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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212502/a-new-mechanism-shapes-the-na%C3%A3-ve-cd8-t-cell-repertoire-the-selection-for-full-diversity
#1
Pedro Gonçalves, Marco Ferrarini, Carmen Molina-Paris, Grant Lythe, Florence Vasseur, Annik Lim, Benedita Rocha, Orly Azogui
During thymic T cell differentiation, TCR repertoires are shaped by negative, positive and agonist selection. In the thymus and in the periphery, repertoires are also shaped by strong inter-clonal and intra-clonal competition to survive death by neglect. Understanding the impact of these events on the T cell repertoire requires direct evaluation of TCR expression in peripheral naïve T cells. Several studies have evaluated TCR diversity, with contradictory results. Some of these studies had intrinsic technical limitations since they used material obtained from T cell pools, preventing the direct evaluation of clone sizes...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212410/a-high-throughput-genetic-screen-identifies-previously-uncharacterized-borrelia-burgdorferi-genes-important-for-resistance-against-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species
#2
Meghan E Ramsey, Jenny A Hyde, Diana N Medina-Perez, Tao Lin, Lihui Gao, Maureen E Lundt, Xin Li, Steven J Norris, Jon T Skare, Linden T Hu
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in humans, is exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in both the tick vector and vertebrate reservoir hosts. B. burgdorferi contains a limited repertoire of canonical oxidative stress response genes, suggesting that novel gene functions may be important for protection of B. burgdorferi against ROS or RNS exposure. Here, we use transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) to conduct an unbiased search for genes involved in resistance to nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide in vitro...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212378/sequencing-the-extrachromosomal-circular-mobilome-reveals-retrotransposon-activity-in-plants
#3
Sophie Lanciano, Marie-Christine Carpentier, Christel Llauro, Edouard Jobet, Dagmara Robakowska-Hyzorek, Eric Lasserre, Alain Ghesquière, Olivier Panaud, Marie Mirouze
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements abundant in plant and animal genomes. While efficiently silenced by the epigenetic machinery, they can be reactivated upon stress or during development. Their level of transcription not reflecting their transposition ability, it is thus difficult to evaluate their contribution to the active mobilome. Here we applied a simple methodology based on the high throughput sequencing of extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) forms of active retrotransposons to characterize the repertoire of mobile retrotransposons in plants...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211154/kir2dl3-and-the-kir-ligand-groups-hla-a-bw4-and-hla-c2-predict-the-outcome-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#4
Danilo Di Bona, Anna Aiello, Claudia Colomba, Massimo Bilancia, Giulia Accardi, Raffaella Rubino, Lidia Giannitrapani, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Cascio, Maria Filomena Caiaffa, Sergio Rizzo, Gabriele Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina Candore, Luigi Macchia, Giuseppe Montalto, Calogero Caruso
Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activation of Natural Killer cells through their interaction with human leukocyte antigens (HLA). KIR and HLA loci are highly polymorphic and certain HLA-KIR combinations have been found to protect against viral infections. In this study we analyzed whether the KIR/HLA repertoire may influence the course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Fifty-seven subjects with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 44 subjects with resolved HBV infection, and 60 healthy uninfected controls (HC) were genotyped for KIR and their HLA ligands...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210796/optogenetic-switches-for-light-controlled-gene-expression-in-yeast
#5
REVIEW
Francisco Salinas, Vicente Rojas, Verónica Delgado, Eduardo Agosin, Luis F Larrondo
Light is increasingly recognized as an efficient means of controlling diverse biological processes with high spatiotemporal resolution. Optogenetic switches are molecular devices for regulating light-controlled gene expression, protein localization, signal transduction and protein-protein interactions. Such molecular components have been mainly developed through the use of photoreceptors, which upon light stimulation undergo conformational changes passing to an active state. The current repertoires of optogenetic switches include red, blue and UV-B light photoreceptors and have been implemented in a broad spectrum of biological platforms...
February 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210711/intergenically-spliced-chimeric-rnas-in-cancer
#6
Yuemeng Jia, Zhongqiu Xie, Hui Li
Gene fusions and their encoded products (fusion RNAs and proteins) are viewed as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Traditionally, they were thought to be generated solely by chromosomal rearrangements. However, recent discoveries of trans-splicing and cis-splicing events between neighboring genes, suggest that there are other mechanisms to generate chimeric fusion RNAs without corresponding changes in DNA. In addition, chimeric RNAs have been detected in normal physiology, complicating the use of fusions in cancer detection and therapy...
September 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209711/serotype-3-pneumococci-sequester-platelet-derived-human-thrombospondin-1-via-the-adhesin-and-immune-evasion-protein-hic
#7
Ulrike Binsker, Thomas P Kohler, Krystin Krauel, Sylvia Kohler, Johanna Habermeyer, Hansjörg Schwertz, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 strains emerge frequently within clinical isolates of invasive diseases. Bacterial invasion into deeper tissues is associated with colonization and immune evasion mechanisms. Thus, pneumococci express a versatile repertoire of surface proteins sequestering and interacting specifically with components of the human extracellular matrix and serum. Hic, a PspC-like pneumococcal surface protein possesses vitronectin and Factor H binding activity. Here, we show that heterologously expressed Hic domains interact, similar to the classical PspC molecule, with human matricellular thrombospondin-1 (hTSP-1)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209129/orthograph-a-versatile-tool-for-mapping-coding-nucleotide-sequences-to-clusters-of-orthologous-genes
#8
Malte Petersen, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Donath, Daniel Dowling, Shanlin Liu, Ralph S Peters, Lars Podsiadlowski, Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis
BACKGROUND: Orthology characterizes genes of different organisms that arose from a single ancestral gene via speciation, in contrast to paralogy, which is assigned to genes that arose via gene duplication. An accurate orthology assignment is a crucial step for comparative genomic studies. Orthologous genes in two organisms can be identified by applying a so-called reciprocal search strategy, given that complete information of the organisms' gene repertoire is available. In many investigations, however, only a fraction of the gene content of the organisms under study is examined (e...
February 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208675/pneumonia-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-and-early-immune-modulator-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Kyung-Yil Lee
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207488/lessons-learned-from-humoral-responses-of-hiv-patients
#10
Laura E McCoy, Áine McKnight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since 2009 many broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV have been identified, yet there is still no vaccine capable of inducing such antibodies in humans. This review considers the early observations of HIV sera neutralization in light of more recent studies and highlights areas for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Large clinical cohort studies using standardized neutralization assays and pseudoviruses derived from primary isolates have shown that 10-30% of HIV infections result in some level of serum neutralization breadth...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206769/extensive-chemical-modifications-in-the-primary-protein-structure-of-igg1-subvisible-particles-are-necessary-for-breaking-immune-tolerance
#11
Bjoern Boll, Juliana Bessa, Emilien Folzer, Anacelia Ríos Quiroz, Roland Schmidt, Patrick Bulau, Christof Finkler, Hanns-Christian Mahler, Jörg Huwyler, Antonio Iglesias, Atanas V Koulov
A current concern with the use of therapeutic proteins is the likely presence of aggregates and submicron, subvisible and visible particles. It has been proposed that aggregates and particles may lead to unwanted increases in immune response with a possible impact on safety or efficacy. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate the ability of subvisible particles of a therapeutic antibody to break immune tolerance in an IgG1 transgenic mouse model and to understand the particle attributes that may play a role in this process...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205405/mechanistics-and-photo-energetics-of-macrocycles-and-photodynamic-therapy-an-overview-of-aspects-to-consider-for-research
#12
Tamarisk K Horne, Marianne J Cronjé
Research within the field of photodynamic therapy has escalated over the past 20 years. The required conjunctional use of photosensitizers, particularly of the macrocycle structure, has lead to a vast repertoire of derivatives that branch classes and subclasses thereof. Each exhibits a differential range of physiochemical properties that influence their potential applications within the larger phototherapy field for use in either diagnostics, photodynamic therapy, both or none. Herein, we provide an overview of these properties as they relate to photodynamic therapy and to a lesser extent diagnostics...
February 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203582/indifference-to-chaotic-motion-may-be-related-to-social-disinterest-in-children-with-autism
#13
Joshua Haworth, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Wayne Fisher, Nicholas Stergiou
Children with autism spectrum disorder tend to have little interest in the presence, actions, and motives of other persons. In addition, these children tend to present with a limited and overly redundant movement repertoire, often expressing hyperfixation and aversion to novelty. We explore whether this is related to a more fundamental lack of appreciation for various temporal dynamics, including periodic, chaotic, and aperiodic motion structures. Seven children with ASD (age, gender, and height matched with children without ASD) were asked to stand and watch the motion of a visual stimulus displayed on a large (55″) video monitor...
December 2016: Journal of Motor Learning and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203263/perception-of-emotional-valence-in-horse-whinnies
#14
Elodie F Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann
BACKGROUND: Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202687/oxidized-phagosomal-nox2-is-replenished-from-lysosomes
#15
Ilse Dingjan, Peter T A Linders, Luuk van den Bekerom, Maksim V Baranov, Partho Halder, Martin Ter Beest, Geert van den Bogaart
In dendritic cells, the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is recruited to the phagosomal membrane during antigen uptake. NOX2 produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lumen of the phagosome which kill ingested pathogens, delay antigen breakdown and alter the peptide repertoire for presentation to T cells. How the integral membrane component of NOX2, cytochrome b558, traffics to phagosomes is incompletely understood. In this study, we show in dendritic cells derived from human blood-isolated monocytes that cytochrome b558 is initially recruited to the phagosome from the plasma membrane during phagosome formation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201988/molecular-characterization-of-mhc-class-iib-genes-of-sympatric-neotropical-cichlids
#16
Melinda J Hofmann, Seraina E Bracamonte, Christophe Eizaguirre, Marta Barluenga
BACKGROUND: The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a key component of the adaptive immune system of all vertebrates and consists of the most polymorphic genes known to date. Due to this complexity, however, MHC remains to be characterized in many species including any Neotropical cichlid fish. Neotropical crater lake cichlids are ideal models to study evolutionary processes as they display one of the most convincing examples of sympatric and repeated parallel radiation events within and among isolated crater lakes...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199204/the-crossroads-between-cancer-immunity-and-autoimmunity-antibodies-to-self-antigens
#17
Monica Benvenuto, Rosanna Mattera, Laura Masuelli, Ilaria Tresoldi, Maria Gabriella Giganti, Giovanni Vanni Frajese, Vittorio Manzari, Andrea Modesti, Roberto Bei
The production of autoantibodies to self antigens is dependent on the failure of immune tolerance. Cancer cells express antigens which elicit a spontaneous immune response in cancer patients. The repertoire of autoantibodies found in cancer patients partly covers that of patients with autoimmune diseases. Biological activities of autoantibodies to self antigens may induce paraneoplastic syndromes which reflect the attempt of cancer patients to counteract tumor growth. Autoantibodies with similar specificities may have different effects in cancer and autoimmune disease patients due to different immunological microenvironments...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199170/antibody-repertoire-development-in-swine
#18
J E Butler, Nancy Wertz, Marek Sinkora
We describe the domestication of the species, explore its value to agriculture and bioscience, and compare its immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to those of other vertebrates. For encyclopedic information, we cite earlier reviews and chapters. We provide current gene maps for the heavy and light chain loci and describe their polygeny and polymorphy. B-cell and antibody repertoire development is a major focus, and we present findings that challenge several mouse-centric paradigms. We focus special attention on the role of ileal Peyer's patches, the largest secondary lymphoid tissues in newborn piglets and a feature of all artiodactyls...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198074/the-first-biocatalytic-carbon-silicon-bond-formation
#19
Stephan Lütz
Linking two worlds: As a further expansion of the biocatalytic repertoire, carbene insertion into Si-H bonds catalyzed by the heme protein cytochrome c was recently reported. This new biocatalyst holds great promise because it enables the highly selective incorporation of silicon into molecules without prior protection of existing functional groups.
February 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196891/insights-into-immune-system-development-and-function-from-mouse-t-cell-repertoires
#20
Zachary Sethna, Yuval Elhanati, Chrissy S Dudgeon, Curtis G Callan, Arnold J Levine, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M Walczak
The ability of the adaptive immune system to respond to arbitrary pathogens stems from the broad diversity of immune cell surface receptors. This diversity originates in a stochastic DNA editing process (VDJ recombination) that acts on the surface receptor gene each time a new immune cell is created from a stem cell. By analyzing T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence repertoires taken from the blood and thymus of mice of different ages, we quantify the changes in the VDJ recombination process that occur from embryo to young adult...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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