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medical laboratory science

Vaida Petrauskiene, Ruta Vaiciuniene, Inga Arune Bumblyte, Vytautas Kuzminskis, Edita Ziginskiene, Saulius Grazulis, Egle Jonaitiene
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification (VC) is one of the factors associated with cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Recommendations concerning screening for VC differ. Possible ability to prevent and reversibility of VC are major subjects on debate whether screening for VC could improve outcomes of renal patients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the significance of simple vascular calcification score (SVCS) based on plane radiographic films and to test its association with non-fatal cardiovascular events in patients on chronic HD...
October 21, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Volkan Coskun, Ellen M Carpenter
The last 40 years have seen a remarkable increase in the teaching of neuroscience at the undergraduate level. From its origins as a component of anatomy or physiology departments to its current status as an independent interdisciplinary field, neuroscience has become the chosen field of study for many undergraduate students, particularly for those interested in medical school or graduate school in neuroscience or related fields. We examined how life science-based neuroscience education is offered at large public universities in the Western United States...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Madathipat Unnikrishnan, Sidharth Viswanathan, K Balasubramaniam, C V Muraleedharan, Arthur Vijayan Lal, P V Mohanan, Meera Mohanty, Tirur Raman Kapilamoorthy
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Vascular illnesses are on the rise in India, due to increase in lifestyle diseases and demographic transition, requiring intervention to save life, organ or limbs using vascular prosthesis. The aim of this study was to develop indigenous large diameter vascular graft for treatment of patients with vascular pathologies. METHODS: The South India Textile Research Association, at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, developed seamless woven polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) graft at its research wing...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Neil M Goldenberg, Benjamin E Steinberg, James T Rutka, Robert Chen, Val Cabral, Norman D Rosenblum, Andras Kapus, Warren L Lee
BACKGROUND: Physicians have traditionally been at the forefront of medical research, bringing clinical questions to the laboratory and returning with ideas for treatment. However, we have anecdotally observed a decline in the popularity of basic science research among trainees. We hypothesized that fewer resident physicians have been pursuing basic science research training over time. METHODS: We examined records from residents in the Surgeon-Scientist and Clinician-Investigator programs at the University of Toronto (1987-2016)...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Jesse Aidan Dinh, Danial Baker, Manpreet Chahal
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the efficacy, tolerability, drug interactions, dosing, and administration issues associated with enzalutamide, abiraterone, and radium-223 for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Web of Science were used to search for relevant articles using a key-word search (enzalutamide, abiraterone, radium-223, and phase 3). No restriction was placed on the date of publication...
2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Sonya L Heltshe, Jonathan Cogen, Kathleen J Ramos, Christopher H Goss
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life shortening monogenetic disorder involving the lung affecting over 70,000 people worldwide. It has now been over 25 years since the identification of the disease-causing gene defect [the gene producing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR)]. Since this discovery, dramatic advances have occurred both in the basic science underpinning our understanding of the clinical presentation of CF, and in clinical outcomes noted by improvement in lung function and survival...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Shandiz Moslehi, Pezhman Atefimanesh, Ali Sarabi Asiabar, Nahal Ahmadzadeh, Mohamadhosein Kafaeimehr, Saeid Emamgholizadeh
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing trend of outsourcing public departments. Teaching hospitals also outsourced some of their departments to private sectors. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. METHODS: This study was conducted in six teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, which had public and outsourced teaching departments in 2015...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Tadashi Itoh, Mifumi Kawabe, Takahiko Nagase, Katsumi Endo, Masafumi Miyoshi, Kazuro Miyahara
The body surface area (BSA) of an organism is an important parameter for evaluating physiological functions. In drug development, normalization by BSA is an appropriate method for extrapolating doses between species. The BSA of animals has generally been estimated by multiplying a constant by the power of the body weight (BW). Recently, the use of miniature pigs in non-clinical studies for medical drugs or devices has gradually been increasing. However, verification of their BSA is not as yet sufficient. In this study, we measured the BSAs of 40 laboratory miniature pigs (11 males and 9 females of Göttingen minipig and 14 males and 6 females of Nippon Institute for Biological Science [NIBS] miniature pig) by analyzing computed tomography (CT) images, since measurements using a CT scanner were expected to more precisely determine BSA than classical measuring techniques...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Jonathan M Barcelo
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the perception of the academic learning environment between medical laboratory science students and nursing students at Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey research design was used to measure the perceptions of the participants. A total of 341 students from the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Natural Sciences, and the School of Nursing answered the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) instrument from April to May 2016...
2016: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
Faezeh Ghorbani Taherdehi, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Mehdi Jalali, Alireza Fazel
INTRODUCTION: Malathion is one of organophosphate poisons (OPPs) that inhibit cholinesterase activity and induce oxidative stress in target organs, such as the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Malathion on serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity in male rats and also to assess the protective effects of vitamin C in this regard. METHODS: This experimental study was performed in the Pharmacology Laboratory of the Pharmacy Faculty and in the Advanced Histology Techniques Laboratory of the Medical Faculty of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in January 2014...
July 2016: Electronic Physician
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mahmoud Agholi, Zahra Taghadosi, Davood Mehrabani, Farzaneh Zahabiun, Zahra Sharafi, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Gholam Reza Hatam, Shahrbanou Naderi Shahabadi
Human sarcocystosis is a rare infection caused by the genus Sarcocystis who human serve as definitive (intestinal form of infection) host or intermediate (extraintestinal form) host for some various Sarcocystis species. The detection of Sarcocystis oocysts/sporocysts in the feces usually incidentally and is achieved by microscopic examination of the fresh or preserved specimens. To rule out any parasitological etiology among 23,875 (aged 2 months to 95 years) apparently immunocompetent Iranian individuals (from October of 2010 to June of 2016) with abdominal discomforts referred to several teaching hospitals and local clinical laboratories in Fars Province, Iran, their fecal samples were examined using light microscopy...
September 9, 2016: Parasitology Research
Ronak Karbalaeifar, Sara Kazempour-Ardebili, Parisa Amiri, Shima Ghannadi, Zhale Tahmasebinejad, Atieh Amouzegar
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common disease imposing a great economic burden to health systems. As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Iran has grown over the past decades, it has become necessary to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of type 2 diabetic patients in our country for policy planning to increase the patients' awareness of diabetes and its complications and, in the long run, decrease costs of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with diabetes and its relationship with self-managing of disease and quality of life...
September 13, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Erica Eggers Carroll
Good laboratory practice standards are US federal regulations enacted as part of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (40 CFR Part 160), the Toxic Substance Control Act (40 CFR Part 792), and the Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies (21 CFR Part 58) to support protection of public health in the areas of pesticides, chemicals, and drug investigations in response to allegations of inaccurate data acquisition. Essentially, good laboratory practices (GLPs) are a system of management controls for nonclinical research studies involving animals to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of data collected as part of chemical (including pharmaceuticals) tests, from in vitro through acute to chronic toxicity tests...
October 2016: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Nils-Otto Ahnfelt, Hjalmar Fors
Historians of science and medicine have rarely applied themselves to reproducing the experiments and practices of medicine and pharmacy. This paper delineates our efforts to reproduce "Swedish Bitters," an early modern composite medicine in wide European use from the 1730s to the present. In its original formulation, it was made from seven medicinal simples: aloe, rhubarb, saffron, myrrh, gentian, zedoary and agarikon. These were mixed in alcohol together with some theriac, a composite medicine of classical origin...
May 2016: Ambix
Ana Barahona
Following World War II (WWII), there was a new emphasis within genetics on studying the genetic composition of populations. This probably had a dual source in the growing strength of evolutionary biology and the new international interest in understanding the effects of radiation on human populations, following the atomic bombings in Japan. These global concerns were shared by Mexican physicians. Indeed, Mexico was one of the leading centers of this trend in human genetics. Three leading players in this story were Mario Salazar Mallén, Adolfo Karl, and Rubén Lisker...
September 2016: Genetics
María Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez, Antonio Alí Pérez-Maya, Daniela Estefanía Monsivais-Ovalle, Juan Francisco Velázquez-Vadillo, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña
A biobank facility is one of the most valuable means that academic medical organizations have to offer researchers for improving the competitiveness of their medical research. We describe the implementation of our institutional biobank. Our efforts focused on the design and equipment of work areas, staff training, quality control, bioethical and regulatory issues, generating research collaborations and developing funding strategies. We implemented an institutional biobank at the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico...
August 2016: Salud Pública de México
Bu-Ping Liu, Yun-Ting Wang, Si-da Chen
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane library Central, Web of Science, Wang-fang Database, and CNKI were searched from their inception to June 30, 2016. Data of acupuncture for CP/CPPS following randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was included. The data were analyzed using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager. The primary data were the National Institute of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Index (NIH-CPSI) score at the end of follow-up...
September 2, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
(no author information available yet)
Emmanuel Boucrot obtained an undergraduate and a master's degree in biochemistry at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. He pursued his PhD in immunology at the University of Aix-Marseille II in France, supervised by Stéphane Méresse in the laboratory of Jean-Pierre Gorvel. Emmanuel moved to the USA for his postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Tomas Kirchhausen at Harvard Medical School, first as an EMBO fellow and then as a Human Frontiers Science Program fellow. Before starting his own laboratory in 2011, Emmanuel held another postdoctoral position in the laboratory of Harvey McMahon at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
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