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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454183/the-fine-balance-between-mutualism-and-antagonism-in-the-epichlo%C3%A3-festucae-grass-symbiotic-interaction
#1
REVIEW
Barry Scott, Kimberly Green, Daniel Berry
Epichloë endophytes form mutualistic symbiotic associations with aerial tissues of temperate grasses. Intercalary growth of hyphae within the leaves enables fungal growth to be synchronized with host leaf growth, leading to formation of a highly structured and tightly regulated symbiotic network. Mutations in fungal genes that disrupt cell-cell fusion and other key signalling pathways lead to an antagonistic interaction characterized by unregulated growth of endophytic hyphae and detrimental effects on host growth...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454089/genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-of-45-days-pregnant-fetal-cotyledons-vis-a-vis-non-pregnant-caruncles-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#2
Masoud Lotfan, Syed Azmal Ali, Munnalal Yadav, Suman Chuadhary, Manoj Kumar Jena, Sudarshan Kumar, Ashok Kumar Mohanty
The crosstalk between fetus and mother starts with the onset of placental attachment to the uterus. The cotyledons and caruncles are the two anatomically distinct structures that play a crucial role in this physiological communication. Using Agilent Gene Chip Genome microarray, we measured the expression profile of pregnancy cotyledons in comparison to caruncular reminiscence of the uteri in non-pregnant buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) for the detection of the early post-pregnancy rapid changes in cellular expression of mRNA transcripts...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453229/crystal-structure-of-plant-legumain-reveals-a-unique-two-chain-state-with-ph-dependent-activity-regulation
#3
Florian B Zauner, Elfriede Dall, Christof Regl, Luigi Grassi, Chrisitian G Huber, Chiara Cabrele, Hans Brandstetter
The vacuolar cysteine protease legumain can cleave and selectively rebuild peptide bonds, thereby vastly expanding the sequential repertoire of biomolecules. In this context, plant legumains have recently at-tracted particular interest. Furthermore, legumains have important roles in many physiological pro-cesses, including programmed cell death. Their efficient peptide bond ligase activity has gained tremen-dous interest in the design of cyclic peptides for drug design. However, the mechanistic understanding of these dual activities is incomplete and partly conflicting...
February 16, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453107/body-fluid-identification-using-a-targeted-mrna-massively-parallel-sequencing-approach-results-of-a-euroforgen-ednap-collaborative-exercise
#4
S Ingold, G Dørum, E Hanson, A Berti, W Branicki, P Brito, P Elsmore, K B Gettings, F Giangasparo, T E Gross, S Hansen, E N Hanssen, M-L Kampmann, M Kayser, F-X Laurent, N Morling, A Mosquera-Miguel, W Parson, C Phillips, M J Porto, E Pośpiech, A D Roeder, P M Schneider, K Schulze Johann, C R Steffen, D Syndercombe-Court, M Trautmann, M van den Berge, K J van der Gaag, J Vannier, V Verdoliva, A Vidaki, C Xavier, J Ballantyne, C Haas
In a previous study we presented an assay for targeted mRNA sequencing for the identification of human body fluids, optimised for the Illumina MiSeq/FGx MPS platform. This assay, together with an additional in-house designed assay for the Ion Torrent PGM/S5 platform, was the basis for a collaborative exercise within 17 EUROFORGEN and EDNAP laboratories, in order to test the efficacy of targeted mRNA sequencing to identify body fluids. The task was to analyse the supplied dried body fluid stains and, optionally, participants' own bona fide or mock casework samples of human origin, according to specified protocols...
January 31, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452849/bacterial-communities-in-mining-soils-and-surrounding-areas-under-regeneration-process-in-a-former-ore-mine
#5
Camila Cesário Fernandes, Luciano Takeshi Kishi, Erica Mendes Lopes, Wellington Pine Omori, Jackson Antonio Marcondes de Souza, Lucia Maria Carareto Alves, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos
Human activities on the Earth's surface change the landscape of natural ecosystems. Mining practices are one of the most severe human activities, drastically altering the chemical, physical and biological properties of the soil environment. Bacterial communities in soil play an important role in the maintenance of ecological relationships. This work shows bacterial diversity, metabolic repertoire and physiological behavior in five ecosystems samples with different levels of impact. These ecosystems belong to a historical area in Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil, which suffered mining activities until its total depletion without recovery since today...
February 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451876/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-multispecies-probiotic-marketed-product-vsl-3
#6
François P Douillard, Diego Mora, Robyn T Eijlander, Michiel Wels, Willem M de Vos
Several probiotic-marketed formulations available for the consumers contain live lactic acid bacteria and/or bifidobacteria. The multispecies product commercialized as VSL#3 has been used for treating various gastro-intestinal disorders. However, like many other products, the bacterial strains present in VSL#3 have only been characterized to a limited extent and their efficacy as well as their predicted mode of action remain unclear, preventing further applications or comparative studies. In this work, the genomes of all eight bacterial strains present in VSL#3 were sequenced and characterized, to advance insights into the possible mode of action of this product and also to serve as a basis for future work and trials...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451843/caregiver-reactions-to-dementia-symptoms-effects-on-coping-repertoire-and-mental-health
#7
Jaclene A Zauszniewski, Nirmala Lekhak, Carol M Musil
Currently, 15 million informal caregivers, most of whom are women, provide care for older adults with dementia (Alzheimer's Disease Association, 2016). Caregiving for these individuals often creates distress and may adversely affect female caregivers' psychosocial and spiritual well-being. Approximately 35% of dementia caregivers complain of health deterioration after initiating caregiving responsibilities as compared to 19% of caregivers of older adults who do not have dementia (Alzheimer's Disease Association, 2016)...
February 16, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449843/insights-into-the-structural-basis-of-antibody-affinity-maturation-from-next-generation-sequencing
#8
REVIEW
Arjun K Mishra, Roy A Mariuzza
Affinity maturation is the process whereby the immune system generates antibodies of higher affinities during a response to antigen. It is unique in being the only evolutionary mechanism known to operate on a molecule in an organism's own body. Deciphering the structural mechanisms through which somatic mutations in antibody genes increase affinity is critical to understanding the evolution of immune repertoires. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed the reconstruction of antibody clonal lineages in response to viral pathogens, such as HIV-1, which was not possible in earlier studies of affinity maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449194/prostaglandin-d2-receptor-dp1-antibodies-predict-vaccine-induced-and-spontaneous-narcolepsy-type-1-large-scale-study-of-antibody-profiling
#9
Helle Sadam, Arno Pihlak, Anri Kivil, Susan Pihelgas, Mariliis Jaago, Priit Adler, Jaak Vilo, Olli Vapalahti, Toomas Neuman, Dan Lindholm, Markku Partinen, Antti Vaheri, Kaia Palm
BACKGROUND: Neuropathological findings support an autoimmune etiology as an underlying factor for loss of orexin-producing neurons in spontaneous narcolepsy type 1 (narcolepsy with cataplexy; sNT1) as well as in Pandemrix influenza vaccine-induced narcolepsy type 1 (Pdmx-NT1). The precise molecular target or antigens for the immune response have, however, remained elusive. METHODS: Here we have performed a comprehensive antigenic repertoire analysis of sera using the next-generation phage display method - mimotope variation analysis (MVA)...
February 2, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448053/biomarkers-of-operational-tolerance-following-kidney-transplantation-the-immune-tolerance-network-studies-of-spontaneously-tolerant-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
REVIEW
Kenneth A Newell, Andrew B Adams, Laurence A Turka
Studies of kidney transplant recipients who have developed spontaneous and sustained tolerance have revealed an association with B cells. Unexpectedly tolerant individuals are characterized by increased numbers and frequencies of B cells in the blood and increased expression of genes associated with B cells in the blood and urine. Comparisons of the B cell repertoires of tolerant individuals and those receiving immunosuppression reveal that not only are the B cells more numerous but developmental differences result in a repertoire comprised of more naïve and transitional B cells in the tolerant cohort...
February 12, 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447852/loss-of-red-opsin-genes-relaxes-sexual-isolation-between-skin-colour-variants-of-medaka
#11
Makiko Kamijo, Mayuko Kawamura, Shoji Fukamachi
Colour vision is often essential for animals. Fine discrimination of colours enhances the ability of animals to find food, predators, or mating partners. Using two colour variants of medaka (Oryzias latipes), which mate assortatively depending on visual cues (pale grey versus dark orange), we recently established red colour-blind strains by knocking out the red opsin (long-wavelength-sensitive) genes and elucidated that the fish were indeed insensitive to red light. In the present study, we investigated the mate choice of these red-blind fish...
February 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447367/endometrial-natural-killer-nk-cells-reveal-a-tissue-specific-receptor-repertoire
#12
D Feyaerts, T Kuret, B van Cranenbroek, S van der Zeeuw-Hingrez, O W H van der Heijden, A van der Meer, I Joosten, R G van der Molen
STUDY QUESTION: Is the natural killer (NK) cell receptor repertoire of endometrial NK (eNK) cells tissue-specific? SUMMARY ANSWER: The NK cell receptor (NKR) expression profile in pre-pregnancy endometrium appears to have a unique tissue-specific phenotype, different from that found in NK cells in peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are finely tuned towards the reception of an allogeneic fetus. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: NK cells are important for successful pregnancy...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447068/microbial-culturomics-broadens-human-vaginal-flora-diversity-genome-sequence-and-description-of-prevotella-lascolaii-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-patient-with-bacterial-vaginosis
#13
Khoudia Diop, Awa Diop, Anthony Levasseur, Oleg Mediannikov, Catherine Robert, Nicholas Armstrong, Carine Couderc, Florence Bretelle, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Florence Fenollar
Microbial culturomics is a new subfield of postgenomic medicine and omics biotechnology application that has broadened our awareness on bacterial diversity of the human microbiome, including the human vaginal flora bacterial diversity. Using culturomics, a new obligate anaerobic Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium designated strain khD1 T was isolated in the vagina of a patient with bacterial vaginosis and characterized using taxonogenomics. The most abundant cellular fatty acids were C 15:0 anteiso (36%), C 16:0 (19%), and C 15:0 iso (10%)...
February 15, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446724/inhibitors-of-er-aminopeptidase-1-and-2-from-design-to-clinical-application
#14
Dimitris Georgiadis, Anastasia Mpakali, Despoina Koumantou, Efstratios Stratikos
Endoplasmic Reticulum aminopeptidase 1 and 2 are two homologous enzymes that help generate peptide ligands for presentation by Major Histocompatibility Class I molecules. Their enzymatic activity influences the antigenic peptide repertoire and indirectly controls adaptive immune responses. Accumulating evidence suggests that these two enzymes are tractable targets for the regulation of immune responses with possible applications ranging from cancer immunotherapy to treating inflammatory autoimmune disease. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in the development of inhibitors of ERAP1 and ERAP2 as well as their potential and limitations for clinical applications...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446091/an-evaluation-of-delay-to-reinforcement-and-mand-variability-during-functional-communication-training
#15
Colin S Muething, Terry S Falcomata, Raechal Ferguson, Samantha Swinnea, Cayenne Shpall
Children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities often exhibit invariant responding (i.e., restricted behavioral repertoires), deficits in communication, and challenging behavior. Approaches demonstrated in the basic and applied literature to increase response variability include extinction, lag schedules of reinforcement, and percentile schedules of reinforcement. Results of basic studies have also indicated that delays to reinforcement often produce increases in response variability...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445959/methods-for-monitoring-autophagy-in-silkworm-organs
#16
Aurora Montali, Morena Casartelli, Daniele Bruno, Annalisa Grimaldi, Gianluca Tettamanti
In holometabolous insects, various larval organs are remodeled by autophagy during metamorphosis. Although moths and butterflies are among the first animal models in which this self-eating process was described, only in recent years autophagy has been analyzed in detail in these insects. In particular, the silkworm Bombyx mori, which represents a well-studied model among Lepidoptera, provides a wide repertoire of cellular and molecular tools useful for studying the occurrence of autophagy and for evaluating its role in postembryonic development...
February 15, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445583/deep-sustained-response-to-daratumumab-monotherapy-associated-with-t-cell-expansion-in-triple-refractory-myeloma
#17
Saad Z Usmani, Imran Khan, Christopher Chiu, David Foureau, Lawrence J Druhan, Katherine Rigby, Tineke Casneuf, A Kate Sasser
Background: Daratumumab, a human CD38 monoclonal antibody that has direct on-tumor and immunomodulatory mechanisms of action, demonstrated clinical benefit as monotherapy or in combination with established regimens in patients with multiple myeloma with one or more prior lines of therapy. Case presentation: A male patient, who was 70 years of age at the time of diagnosis of multiple myeloma in 2011, relapsed after five lines of therapy, including autologous stem cell transplantation...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445215/origin-evolution-and-distribution-of-the-molecular-machinery-for-biosynthesis-of-sialylated-lipooligosaccharide-structures-in-campylobacter-coli
#18
Alejandra Culebro, Miguel P Machado, João André Carriço, Mirko Rossi
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Additionally, C. jejuni is the most common bacterial etiological agent in the autoimmune Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ganglioside mimicry by C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is the triggering factor of the disease. LOS-associated genes involved in the synthesis and transfer of sialic acid (glycosyltranferases belonging to family GT-42) are essential in C. jejuni to synthesize ganglioside-like LOS...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444930/immunophenotyping-of-newly-diagnosed-and-recurrent-glioblastoma-defines-distinct-immune-exhaustion-profiles-in-peripheral-and-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes
#19
Malte Mohme, Simon Schliffke, Cecile L Maire, Alessandra Rünger, Laura Glau, Klaus C Mende, Jakob Matschke, Christina Gehbauer, Nuray Akyüz, Svenja Zapf, Mareike Holz, Miriam Schaper, Tobias Martens, Nils O Schmidt, Sven Peine, Manfred Westphal, Mascha Binder, Eva Tolosa, Katrin Lamszus
PURPOSE: Immunotherapeutic treatment strategies for glioblastoma (GBM) are under investigation in clinical trials. However, our understanding of the immune phenotype of GBM-infiltrating T-cells (TILs) and changes during disease progression is limited. Deeper insight is urgently needed to therapeutically overcome tumor-induced immune exhaustion. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used flow-cytometry and cytokine assays to profile TILs and blood lymphocytes (PBL) from GBM patients, comparing newly diagnosed or recurrent GBM to long-term survivors (LTS) and healthy donors...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444312/in-concert-orchestrated-changes-in-carbohydrate-homeostasis-are-critical-for-plant-abiotic-stress-tolerance
#20
Benjamin Pommerrenig, Frank Ludewig, Jelena Cvetkovic, Oliver Trentmann, Patrick A W Klemens, H Ekkehard Neuhaus
The sessile lifestyle of higher plants is accompanied by their remarkable ability to tolerate unfavourable environmental conditions. This is, because during evolution plants developed a sophisticated repertoire of molecular and metabolic reactions to cope with changing biotic and abiotic challenges. In particular, the abiotic factors light intensity and ambient temperature are characterized by altering their amplitude within comparably short periods of time and are causative for onset of dynamic plant responses...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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