruthi Vasireddy, Celeste M McKnight, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) commonly colonize municipal water and cause healthcare-associated outbreaks. We investigated a biphasic outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Case patients had recent hospital exposure and laboratory-confirmed colonization or infection with M. abscessus from January 2013 through December 2015. We conducted a multidisciplinary epidemiologic, field, and laboratory investigation. RESULTS: The incidence rate of M...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077167/role-of-anopheles-cellia-rufipes-gough-1910-and-other-local-anophelines-in-human-malaria-transmission-in-the-northern-savannah-of-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-survey
#9
Raymond N Tabue, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Jean Atangana, Antonio-Nkondjio C, Jean C Toto, Salomon Patchoke, Rose G F Leke, Etienne Fondjo, Abraham P Mnzava, Tessa B Knox, Alexis Tougordi, Martin J Donnelly, Jude D Bigoga
BACKGROUND: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission. METHODS: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon...
January 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076930/hormone-receptor-expression-in-human-fascial-tissue
#10
C Fede, G Albertin, L Petrelli, M M Sfriso, C Biz, R De Caro, C Stecco
Many epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental findings point to sex differences in myofascial pain in view of the fact that adult women tend to have more myofascial problems with respect to men. It is possible that one of the stimuli to sensitization of fascial nociceptors could come from hormonal factors such as estrogen and relaxin, that are involved in extracellular matrix and collagen remodeling and thus contribute to functions of myofascial tissue. Immunohistochemical and molecular investigations (real-time PCR analysis) of relaxin receptor 1 (RXFP1) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) localization were carried out on sample of human fascia collected from 8 volunteers patients during orthopedic surgery (all females, between 42 and 70 yrs, divided into pre- and post-menopausal groups), and in fibroblasts isolated from deep fascia, to examine both protein and RNA expression levels...
November 2, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075340/bioactive-nutrients-and-nutrigenomics-in-age-related-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Tania Rescigno, Luigina Micolucci, Mario F Tecce, Anna Capasso
The increased life expectancy and the expansion of the elderly population are stimulating research into aging. Aging may be viewed as a multifactorial process that results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, which include lifestyle. Human molecular processes are influenced by physiological pathways as well as exogenous factors, which include the diet. Dietary components have substantive effects on metabolic health; for instance, bioactive molecules capable of selectively modulating specific metabolic pathways affect the development/progression of cardiovascular and neoplastic disease...
January 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075013/prevalence-geographic-distribution-and-phenotypic-differences-of-piscirickettsia-salmonis-em-90-like-isolates
#12
J Saavedra, N Hernandez, A Osses, A Castillo, A Cancino, H Grothusen, E Navas, P Henriquez, H Bohle, F Bustamante, P Bustos, M Mancilla
Early reports accounted for two main genotypes of Piscirickettsia salmonis, a fish pathogen and causative agent of piscirickettsiosis, placing the single isolate EM-90 apart from the prototypic LF-89 and related isolates. In this study, we provide evidence that, contrary to what has been supposed, the EM-90-like isolates are highly prevalent and disseminated across Chilean marine farms. Molecular analysis of 507 P. salmonis field isolates derived from main rearing areas, diverse hosts and collected over 6 years, revealed that nearly 50% of the entire collection were indeed typed as EM-90-like...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073082/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-o4-k8-forms-a-potential-predominant-clone-in-southern-china-as-detected-by-whole-genome-sequence-analysis
#13
Baisheng Li, Xingfen Yang, Hailing Tan, Bixia Ke, Dongmei He, Changwen Ke, Yonghui Zhang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been the most common food-borne pathogen in southern China, especially the O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants. Recently, the serotype O4:K8 became more and more prevalent in southern China, which was different from the O3:K6 pandemic clone. Thus, the aim of the present work was to elucidate the molecular characteristics of the O4:K8. Some O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants isolated in the same period were selected for comparative analysis, which were still dominant clone locally...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072891/molecular-epidemiology-and-resistome-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-st11-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strain-containing-multiple-copies-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#14
Roshan DSouza, Naina Adren Pinto, Insik Hwang, Hwang Younjee, YoungLag Cho, Hyunsoo Kim, Dongeun Yong, Jongrak Choi, Kyungwon Lee, Yunsop Chong
The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism responsible for multidrug resistance in ST11 Klebsiella pneumoniae YMC 2013/7/B3993 containing multiple copies of ESBL genes using multiple parallel sequencing technology. In-depth analysis of the strain revealed multiple copies of ESBL genes, 2 copies of blaSHV-12 and 1 copy of blaCTX-M-15. Furthermore, 1 copy of blaOXA-9 and 3 copies of blaTEM-1 were found. The insertion of Tn1331 was detected, which consisted of blaOXA-9, blaTEM-1, aac(6')-lb-cr, and aadA1 genes...
January 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071193/screening-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriacae-concomitant-with-low-degree-of-transmission-in-intensive-care-and-bone-marrow-transplant-units
#15
Giuseppe Valenza, Monika Schulze, Petra Friedrich, Wulf Schneider-Brachert, Thomas Holzmann, Silke Nickel, Verena Lehner-Reindl, Christiane Höller
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are spreading worldwide in both hospital and community settings. In this study, the molecular epidemiology and the transmission modalities of ESBL-E in intensive care- and bone marrow transplant were investigated. METHODS: All patients included in this study were screened for presence of ESBL-E on admission and weekly. Relevant β-lactamase genes were identified by PCR and sequencing...
January 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070491/presentation-and-diagnosis-of-acute-q-fever-in-portugal-a-case-series
#16
Joana Alves, Francisco Almeida, Raquel Duro, Rita Ferraz, Susana Silva, Joana Sobrinho-Simões, António Sarmento
Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii that can course with acute or chronic disease. This series describes 7 cases of acute Q fever admitted in a Portuguese University Hospital between 2014 and 2015. All cases presented with hepatitis and had epidemiological history. Diagnosis was done by PCR on majority (5) and by serology and PCR in only 2. Serological tests can be negative in the initial period of the disease. Molecular biology methods by polymerase chain-reaction are extremely important in acute disease, allowing timely diagnosis and treatment...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070115/proposal-for-a-prospective-registry-for-moyamoya-disease-in-japan
#17
Ken Kazumata, Masaki Ito, Haruto Uchino, Hiroshi Nishihara, Kiyohiro Houkin
The number of clinical research papers published worldwide on moyamoya disease (MMD) has increased recently. However, the majority of the literature comprises retrospective single-center studies collecting data on small numbers of patients. Several multi-center studies are ongoing in Japan; however, the current data are insufficient for comprehensively outlining the various characteristics of MMD. To enhance our knowledge on epidemiologic, vascular, and genetic aspects of MMD, a prospective multicenter registry will be established in Japan that will help to streamline clinical research as well as improve clinical treatments and long-term outcomes...
January 6, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070005/higher-complexity-of-infection-and-genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-vivax-than-plasmodium-falciparum-across-all-malaria-transmission-zones-of-papua-new-guinea
#18
Abebe A Fola, G L Abby Harrison, Mita Hapsari Hazairin, Céline Barnadas, Manuel W Hetzel, Jonah Iga, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa E Barry
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have varying transmission dynamics that are informed by molecular epidemiology. This study aimed to determine the complexity of infection and genetic diversity of P. vivax and P. falciparum throughout Papua New Guinea (PNG) to evaluate transmission dynamics across the country. In 2008-2009, a nationwide malaria indicator survey collected 8,936 samples from all 16 endemic provinces of PNG. Of these, 892 positive P. vivax samples were genotyped at PvMS16 and PvmspF3, and 758 positive P...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069653/the-molecular-epidemiology-of-pf-k13-mutations-in-senegal-using-targeted-amplicon-deep-sequencing
#19
Eldin Talundzic, Yaye D Ndiaye, Awa B Deme, Christian Olsen, Dhruviben S Patel, Shweta Biliya, Rachel Daniels, Fredrik O Vannberg, Sarah K Volkman, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Daouda Ndiaye
The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) resistance to artemisinin in Southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. Multiple polymorphisms in the Pf kelch gene found in chromosome 13 (Pfk13) have been associated with artemisinin resistance. Surveillance of potential drug resistance loci within a population that may emerge under increasing drug pressure is an important public health activity. In this context, P. falciparum infections from an observational surveillance study in Senegal were genotyped using targeted amplicon deep sequencing (TADS) for Pfk13 polymorphisms...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069071/sporadic-cases-of-adult-measles-a-research-article
#20
Ranjan Premaratna, Nathasha Luke, Harsha Perera, Mahesh Gunathilake, Pubudu Amarasena, T G A Nilmini Chandrasena
BACKGROUND: Measles caused by a paramyxovirus, characterized by fever, malaise, cough, coryza conjunctivitis, a maculopapular rash is known to result in pneumonia, encephalitis and death. Fatal cases of measles in Sri Lanka are rare after implementation of the National Immunization Programme in 1984. Thereafter 0.1% case fatality rate was observed during October 1999-June 2000 which is a very low figure compared to other regional countries. Immunization guidelines were further revised in 2001, 2011 and in 2012 when additional immunization was recommended to age group 4-21 years; who are likely to have inadequate immunization, in order to achieve elimination of Measles by 2020...
January 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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