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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058307/genetic-immunization-with-mouse-thyrotropin-hormone-receptor-plasmid-breaks-self-tolerance-for-a-murine-model-of-autoimmune-thyroid-disease-and-graves-orbitopathy
#1
Anke Schlüter, Mareike Horstmann, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Svenja Plöhn, Kerstin Stähr, Stefan Mattheis, Michael Oeverhaus, Stephan Lang, Ulrich Flögel, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Anja Eckstein, J Paul Banga
Experimental models of Graves' hyperthyroid disease accompanied by Graves' orbitopathy (GO) can be efficiently induced in susceptible inbred strains of mice by immunization by electroporation of heterologous human TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit plasmid. In this study, we report on the development of a bona fide murine model of autoimmune Graves' disease induced with homologous mouse TSHR A-subunit plasmid. Autoimmune thyroid disease in the self-antigen model was accompanied by GO and characterized by histopathology of hyperplastic glands with large thyroid follicular cells...
October 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055088/the-transcriptome-extracellular-proteome-and-active-secretome-of-agroinfiltrated-n-benthamiana-uncover-a-large-diverse-protease-repertoire
#2
Friederike Grosse-Holz, Steven Kelly, Svenja Blaskowski, Farnusch Kaschani, Markus Kaiser, Renier A L van der Hoorn
Infiltration of disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens into leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana (agroinfiltration) facilitates quick and safe production of antibodies, vaccines, enzymes and metabolites for industrial use (Molecular Farming). However, yield and purity of proteins produced by agroinfiltration are hampered by unintended proteolysis, restricting industrial viability of the agroinfiltration platform. Proteolysis may be linked to an immune response to agroinfiltration, but understanding of the response to agroinfiltration is limited...
October 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054368/an-intermediate-level-of-cd161-expression-defines-a-novel-activated-inflammatory-and-pathogenic-subset-of-cd8-t-cells-involved-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Bryan Nicol, Marion Salou, Isabel Vogel, Alexandra Garcia, Emilie Dugast, Jeremy Morille, Stéphanie Kilens, Eric Charpentier, Audrey Donnart, Steven Nedellec, Marylène Jacq-Foucher, Fabienne Le Frère, Sandrine Wiertlewski, Arnaud Bourreille, Sophie Brouard, Laure Michel, Laurent David, Pierre-Antoine Gourraud, Nicolas Degauque, Arnaud B Nicot, Laureline Berthelot, David-Axel Laplaud
Several lines of evidence support a key role for CD8(+) T cells in central nervous system tissue damage of patients with multiple sclerosis. However, the precise phenotype of the circulating CD8(+) T cells that may be recruited from the peripheral blood to invade the CNS remains largely undefined to date. It has been suggested that IL-17 secreting CD8 (Tc17) T cells may be involved, and in humans these cells are characterized by the expression of CD161. We focused our study on a unique and recently described subset of CD8 T cells characterized by an intermediate expression of CD161 as its role in neuroinflammation has not been investigated to date...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054165/the-origin-of-bipedality-as-the-result-of-a-developmental-by-product-the-case-study-of-the-olive-baboon-papio-anubis
#4
François Druelle, Peter Aerts, Gilles Berillon
In this paper, we point to the importance of considering infancy in the emergence of new locomotor modes during evolution, and particularly when considering bipedal walking. Indeed, because infant primates commonly exhibit a more diverse posturo-locomotor repertoire than adults, the developmental processes of locomotion represent an important source of variation upon which natural selection may act. We have had the opportunity to follow the development of locomotion in captive individuals of a committed quadrupedal primate, the olive baboon (Papio anubis)...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053720/vocalizations-of-adult-male-asian-koels-eudynamys-scolopacea-in-the-breeding-season
#5
Abdul Aziz Khan, Irfan Zia Qureshi
Defining the vocal repertoire provides a basis for understanding the role of acoustic signals in sexual and social interactions of an animal. The Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) is a migratory bird which spends its summer breeding season in the plains of Pakistan. The bird is typically wary and secretive but produces loud and distinct calls, making it easily detected when unseen. Like the other birds in the wild, presumably Asian koels use their calls for social cohesion and coordination of different behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052930/comprehensive-functional-characterization-of-the-glycoside-hydrolase-family-3-enzymes-from-cellvibrio-japonicus-reveals-unique-metabolic-roles-in-biomass-saccharification
#6
Cassandra E Nelson, Mohamed A Attia, Artur Rogowski, Carl Morland, Harry Brumer, Jeffrey G Gardner
Lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;3)/β(1&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), and β(1&cenveo_unknown_entity_wingdings_F0E0;3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052632/social-behaviour-shapes-hypothalamic-neural-ensemble-representations-of-conspecific-sex
#7
Ryan Remedios, Ann Kennedy, Moriel Zelikowsky, Benjamin F Grewe, Mark J Schnitzer, David J Anderson
All animals possess a repertoire of innate (or instinctive) behaviours, which can be performed without training. Whether such behaviours are mediated by anatomically distinct and/or genetically specified neural pathways remains unknown. Here we report that neural representations within the mouse hypothalamus, that underlie innate social behaviours, are shaped by social experience. Oestrogen receptor 1-expressing (Esr1(+)) neurons in the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) control mating and fighting in rodents...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051527/micro-ribonucleic-acids-and-extracellular-vesicles-repertoire-in-the-spent-culture-media-is-altered-in-women-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#8
Masood Abu-Halima, Sebastian Häusler, Christina Backes, Tobias Fehlmann, Claudia Staib, Sigrun Nestel, Irina Nazarenko, Eckart Meese, Andreas Keller
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are class of small RNA molecules with major impact on gene regulation. We analyzed the potential of miRNAs secreted from pre-implantation embryos into the embryonic culture media as biomarkers to predict successful pregnancy. Using microarray analysis, we profiled the miRNome of the 56 spent culture media (SCM) after embryos transfer and found a total of 621 miRNAs in the SCM. On average, we detected 163 miRNAs in SCM of samples with failed pregnancies, but only 149 SCM miRNAs of embryos leading to pregnancies...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051196/mechanisms-of-phosphorus-acquisition-and-lipid-class-remodelling-under-p-limitation-in-a-marine-microalga
#9
Alice Mühlroth, Per Winge, Aimen El Assimi, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Marechal, Martin F Hohmann-Marriott, Olav Vadstein, Atle M Bones
Molecular mechanisms of phosphorus (P) limitation are of great interest for understanding algal production in aquatic ecosystems. Previous studies point to P limitation induced changes in lipid composition. As in microalgae the molecular mechanisms of this specific P-stress adaptation remain unresolved, we reveal a detailed phospholipid-recycling scheme in Nannochloropsis oceanica and described important P acquisition genes based on highly corresponding transcriptome and lipidome data. Initial responses to P limitation showed increased expression of genes involved in P uptake and an expansion of P substrate spectrum based on purple acid phosphatases...
October 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049006/the-dynamics-of-immunoglobulin-v-gene-usage-and-clonotype-expansion-in-mice-after-prime-and-boost-immunizations-as-analyzed-by-ngs
#10
Diego J Farfán-Arribas, Shuying Liu, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu
In the current study, an improved NGS approach was developed to study the B-cell repertoire evolution in a simple mouse immunization model including only two DNA immunizations. The combination of 5'RACE and Ion Torrent long reads enabled unbiased immunoglobulin repertoire analysis even from small amounts of peripheral mouse blood. The B-cell population expanded by the vaccine displayed a relatively strong clonality. Upon priming with the first vaccine dose, we observed a consistent pattern of V-segment gene and CDR3 usage (public specificities)...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048529/the-rhizome-of-lokiarchaeota-illustrates-the-mosaicity-of-archaeal-genomes
#11
Anthony Levasseur, Vicky Merhej, Emeline Baptiste, Vikas Sharma, Pierre Pontarotti, Didier Raoult
Genome remodeling and exchange of sequences are widespread in the prokaryotic world and mosaic genomes challenge the classification of prokaryotes, which cannot be properly achieved in terms of a single gene or group of genes. Here, we studied individually the gene collection of the archaic microorganism Lokiarchaeum sp., suggested as an archaeal host close to the emergence of the eukaryotes. The network or rhizome of all Lokiarchaeum sp. genes revealed that the genomic repertoire is mainly composed of genes from archaeal (∼36%) and bacterial origin (∼28%), distantly followed by components of eukaryotic origin (∼2%)...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047329/genome-sequencing-of-39-akkermansia-muciniphila-isolates-reveals-its-population-structure-genomic-and-functional-diverisity-and-global-distribution-in-mammalian-gut-microbiotas
#12
Xianfeng Guo, Shenghui Li, Jiachun Zhang, Feifan Wu, Xiangchun Li, Dan Wu, Min Zhang, Zihao Ou, Zhuye Jie, Qiulong Yan, Peng Li, Jiangfeng Yi, Yongzheng Peng
BACKGROUND: Akkermansia muciniphila is one of the most dominant bacteria that resides on the mucus layer of intestinal tract and plays key role in human health, however, little is known about its genomic content. RESULTS: Herein, we for the first time characterized the genomic architecture of A. muciniphila based on whole-genome sequencing, assembling, and annotating of 39 isolates derived from human and mouse feces. We revealed a flexible open pangenome of A. muciniphila currently consisting of 5644 unique proteins...
October 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046389/the-antibody-repertoire-of-colorectal-cancer
#13
Seong Won Cha, Stefano Bonissone, Seungjin Na, Pavel A Pevzner, Vineet Bafna
Immunotherapy is becoming increasingly important in the fight against cancers, utilizing and manipulating the body's immune response to treat tumors. Understanding the immune repertoire - the collection of immunological proteins - of treated and untreated cells is possible at the genomic, but technically difficult at the protein level. Standard protein databases do not include the highly divergent sequences of somatic rearranged immunoglobulin genes, and may lead to missed identifications in a mass spectrometry search...
October 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045845/revealing-the-determinants-of-widespread-alternative-splicing-perturbation-in-cancer
#14
Yongsheng Li, Nidhi Sahni, Rita Pancsa, Daniel J McGrail, Juan Xu, Xu Hua, Jasmin Coulombe-Huntington, Michael Ryan, Boranai Tychhon, Dhanistha Sudhakar, Limei Hu, Michael Tyers, Xiaoqian Jiang, Shiaw-Yih Lin, M Madan Babu, Song Yi
It is increasingly appreciated that alternative splicing plays a key role in generating functional specificity and diversity in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which cancer mutations perturb splicing remain unknown. Here, we developed a network-based strategy, DrAS-Net, to investigate more than 2.5 million variants across cancer types and link somatic mutations with cancer-specific splicing events. We identified more than 40,000 driver variant candidates and their 80,000 putative splicing targets deregulated in 33 cancer types and inferred their functional impact...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045511/mechanisms-regulating-t-cell-infiltration-and-activity-in-solid-tumors
#15
E Lanitis, D Dangaj, M Irving, G Coukos
T-lymphocytes play a critical role in cancer immunity as evidenced by their presence in resected tumor samples derived from long-surviving patients, and impressive clinical responses to various immunotherapies that reinvigorate them. Indeed, tumors can upregulate a wide array of defense mechanisms, both direct and indirect, to suppress the ability of Tcells to reach the tumor bed and mount curative responses upon infiltration. In addition, patient and tumor genetics, previous antigenic experience, and the microbiome, are all important factors in shaping the T-cell repertoire and sensitivity to immunotherapy...
September 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045470/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-smo-1-the-sumo-homolog-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Parag Surana, Chandrakala M Gowda, Vasvi Tripathi, Limor Broday, Ranabir Das
SUMO proteins are important post-translational modifiers involved in multiple cellular pathways in eukaryotes, especially during the different developmental stages in multicellular organisms. The nematode C. elegans is a well known model system for studying metazoan development and has a single SUMO homolog, SMO-1. Interestingly, SMO-1 modification is linked to embryogenesis and development in the nematode. However, high-resolution information about SMO-1 and the mechanism of its conjugation is lacking. In this work, we report the high-resolution three dimensional structure of SMO-1 solved by NMR spectroscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044108/echinochloa-crus-galli-genome-analysis-provides-insight-into-its-adaptation-and-invasiveness-as-a-weed
#17
Longbiao Guo, Jie Qiu, Chuyu Ye, Gulei Jin, Lingfeng Mao, Haiqiang Zhang, Xuefang Yang, Qiong Peng, Yingying Wang, Lei Jia, Zhangxiang Lin, Gengmi Li, Fei Fu, Chen Liu, Li Chen, Enhui Shen, Weidi Wang, Qinjie Chu, Dongya Wu, Sanling Wu, Chenyang Xia, Yongfei Zhang, Xiaomao Zhou, Lifeng Wang, Lamei Wu, Weijie Song, Yunfei Wang, Qingyao Shu, Daisuke Aoki, Emi Yumoto, Takao Yokota, Koji Miyamoto, Kazunori Okada, Do-Soon Kim, Daguang Cai, Chulong Zhang, Yonggen Lou, Qian Qian, Hirofumi Yamaguchi, Hisakazu Yamane, Chui-Hua Kong, Michael P Timko, Lianyang Bai, Longjiang Fan
Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is a pernicious weed in agricultural fields worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying its success in the absence of human intervention are presently unknown. Here we report a draft genome sequence of the hexaploid species E. crus-galli, i.e., a 1.27 Gb assembly representing 90.7% of the predicted genome size. An extremely large repertoire of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases associated with detoxification are found. Two gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of an allelochemical 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) and a phytoalexin momilactone A are found in the E...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043820/stable-isotope-assisted-metabolic-profiling-reveals-growth-mode-dependent-differential-metabolism-and-multiple-catabolic-pathways-of-l-phenylalanine-in-rubrivivax-benzoatilyticus-ja2
#18
Lakshmi Prasuna Mekala, Mujahid Mohammed, Sasikala Chintalapati, Venakata Ramana Chintalapati
Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are metabolically versatile, survive under different growth modes using diverse organic compounds, yet their metabolic diversity is largely unexplored. In the present study, we employed stable isotope-assisted metabolic profiling to unravel the L-phenylalanine catabolism in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 under varying growth modes. Strain JA2 grows under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by utilising L-phenylalanine as a nitrogen source. Further, ring labelled (13)C6-phenylalanine feeding followed by LC-MS exometabolite profiling revealed 60 labelled metabolic features(M+6/M+12/M+18) derived solely from L-phenylalanine, of which 11 were identified, 7 putatively identified and 42 unidentified under anaerobic, aerobic conditions...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042516/across-the-tree-of-life-radiation-resistance-is-governed-by-antioxidant-mn-2-gauged-by-paramagnetic-resonance
#19
Ajay Sharma, Elena K Gaidamakova, Olga Grichenko, Vera Y Matrosova, Veronika Hoeke, Polina Klimenkova, Isabel H Conze, Robert P Volpe, Rok Tkavc, Cene Gostinčar, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Jocelyne DiRuggiero, Igor Shuryak, Andrew Ozarowski, Brian M Hoffman, Michael J Daly
Despite concerted functional genomic efforts to understand the complex phenotype of ionizing radiation (IR) resistance, a genome sequence cannot predict whether a cell is IR-resistant or not. Instead, we report that absorption-display electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of nonirradiated cells is highly diagnostic of IR survival and repair efficiency of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) caused by exposure to gamma radiation across archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes, including fungi and human cells...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040502/comparative-genomics-of-the-genus-desulfitobacterium
#20
Thomas Kruse, Tobias Goris, Julien Maillard, Tanja Woyke, Ute Lechner, Willem de Vos, Hauke Smidt
The Desulfitobacterium genus comprises anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, of which the majority are facultative organohalide-respirers. We here present the genomes of eight strains of Desulfitobacterium spp., including five strains of D. hafniense, one strain each from D. dichloroeliminans and D. metallireducens, and one strain that had not been assigned to any species prior to this study. The newly sequenced genomes were compared with four previously published desulfitobacterial genomes. The average genome sizes are 5...
October 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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