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Molecular epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342444/scarlet-fever-epidemic-in-china-caused-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m12-epidemiologic-and-molecular-analysis
#1
Yuanhai You, Mark R Davies, Melinda Protani, Liam McIntyre, Mark J Walker, Jianzhong Zhang
From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011-2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003-2010 prior this outbreak...
January 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341983/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-in-davidson-county-tennessee-united-states-a-case-control-study
#2
Aamer Imdad, Monique A Foster, Junaid Iqbal, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Daniel C Payne, Chengxian Zhang, James D Chappell, Natasha Halasa, Oscar G Gómez-Duarte
BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children; however, there is limited information available on the epidemiology, phylogenetics, serotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility of DEC in children in the United States. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of DEC among children with and without acute gastroenteritis in Davidson County, Tennessee. METHODS: This prospective, frequency matched, case-control study recruited subjects 15 days to 17 years of age and detected DEC with polymerase chain reaction from stool samples...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341159/clinicopathological-genomic-and-immunological-factors-in-colorectal-cancer-prognosis
#3
REVIEW
K M Marks, N P West, E Morris, P Quirke
BACKGROUND: Numerous factors affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), many of which have long been identified, such as patient demographics and the multidisciplinary team. In more recent years, molecular and immunological biomarkers have been shown to have a significant influence on patient outcomes. Whilst some of these biomarkers still require ongoing validation, if proven to be worthwhile they may change our understanding and future management of CRC. The aim of this review was to identify the key prognosticators of CRC, including new molecular and immunological biomarkers, and outline how these might fit into the whole wider context for patients...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340210/treetime-maximum-likelihood-phylodynamic-analysis
#4
Pavel Sagulenko, Vadim Puller, Richard A Neher
Mutations that accumulate in the genome of cells or viruses can be used to infer their evolutionary history. In the case of rapidly evolving organisms, genomes can reveal their detailed spatiotemporal spread. Such phylodynamic analyses are particularly useful to understand the epidemiology of rapidly evolving viral pathogens. As the number of genome sequences available for different pathogens has increased dramatically over the last years, phylodynamic analysis with traditional methods becomes challenging as these methods scale poorly with growing datasets...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340085/6-methylsulfonyl-hexyl-isothiocyanate-as-potential-chemopreventive-agent-molecular-and-cellular-profile-in-leukaemia-cell-lines
#5
Monia Lenzi, Veronica Cocchi, Marco Malaguti, Maria Cristina Barbalace, Silvia Marchionni, Silvana Hrelia, Patrizia Hrelia
Numerous laboratory and epidemiological studies show that the risk of developing several types of cancer can be reduced with the employment of natural substances that act with multiple mechanisms. In this context, an important role is played by the isothiocyanates. Recently, 6-(methylsulfonyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC), present in the root of Wasabia Japonica, has stimulated the interest of researchers as a chemopreventive agent. In this particular study we have focused on evaluating 6-MITC's in vitro cytotoxic, cytostatic and cytodifferentiating activities, as well as its pro-apoptotic potential...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339468/molecular-epidemiology-reveals-the-role-of-war-in-the-spread-of-hiv-in-ukraine
#6
Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Mariia Liulchuk, Samuel R Friedman, Iana Sazonova, Nuno R Faria, Aris Katzourakis, Nataliia Babii, Alla Scherbinska, Julien Thézé, Oliver G Pybus, Pavlo Smyrnov, Jean L Mbisa, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Angelos Hatzakis, Gkikas Magiorkinis
Ukraine has one of the largest HIV epidemics in Europe, historically driven by people who inject drugs (PWID). The epidemic showed signs of stabilization in 2012, but the recent war in eastern Ukraine may be reigniting virus spread. We investigated the movement of HIV-infected people within Ukraine before and during the conflict. We analyzed HIV-1 subtype-A pol nucleotide sequences sampled during 2012-2015 from 427 patients of 24 regional AIDS centers and used phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct virus movement among different locations in Ukraine...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339008/updates-on-the-molecular-epidemiology-of-enterovirus-d68-after-installation-of-screening-test-among-acute-flaccid-paralysis-patients-in-taiwan
#7
Hsin-Yi Wei, Ting-Kai Yeh, Juo-Yu Hsieh, I-Ping Lin, Jyh-Yuan Yang
In respond to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in association with Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infection, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control began to screen EV-D68 infection among each AFP patient since July 2015 and detected the first case in August 2016. This article updated the molecular epidemiology trends of EV-D68 from the national surveillance data.
January 3, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338076/hypoxia-inducible-transcription-factors-hif1a-and-hif2a-increase-in-aging-mucosal-tissues
#8
J L Ebersole, M J Novak, L Orraca, J Martinez-Gonzalez, S Kirakodu, K C Chen, A Stromberg, O A Gonzalez
Hypoxia (ie. oxygen deprivation) activates the hypoxia-signaling pathway, primarily via hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF) for numerous target genes, which mediate angiogenesis, metabolism, coagulation, among other processes to try to replenish tissues with blood and oxygen. Hypoxia signaling dysregulation also commonly occurs during chronic inflammation. We sampled gingival tissues from rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta; 3-25 years old) and total RNA was isolated for microarray analysis. HIF1A, HIF1B, and HIF2A were significantly different in healthy aged tissues, and both HIF1A and HIF3A were positively correlated with aging...
January 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338003/the-prevalence-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-adpkd-a-meta-analysis-of-european-literature-and-prevalence-evaluation-in-the-italian-province-of-modena-suggest-that-adpkd-is-a-rare-and-underdiagnosed-condition
#9
Andrea Solazzo, Francesca Testa, Silvia Giovanella, Marco Busutti, Luciana Furci, Paola Carrera, Maurizio Ferrari, Giulia Ligabue, Giacomo Mori, Marco Leonelli, Gianni Cappelli, Riccardo Magistroni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: ADPKD is erroneously perceived as a not rare condition, which is mainly due to the repeated citation of a mistaken interpretation of old epidemiological data, as reported in the Dalgaard's work (1957). Even if ADPKD is not a common condition, the correct prevalence of ADPKD in the general population is uncertain, with a wide range of estimations reported by different authors. In this work, we have performed a meta-analysis of available epidemiological data in the European literature...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337704/the-what-when-and-how-in-performing-and-interpreting-microbiological-diagnostic-tests-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#10
Carolina Navarro-San Francisco, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Rafael Cantón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and classify the most recent and relevant microbiological studies for each type of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). RECENT FINDINGS: Following Infectious Diseases Society of America and Food and Drug Administration classifications of SSTIs, we differentiate between two large groups, the superficial or uncomplicated infections and the complicated infections with deep involvement. It is not usually necessary to obtain microbiological samples in uncomplicated infections, except in cases of recurrences or for epidemiological control purposes...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336909/-non-reported-spa-types-in-our-country-in-staphylococcus-aureus-from-adult-patients-of-a-school-hospital-santa-fe-argentina
#11
Carla Tomatis, María R Baroni, María A Mendosa, Alicia Nagel, Analia Mollerach, Claudia Alvarez, Maria Laura Zurbriggen, Sabrina Cristobal, Glenda Segovia, Emilce de Los A Méndez
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen associated a different kind of infection. Molecular markers are useful tools to study microbial epidemiology. Twenty two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 23 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were studied by mecA gene, SCCmec cassette, Panton Valentine leucocidin (PVL) and spa polymorphism. The clinical data patients were analyzed. MSSA was prevalent in samples different from skin and soft tissue (SST) and in hospitalized patients, whereas MRSA in SST. SCCmec type IV was predominant, followed by type I...
January 11, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335369/the-rate-of-telomere-loss-is-related-to-maximum-lifespan-in-birds
#12
Gianna M Tricola, Mirre J P Simons, Els Atema, Raoul K Boughton, J L Brown, Donald C Dearborn, G Divoky, John A Eimes, Charles E Huntington, Alexander S Kitaysky, Frans A Juola, David B Lank, Hannah P Litwa, Ellis G A Mulder, Ian C T Nisbet, Kazuo Okanoya, Rebecca J Safran, Stephan J Schoech, Elizabeth A Schreiber, Paul M Thompson, Simon Verhulst, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, David W Winkler, Rebecca Young, Carol M Vleck, Mark F Haussmann
Telomeres are highly conserved regions of DNA that protect the ends of linear chromosomes. The loss of telomeres can signal an irreversible change to a cell's state, including cellular senescence. Senescent cells no longer divide and can damage nearby healthy cells, thus potentially placing them at the crossroads of cancer and ageing. While the epidemiology, cellular and molecular biology of telomeres are well studied, a newer field exploring telomere biology in the context of ecology and evolution is just emerging...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334998/examining-human-paragonimiasis-as-a-differential-diagnosis-to-tuberculosis-in-the-gambia
#13
Richard Morter, Ifedayo Adetifa, Martin Antonio, Fatima Touray, Bouke C de Jong, Charlotte M Gower, Florian Gehre
OBJECTIVE: Paragonimiasis is a foodborne trematode infection of the lungs caused by Paragonimus spp., presenting clinically with similar symptoms to active tuberculosis (TB). Worldwide, an estimated 20.7 million people are infected with paragonimiasis, but relatively little epidemiological data exists for Africa. Given a recently reported case, we sought to establish whether paragonimiasis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for human TB in The Gambia, West Africa...
January 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334948/molecular-identification-and-investigations-of-contagious-ecthyma-orf-virus-in-small-ruminants-north-west-ethiopia
#14
Mebrahtu Tedla, Nega Berhan, Wassie Molla, Wudu Temesgen, Sefinew Alemu
BACKGROUND: Orf virus, the prototype of parapoxvirus, is the main causative agent of contagious ecthyma. Little is known about the status of the disease in Ethiopia and this study was aimed at determining its status using PCR as a confirmatory tool. METHODS: a total of 400 randomly selected sheep and goat was screened for the identification of the virus using amplification of B2L gene and transfection of mammalian cells (VERO cells). RESULTS: Out of 400 animals screened for infection of the virus, 48 animals were found positive to PCR and revealed an overall incidence of 12%...
January 15, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334710/-a-study-on-genotype-of-271-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-6-prefectures-in-yunnan-province
#15
L Y Chen, X Yang, H H Ru, H J Yang, S Q Yan, L Ma, J O Chen, R Yang, L Xu
Objective: To understand the characteristics of genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Yunnan province, and provide the molecular epidemiological evidence for prevention and control of tuberculosis in Yunnan Province. Methods: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis isolates were collected from 6 prefectures of Yunnan province in 2014 and their Genetypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained using spoligotyping and multiple locus variable numbers of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). The results of spoligotyping were entered into the SITVITWEB database to obtain the Spoligotyping International Type (SIT) patterns and the sublineages of MTB isolates...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334709/-molecular-epidemiological-study-of-human-coronavirus-oc43-in-shanghai-from-2009-2016
#16
Y J Yang, Y W Hu
Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of Human coronavirus (HCoV), the patterns of emergence and circulation, and the genotype distribution of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) from November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai. Methods: A total of 6 059 respiratory specimens, including pharyngeal swab, sputum, nasopharyngeal aspirates and alveolar lavage fluid, as well as relative clinical data were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections from seven sentinel hospitals during November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334044/gene-environment-interplay-in-the-etiology-of-psychosis
#17
Alyson Zwicker, Eileen M Denovan-Wright, Rudolf Uher
Schizophrenia and other types of psychosis incur suffering, high health care costs and loss of human potential, due to the combination of early onset and poor response to treatment. Our ability to prevent or cure psychosis depends on knowledge of causal mechanisms. Molecular genetic studies show that thousands of common and rare variants contribute to the genetic risk for psychosis. Epidemiological studies have identified many environmental factors associated with increased risk of psychosis. However, no single genetic or environmental factor is sufficient to cause psychosis on its own...
January 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333114/carcinogenesis-induced-by-low-dose-radiation
#18
Igor Piotrowski, Katarzyna Kulcenty, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Agnieszka Skrobała, Małgorzata Skórska, Marta Kruszyna-Mochalska, Anna Kowalik, Weronika Jackowiak, Julian Malicki
Background: Although the effects of high dose radiation on human cells and tissues are relatively well defined, there is no consensus regarding the effects of low and very low radiation doses on the organism. Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce gene mutations and chromosome aberrations which are known to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. The induction of secondary cancers is a challenging long-term side effect in oncologic patients treated with radiation. Medical sources of radiation like intensity modulated radiotherapy used in cancer treatment and computed tomography used in diagnostics, deliver very low doses of radiation to large volumes of healthy tissue, which might contribute to increased cancer rates in long surviving patients and in the general population...
December 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332209/the-rapid-diagnosis-of-viral-respiratory-tract-infections-and-its-impact-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs
#19
Şiran Keske, Önder Ergönül, Faik Tutucu, Doruk Karaaslan, Erhan Palaoğlu, Füsun Can
We aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). We included patients from inpatient and outpatient departments who had ILI and performed MRT between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 in a 265-bed private hospital in Istanbul. At the end of 2015, we implemented antimicrobial stewardship including systematic use of MRT. Then, we compared our observations between the year 2015 and the year 2016...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330937/first-time-detection-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-infection-in-uruguay
#20
N Ramos, S Mirazo, G Castro, K Cabrera, F Osorio, J Arbiza
Within the last two decades, several high-impact viruses have emerged in the global swine population, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In Uruguay, the more recent serological survey for PRRSV and other notifiable diseases such as Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) dated from year 2000. The main purpose of this study was to update our information on the infection status of PRRSV, ADV and CSFV in Uruguayan pig herds, in order to keep informed about the epidemiological situation of these notifiable infections in the country...
January 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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