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Molecular epidemiology

Susanne Jacobsson, Bianca Stenmark, Sara Thulin Hedberg, Paula Mölling, Hans Fredlund
The aims of the study were to estimate the carrier state of Neisseria meningitidis in Swedish teenagers and its association with an outbreak at the World Scout Jamboree in 2015 as well as to compare sensitivity of throat versus nasopharyngeal swab for optimal detection of carriage. In total, 1 705 samples (cultures n = 32, throat swabs n = 715, nasopharyngeal swabs n = 958) from 1 020 Jamboree participants were collected and sent to the National Reference Laboratory for Neisseria meningitidis for culture and molecular analysis...
March 15, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Xiangpeng Chen, Baoping Xu, Jiayun Guo, Changchong Li, Shuhua An, Yunlian Zhou, Aihuan Chen, Li Deng, Zhou Fu, Yun Zhu, Chunyan Liu, Lili Xu, Wei Wang, Kunling Shen, Zhengde Xie
To identify the variations in fusion (F) protein gene of RSV in China, a molecular epidemiological study was conducted. A total of 553 RSV positive specimens were collected from 2338 pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia during a multi-center study conducted during 2014-2016. A total of 252 samples (183 RSV A, 69 RSV B) were selected for F gene sequencing, and analyzed together with 142 F gene sequences downloaded from GenBank. The result showed that all the Chinese RSV A and RSV B strains could be divided respectively into three branches...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yefei Jiang, Shuangge Ma, Ben-Chang Shia, Tian-Shyug Lee
In "classic" biomedical research, diseases have usually been studied individually. The pioneering human disease network (HDN) studies jointly consider a large number of diseases, analyse their interconnections, and provide a more comprehensive description of diseases. However, most of the existing HDN studies are based on molecular information and can only partially describe disease interconnections. Building on the unique Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), in this study, we construct the epidemiological HDN (eHDN), where two diseases are concluded as interconnected if their observed probability of co-occurrence deviating that expected under independence...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nguyen Van Diep, Masuo Sueyoshi, Junzo Norimine, Takuya Hirai, Ohnmar Myint, Angeline Ping Ping Teh, Uda Zahli Izzati, Naoyuki Fuke, Ryoji Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Since late 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has reemerged in Japan and caused severe economic losses to the swine industry. Although PEDV vaccines have been used widely, the disease has swept rapidly across the county, and is commonly observed in PED-vaccinated farms, and has recurred in domestic herds. To better understand PEDVs responsible for the reemerging outbreaks in Japan, full-length spike (S), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) genes of 45 PEDVs collected in Japan during 2013-2016, were sequenced and analyzed...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Hector M Mora-Montes, Yu Zhang, Gustavo Nino-Vega, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Sybren de Hoog
The description of cryptic species with different pathogenic potentials has changed the perspectives on sporotrichosis. Sporothrix schenckii causes a benign chronic subcutaneous mycosis, Sporothrix brasiliensis is highly virulent, and Sporothrix globosa mainly causes fixed cutaneous lesions. Furthermore, S. brasiliensis is the prevalent species related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. Sources of infection, transmission, and distribution patterns also differ between species, and variability differs between species because of different degrees of clonality...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Lara Danziger-Isakov, William J Steinbach, Grant Paulsen, Flor M Munoz, Leigh R Sweet, Michael Green, Marian G Michaels, Janet A Englund, Alastair Murray, Natasha Halasa, Daniel E Dulek, Rebecca Pellett Madan, Betsy C Herold, Brian T Fisher
Background: Respiratory virus infection (RVI) in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients poses a significant risk; however, the epidemiology and effects of an RVI after pediatric SOT in the era of current molecular diagnostic assays are unclear. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort of pediatric SOT recipients (January 2010 to June 2013) was assembled from 9 US pediatric transplant centers. Charts were reviewed for RVI events associated with hospitalization within 1 year after the transplant...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Alicia J McLuckie, Vanessa R Barrs, Scott Lindsay, Mahdis Aghazadeh, Cheryl Sangster, Julia A Beatty
The pathogenicity of Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), a common infection of domestic cats, is unknown. To explore an association between FcaGHV1 detection and feline lymphoma, a retrospective, cross-sectional, disease-association study was conducted. The infection status of all cats for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus was determined. Neither a molecular diagnosis of FcaGHV1 nor whole-blood FcaGHV1 load was related to outcome in 122 lymphoma cases compared with 71 controls matched for age and sex...
March 14, 2018: Viruses
Cristiana Maurella, Silvia Gallina, Giuseppe Ru, Daniela Adriano, Alberto Bellio, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Laura Chiavacci, Maria Ines Crescio, Margherita Croce, Valeria D'Errico, Maria Franca Dupont, Alessandro Marra, Ubaldo Natangelo, Francesco Pomilio, Angelo Romano, Stefano Stanzione, Teresa Zaccaria, Fabio Zuccon, Maria Caramelli, Lucia Decastelli
In May 2016, two separate clusters of febrile gastroenteritis caused by Listeria monocytogenes were detected by the local health authority in Piedmont, in northern Italy. We carried out epidemiological, microbiological and traceback investigations to identify the source. The people affected were students and staff members from two different schools in two different villages located in the Province of Turin; five of them were hospitalised. The epidemiological investigation identified a cooked beef ham served at the school canteens as the source of the food-borne outbreak...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Giovanni Matera, Maria Teresa Loria, Cinzia Peronace, Tatiana Catanzariti, Pio Settembre, Aida Giancotti, Angelo G Lamberti, Giorgio S Barreca, Luisa Galati, Gessica Dodaro, Maria Mazzitelli, Alessio Strazzulla, Carlo Torti, Angela Quirino, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà
We aim to investigate some of the pathogenetic mediators of the human echinococcosis and to obtain updated epidemiological findings on cases of echinococcosis in Calabria, Southern Italy. Echinococcosis diagnosis was based on imaging, serological investigations, and molecular assay. Indeed, real-time PCR indicated the presence of G2/G3 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus complex. Regarding pathogenesis, a relevant novel tool of immune depression should be deemed the reduced level of serum MCP-1. Also, we found a previously unreported VEGF, possibly associated with neovascularization requested by the parasite cyst metabolism...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Zofia Bakuła, Anna Brzostek, Paulina Borówka, Anna Żaczek, Izabela Szulc-Kiełbik, Agata Podpora, Paweł Parniewski, Dominik Strapagiel, Jarosław Dziadek, Małgorzata Proboszcz, Jacek Bielecki, Jakko van Ingen, Tomasz Jagielski
Molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium kansasii are hampered by the lack of highly-discriminatory genotyping modalities. The purpose of this study was to design a new, high-resolution fingerprinting method for M. kansasii. Complete genome sequence of the M. kansasii ATCC 12478 reference strain was searched for satellite-like repetitive DNA elements comprising tandem repeats. A total of 24 variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci were identified with potential discriminatory capacity. Of these, 17 were used to study polymorphism among 67 M...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ling Lee, Qian Garrett, Judith Flanagan, Subhabrata Chakrabarti, Eric Papas
Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex condition with a multifactorial etiology that can be difficult to manage successfully. While external factors are modifiable, treatment success is limited if genetic factors contribute to the disease. The purpose of this review is to compile research describing normal and abnormal ocular surface function on a molecular level, appraise genetic studies involving DED or DED-associated diseases, and introduce the basic methods used for conducting genetic epidemiology studies.
March 10, 2018: Ocular Surface
Mikko Koivu-Jolma, Arto Annila
Mathematical epidemiology is a well-recognized discipline to model infectious diseases. It also provides guidance for public health officials to limit outbreaks. Nevertheless, epidemics take societies by surprise every now and then, for example, when the Ebola virus epidemic raged seemingly unrestrained in Western Africa. We provide insight to this capricious character of nature by describing the epidemic as a natural process, i.e., a phenomenon governed by thermodynamics. Our account, based on statistical mechanics of open systems, clarifies that it is impossible to predict accurately epidemic courses because everything depends on everything else...
March 10, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Yasemin Cosgun, Dilek Guldemir, Aslihan Coskun, Sultan Yolbakan, Atila Taner Kalaycioglu, Gulay Korukluoglu, Riza Durmaz
Measles is an important childhood infection targeted to be eliminated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Virus circulation has not been interrupted in the European Region because high vaccination rates could not be achieved among some countries of the WHO European Region including Turkey. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the laboratory findings of measles cases confirmed in the last nine years, to assess the epidemiological data of the cases, to determine the molecular genotyping studies and to emphasise the importance of laboratory-based surveillance in measles...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Dominik Lagowski, Aleksandra Troscianczyk, Przemyslaw Zieba
Dermatophyte infections are extremely frequent worldwide, and their epidemiological features and distribution make them one of the most frequent infections all over the world. We identified and analysed multiform T. mentagrophytes strains isolated from a silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) kept on a breeding farm. Identification of dermatophyte strains was carried out traditionally by correlating both the clinical manifestations of the infection with a micro- and macroscopic examination. To confirm the species affiliation fully, molecular differentiation methods were used...
March 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Francles Blanco-Guillot, M Lucía Castañeda-Cediel, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Rosa Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Pedro Torres-González, Norma Téllez-Vazquez, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Genotyping and georeferencing in tuberculosis (TB) have been used to characterize the distribution of the disease and occurrence of transmission within specific groups and communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus (DM) and pulmonary TB may occur in spatial and molecular aggregations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary TB. The study area included 12 municipalities in the Sanitary Jurisdiction of Orizaba, Veracruz, México...
2018: PloS One
Javier Gandasegui, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Antonio Muro, Constança Simões Barbosa, Fabio Lopes de Melo, Rodrigo Loyo, Elainne Christine de Souza Gomes
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health relevance, mainly in poor areas where Schistosoma mansoni is the only human species encountered and Biomphalaria straminea is one of the intermediate host snails. A nested-PCR based on a specific mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region has been successfully developed and applied as a reference method in Brazil for S. mansoni detection, mainly in host snails for epidemiological studies. The amplification efficiency of LAMP is known to be higher than PCR...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Xueyong Zhang, Yingna Jian, Xiuping Li, Liqing Ma, Gabriele Karanis, Panagiotis Karanis
Cryptosporidium is one of the most important genera of intestinal zoonotic pathogens, which can infect various hosts and cause diarrhoea. There is little available information about the molecular characterisation and epidemiological prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) and Ochotona curzoniae (wild plateau pika) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area of Qinghai Province, Northwest China. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine Cryptosporidium species/genotypes and epidemiological prevalence in these mammals by detecting the SSU rRNA gene by PCR amplification...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
Fatemeh Riyahi Zaniani, Sharareh Moghim, Bahram Nasr Esfahani
Background: Increasing drug resistance is an important factor in the complexity of tuberculosis (TB) control. The identification of disease transmission type, recurrence of a previous infection, or new transmission of the disease is the key factor in the control of TB. In this study, we aimed to identify the genetic diversity of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Isfahan province of Iran through the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing method based on 24 loci...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Harry R Dalton, Jacques Izopet
Following the introduction of robust serological and molecular tools, our understanding of the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) has improved considerably in recent years. Current thinking suggests that consumption of pork meat products is the key route of infection in humans, but it is certainly not the only one. Other routes of infection include environmental spread, contaminated water, and via the human blood supply. The epidemiology of HEV genotype (gt)3 and gt4 is complex, as there are several sources and routes of infection, and it is likely that these vary between and within countries and over time...
March 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Starling A Sim, Vivian K Y Leung, David Ritchie, Monica A Slavin, Sheena G Sullivan, Benjamin W Teh
BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory tract infections (vRTI) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). This study aimed to assess the epidemiological characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of vRTI occurring from conditioning to 100 days after HSCT in the era of molecular testing. METHODS: This study was a retrospective record review of alloHSCT patients at Royal Melbourne Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015...
March 9, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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