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Molecular epidemiology

Miao Liu, Ling Zhou, Baiyu Zhang, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Xiaojun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Xiaochun Bai, Yifan Dai, Yongchun Su, Zhipeng Zou, Hang Zheng
Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we revealed that elevation of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio suppress the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. The transgenic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously, repressed colorectal tumor cell growth and remarkably reduced tumor burden, and alleviated anemia as well as hyperlipidemia in APCMin/+ (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice, a classic CRC model that best simulates most clinical cases...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Rui Seixas, Tânia Raquel Santos, Jorge Machado, Luís Tavares, Fernando Bernardo, Teresa Semedo-Lemsaddek, Manuela Oliveira
The increase in prevalence of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- related infections over the last few years has been considered a public health issue in many European countries, especially as this serovar may be associated with tetraresistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT). Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates (n = 187) obtained by the Portuguese National Laboratory from different sources, including human clinical cases (n = 170), veterinary (n = 10), environmental (n = 6), and food samples (n = 1), were collected from 15 districts between 2006 and 2011...
October 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Ananya Tupaki-Sreepurna, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Anupma J Kindo, Murugan Sundaram, G Sybren de Hoog
In this study, we aimed to present the first molecular epidemiological data from Chennai, India, analyse keratitis cases that have been monitored in a university hospital during 2 years, identify the responsible Fusarium species and determine antifungal susceptibilities. A total of 10 cases of keratitis were included in the study. Fusarium isolates were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1). Antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
Rosamaria Lappano, Roberta Malaguarnera, Antonino Belfiore, Marcello Maggiolini
Certain environmental chemicals may accumulate in human serum and tissues eliciting estrogenic and/or carcinogenic effects. Therefore, there is heightened interest in determining whether environmental chemicals may increase the risk for endocrine-related tumors like breast cancer. For instance, metals as cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, nickel and aluminum have been shown to mimic estrogen action. Moreover, the exposure to these chemicals has been reported to stimulate diverse malignancies including breast cancer, which is the most common tumor in women worldwide...
October 17, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Po-Liang Lu, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Jun-En Lin, Jun-Wei Huang, Tsung-Ying Yang, Lin Lin, Sung-Pin Tseng
Although fosfomycin is a treatment option for infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, fosfomycin resistance has been documented. To our knowledge, fosfomycin resistance mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae have not been systematically investigated. A total of 108 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates collected from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, from August 2012 to May 2013 were analysed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed 64 pulsotypes and six non-typeable isolates, indicating high genetic diversity...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Ahmed Abdel Megeed, M Ali Hayssam, Mohamed Z M Salem, Mohamed S El-Shikh, Ibrahim Ahmed Talea, Yahya A Alogaibi
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections are a great public health concern and demand continuous surveillance and antibiotic stewardship. Virulence traits and the pathogenicity of Acinetobacter are less studied compared with the molecular epidemiological and antibiotic resistance profile of this organism. In our present study, we investigated the primary characteristics contributing to the virulence of MDR A. baumannii isolates and compared them with avirulent isolates. A total of 32 well-characterized MDR A...
October 19, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
B Mishra, B Behera
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Wenjun Zhang, Junfang Chen, Xiao Hong Pan, Jiafeng Zhang, Zhihong Guo, Yan Luo, Jiezhe Yang, Yan Xia, Lin He, Yun Xu, Ke Xu, Xiaobei Ding
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among young people (18 to 25 years old) in Hangzhou. METHODS: Plasma samples from 262 newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients were collected between 2009 and 2013 from Hangzhou of Zhejiang province. HIV-1 nucleotide sequences of pol gene regions were amplified using a nested PCR method and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses were used to determine the HIV-1 genotypes. RESULTS: Based on all sequences generated, the subtype/circulating recombinant forms (CRF) distribution was as follows: CRF01_AE (68...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yihong Hu, Zhenzhou Wan, Yan-Heng Zhou, Davey M Smith, Yong-Tang Zheng, Chiyu Zhang
The on-going generation of HIV-1 inter-subtype recombination has led to new circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) in Asia. Here, we evaluated whether previously reported URFs were actually CRFs. All available complete or near full-length HIV-1 URFs sequences from Asia were retrieved from the HIV Los Alamos National Laboratory Sequence database, and phylogenetic, transmission cluster and bootscan analyses were performed using MEGA 6.0, Cluster Picker 1.2.1, and SimPlot3.5.1...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Maria Stefania Latrofa, Alessio Giannelli, Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Laia Solano-Gallego, Emanuele Brianti, Antonio Parisi, Richard Wall, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Domenico Otranto
Despite their medical and veterinary importance, some tick species are so poorly studied, that their role within pathogen vector transmission cycles is difficult to assess. The tick Ixodes ventalloi is one such species, and its biology and phylogenetic status remain an issue of debate. In the present study, specimens of adult I. ventalloi (n = 65 females; n = 31 males) infesting cats in the Lipari Island (Aeolian archipelago, Sicily, southern Italy) were characterized morphologically and molecularly, the latter based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology Research
Asad Mohammadzadeh, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Ali Haghighi, Nozhat Zebardast, Kobra Kohansal
In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology Research
Selwyn Arlington Headley, Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano, Giovana Wingeter Di Santis, Lucas Alécio Gomes, Rafaela Macagnan, Daniela Farias da Nóbrega, Katherine Moura Leite, Brígida Kussumoto de Alcântara, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Mario Augusto Ono
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease of humans from Latin America that is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, with most cases of PCM in domestic animals being associated with P. brasiliensis. This study presents the clinical, cytological, mycological, serological, and molecular findings associated with P. brasiliensis in a dog from Southern Brazil. Fine needle biopsies were collected from the skin and several lymph nodes of a 5-year-old female Labrador dog that had enlargement of most superficial lymph nodes...
October 18, 2016: Mycopathologia
Marios K Georgakis, Maria A Karalexi, Domenic Agius, Luis Antunes, Joana Bastos, Daniela Coza, Anna Demetriou, Nadya Dimitrova, Sultan Eser, Margareta Florea, Anton Ryzhov, Mario Sekerija, Tina Žagar, Anna Zborovskaya, Snezana Zivkovic, Evdoxia Bouka, Prodromos Kanavidis, Helen Dana, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Kourti, Maria Moschovi, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Eftichia Stiakaki, Μaria Kantzanou, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eleni Th Petridou
PURPOSE: To describe epidemiologic patterns of childhood (0-14 years) lymphomas in the Southern and Eastern European (SEE) region in comparison with the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), USA, and explore tentative discrepancies. METHODS: Childhood lymphomas were retrieved from 14 SEE registries (n = 4,702) and SEER (n = 4,416), diagnosed during 1990-2014; incidence rates were estimated and time trends were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall age-adjusted incidence rate was higher in SEE (16...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Zhonglan Wu, Lijia Cui, Weiming Zhao, Dongzhi Yang, Hui Chen, Ruiqing Wang, Xuemin Wang, Linqi Zhang, Tianhua He
BACKGROUND: Current prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain unknown in Ningxia, northwest China. METHODS: From June to December 2013, 13,022 individuals were screened in Ningxia HIV/AIDS Sentinel Surveillance System, with their demographic features collected and serum samples tested for HCV antibody. Sero-positive drug users were further subjected to sequencing of NS5B and Core regions of HCV. RESULTS: The anti-HCV prevalence was 0...
October 18, 2016: Virology Journal
Cecilia Olguin Perglione, Marcelo D Golemba, Carolina Torres, Maria Barrandeguy
Equine influenza virus (EIV) is considered the most important respiratory pathogen of horses as outbreaks of the disease lead to substantial economic losses. The H3N8 EIV has caused respiratory disease in horses across the world, including South American countries. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the complete haemagglutinin gene of the H3N8 EIV detected in South America since 1963 were analyzed. Phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent analyses were carried out to study the origin, the time of the most recent common ancestors (tMRCA), the demographic and the phylogeographic patterns of the H3N8 EIV...
October 16, 2016: Pathogens
Susann Pankratz, Stefan Bittner, Beate E Kehrel, Harald F Langer, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Sven G Meuth, Kerstin Göbel
Beyond their indispensable role in hemostasis, platelets have shown to affect the development of inflammatory disorders, as they have been epidemiologically and mechanistically linked to diseases featuring an inflammatory reaction in inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disorders. The identification of novel molecular mechanisms linking inflammation and to platelets has highlighted them as new targets for therapeutic interventions. In particular, genetic and pharmacological studies have identified an important role for platelets in neuroinflammation...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wook-Jin Chung
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder with a poor prognosis and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling accompanied with increased pulmonary arterial medial wall thickness and fibrosis, which leads to vascular and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Despite treatment with prostacyclin, endothelin antagonist, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors the 1-year mortality rate of PAH still remains high. Recent registries, clinical trials, and basic researches have been increasing the knowledge of PAH and it would contribute to potential therapeutic strategies and better clinical outcome...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ruijun Su, Xiaoting Jin, Weifang Zhang, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Liu, Jie Ren
Many epidemiological investigations have consistently demonstrated the immunotoxicity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear and needs to be elucidated. In this work, the immune cells, including pulmonary macrophages of SD rats and Raw264.7 cells, were applied to further investigate the effect of PM2.5 on cell autophagy of macrophages, thus clarified the possible molecular mechanism of immunotoxicity caused by PM2.5. SD rats were exposed to summer (0.2, 0...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Iftikhar A Tayubi, Ejaz Ahmad, Majid A Ganaie, Osama S Bajouh, Samera F AlBasri, Ibtihal M J Abdulkarim, Mohd A Beg
Environmental contamination has been one of the major drawbacks of the industrial revolution. Several man-made chemicals are constantly released into the environment during the manufacturing process and by leaching from the industrial products. As a result, human and animal populations are exposed to these synthetic chemicals on a regular basis. Many of these chemicals have adverse effects on the physiological functions, particularly on the hormone systems in human and animals and are called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Laura Bubba, Marianna Martinelli, Laura Pellegrinelli, Valeria Primache, Elisabetta Tanzi, Elena Pariani, Sandro Binda
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) infections are widespread and can lead to a broad range of symptoms, from the common cold to severe disease. Due to the lack of Italian data, this 4-year retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the frequency, seasonality and molecular characteristics of EV and HPeV circulating in children younger than 5 years. METHODS: 812 samples were collected from children ≤5 years (56.5% males; median age: 20...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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