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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775460/genus-wide-comparison-of-pseudovibrio-bacterial-genomes-reveal-diverse-adaptations-to-different-marine-invertebrate-hosts
#1
Anoop Alex, Agostinho Antunes
Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been frequently found in association with a wide variety of marine eukaryotic invertebrate hosts, indicative of their versatile and symbiotic lifestyle. A recent comparison of the sponge-associated Pseudovibrio genomes has shed light on the mechanisms influencing a successful symbiotic association with sponges. In contrast, the genomic architecture of Pseudovibrio bacteria associated with other marine hosts has received less attention. Here, we performed genus-wide comparative analyses of 18 Pseudovibrio isolated from sponges, coral, tunicates, flatworm, and seawater...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774970/priming-patient-safety-a-middle-range-theory-of-safety-goal-priming-via-safety-culture-communication
#2
Patricia S Groves, Jacinda L Bunch
The aim of this paper is discussion of a new middle-range theory of patient safety goal priming via safety culture communication. Bedside nurses are key to safe care, but there is little theory about how organizations can influence nursing behavior through safety culture to improve patient safety outcomes. We theorize patient safety goal priming via safety culture communication may support organizations in this endeavor. According to this theory, hospital safety culture communication activates a previously held patient safety goal and increases the perceived value of actions nurses can take to achieve that goal...
May 18, 2018: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774238/chitinase-genes-chia-s-provide-genomic-footprints-of-a-post-cretaceous-dietary-radiation-in-placental-mammals
#3
Christopher A Emerling, Frédéric Delsuc, Michael W Nachman
The end-Cretaceous extinction led to a massive faunal turnover, with placental mammals radiating in the wake of nonavian dinosaurs. Fossils indicate that Cretaceous stem placentals were generally insectivorous, whereas their earliest Cenozoic descendants occupied a variety of dietary niches. It is hypothesized that this dietary radiation resulted from the opening of niche space, following the extinction of dinosaurian carnivores and herbivores. We provide the first genomic evidence for the occurrence and timing of this dietary radiation in placental mammals...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774030/changes-in-the-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire-and-tumor-immune-signature-from-a-cutaneous-melanoma-patient-immunized-with-the-csf-470-vaccine-a-case-report
#4
Mariana Aris, Alicia Inés Bravo, María Betina Pampena, Paula Alejandra Blanco, Ibel Carri, Daniel Koile, Patricio Yankilevich, Estrella Mariel Levy, María Marcela Barrio, José Mordoh
The allogeneic therapeutic vaccine CSF-470 has demonstrated a significant benefit over medium-dose IFNα2b in the distant metastasis-free survival for stages IIB-IIC-III cutaneous melanoma patients in a randomized phase II/III clinical trial (CASVAC-0401, NCT01729663). At the end of the 2-year CSF-470 immunization protocol, patient #006 developed several lung and one subcutaneous melanoma metastases; this later was excised. In this report, we analyzed the changes throughout vaccination of immune populations in blood and in the tumor tissue, with special focus on the T-cell repertoire...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774024/quantification-of-hla-dm-dependent-major-histocompatibility-complex-of-class-ii-immunopeptidomes-by-the-peptide-landscape-antigenic-epitope-alignment-utility
#5
Miguel Álvaro-Benito, Eliot Morrison, Esam T Abualrous, Benno Kuropka, Christian Freund
The major histocompatibility complex of class II (MHCII) immunopeptidome represents the repertoire of antigenic peptides with the potential to activate CD4+ T cells. An understanding of how the relative abundance of specific antigenic epitopes affects the outcome of T cell responses is an important aspect of adaptive immunity and offers a venue to more rationally tailor T cell activation in the context of disease. Recent advances in mass spectrometric instrumentation, computational power, labeling strategies, and software analysis have enabled an increasing number of stratified studies on HLA ligandomes, in the context of both basic and translational research...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772649/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Norris S H Lan, Benjamin D Massam, Sandeep S Kulkarni, Chim C Lang
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the first category of pulmonary hypertension, is a chronic and progressive disorder characterised by angioproliferative vasculopathy in the pulmonary arterioles, leading to endothelial and smooth muscle proliferation and dysfunction, inflammation and thrombosis. These changes increase pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent pulmonary arterial pressure, causing right ventricular failure which leads to eventual death if untreated. The management of PAH has advanced rapidly in recent years due to improved understanding of the condition's pathophysiology, specifically the nitric oxide, prostacyclin-thromboxane and endothelin-1 pathways...
May 16, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772089/microevolutionary-selection-dynamics-acting-on-immune-genes-of-the-green-veined-white-butterfly-pieris-napi
#7
Naomi L P Keehnen, Jason Hill, Sören Nylin, Christopher W Wheat
Insects rely on their innate immune system to successfully mediate complex interactions with their microbiota, as well as the microbes present in the environment. Previous work has shown that components of the canonical immune gene repertoire evolve rapidly and have evolutionary characteristics originating from interactions with fast-evolving microorganisms. Although these interactions are likely to vary among populations, there is a poor understanding of the microevolutionary dynamics of immune genes, especially in non-Dipteran insects...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771496/what-can-pleiotropic-proteins-in-innate-immunity-teach-us-about-bioconjugation-and-molecular-design
#8
Michelle W Lee, Ernest Y Lee, Gerard C L Wong
A common bioengineering strategy to add function to a given molecule is by conjugation of a new moiety onto that molecule. Adding multiple functions in this way becomes increasingly challenging and leads to composite molecules with larger molecular weights. In this review, we attempt to gain a new perspective by looking at this problem in reverse, by examining nature's strategies of multiplexing different functions into the same pleiotropic molecule using emerging analysis techniques such as machine learning...
May 17, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770278/-2tm-proteins-an-antigenically-diverse-superfamily-with-variable-functions-and-export-pathways
#9
Jasweer Kaur, Rachna Hora
Malaria is a disease that affects millions of people annually. An intracellular habitat and lack of protein synthesizing machinery in erythrocytes pose numerous difficulties for survival of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum . The parasite refurbishes the infected red blood cell (iRBC) by synthesis and export of several proteins in an attempt to suffice its metabolic needs and evade the host immune response. Immune evasion is largely mediated by surface display of highly polymorphic protein families known as variable surface antigens...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769401/microinjection-of-mrnas-and-oligonucleotides
#10
Sally A Moody
Microinjecting lineage tracers into a single blastomere in the normal, intact embryo identifies the repertoire of cell types derived from it. In order to reveal the full developmental potential of that blastomere or identify the mechanisms by which its fate is determined, one needs to modify its gene expression under controlled experimental conditions. One method by which this is easily accomplished in Xenopus is by microinjecting synthetic mRNAs or antisense oligonucleotides into an identified blastomere to target altered gene expression specifically to its lineage...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769398/cleavage-blastomere-deletion-and-transplantation-to-test-cell-fate-commitment-in-xenopus
#11
Sally A Moody
Fate maps identify the precursors of an organ, and tracing the members of a blastomere lineage over time shows how its descendants come to populate that organ. The fates of the individual blastomeres of the two- to 32-cell Xenopus embryo have been fully mapped to reveal which cells are the major contributors to various cell types, tissues, and organs. However, because these fate maps were produced in the normal embryo, they do not reveal whether a precursor blastomere is competent to give rise to additional tissues or is already committed to its fate-mapped repertoire of descendants...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769394/analysis-of-cell-fate-commitment-in-xenopus-embryos
#12
Sally A Moody
The fates of individual cleavage-stage blastomeres and of groups of cells at the blastula through gastrula stages of Xenopus embryos have been mapped in great detail. These studies identified the major contributors of the three germ layers as well as a variety of tissues and organs and several specific cell types. One can use these fate maps to test the commitment of single cells or groups of cells to produce their normal repertoire of descendants, to identify the genes that regulate fate commitment, and to modulate the levels of gene expression in specific lineages to determine gene function in a variety of developmental processes...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769260/bim-regulates-the-survival-and-suppressive-capability-of-cd8-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-during-murine-gvhd
#13
Kimberle Agle, Benjamin G Vincent, Clint Piper, Ludovic Belle, Vivian Zhou, Warren Shlomchik, Jonathan S Serody, William R Drobyski
CD8+ Foxp3+ T cells (Tregs) are a potent regulatory population whose functional and ontological similarities to CD4+ Fox3+ T cells have not been well delineated. Using an experimental model of graft versus host disease (GVHD), we observed that CD8+ Tregs were significantly less potent than CD4+ Tregs for the suppression of GVHD. To define the mechanistic basis for this observation, we examined the T cell repertoire and the transcriptional profile of in vivo-derived CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs that emerged early during this disease...
May 16, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768466/core-non-coding-rnas-of-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#14
Cristopher Segovia, Raul Arias-Carrasco, Alejandro J Yañez, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho, Javier Santander
Piscirickettsia salmonis, a fastidious Gram-negative intracellular facultative bacterium, is the causative agent o Piscirickettsiosis. P. salmonis has broad host range with a nearly worldwide distribution, causing significant mortality. The molecular regulatory mechanisms of P. salmonis pathogenesis are relatively unknown, mainly due to its difficult in vitro culture and genomic differences between genogroups. Bacterial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of bacterial physiology and virulence that are predominantly transcribed from intergenic regions (trans-acting) or antisense strand of open reading frames (cis-acting)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767431/vocal-repertoire-of-free-ranging-adult-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana
#15
Penglai Fan, Xuecong Liu, Ruoshuang Liu, Fang Li, Tianpeng Huang, Feng Wu, Hui Yao, Dingzhen Liu
Vocal signaling represents a primary mode of communication for most nonhuman primates. A quantitative description of the vocal repertoire is a critical step in in-depth studies of the vocal communication of particular species, and provides the foundation for comparative studies to investigate the selective pressures in the evolution of vocal communication systems. The present study was the first attempt to establish the vocal repertoire of free-ranging adult golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) based on quantitative methods...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766979/playing-it-cool-characterizing-social-play-bout-termination-and-candidate-play-signals-of-juvenile-and-infant-tibetan-macaques-macaca-thibetana
#16
Kaitlin R Wright, Jessica A Mayhew, Lori K Sheeran, Jake A Funkhouser, Ronald S Wagner, Li-Xing Sun, Jin-Hua Li
Play behaviors and signals during playful interactions with juvenile conspecifics are important for both the social and cognitive development of young animals. The social organization of a species can also influence juvenile social play. We examined the relationships among play behaviors, candidate play signals, and play bout termination in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) during juvenile and infant social play to characterize the species play style. As Tibetan macaques are despotic and live in groups with strict linear dominance hierarchies and infrequent reconciliation, we predicted that play would be at risk of misinterpretation by both the individuals engaged in the play bout and by those watching, possibly leading to injury of the players...
July 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766661/structure-based-design-of-a-eukaryote-selective-antiprotozoal-fluorinated-aminoglycoside
#17
Hiroki Kanazawa, Oscar M Saavedra, Juan Pablo Maianti, Simon A Young, Luis Izquierdo, Terry K Smith, Stephen Hanessian, Jiro Kondo
Aminoglycosides (AG) are antibiotics that lower the accuracy of protein synthesis by targeting a highly-conserved RNA helix of the ribosomal A-site. The discovery of AGs that selectively target the eukaryotic ribosome, but lack activity in prokaryotes, are promising as antiprotozoals for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases, and as therapies to read-through point-mutation genetic diseases. However, a single nucleobase change A1408G in the eukaryotic A-site leads to negligible affinity for most AGs. Herein we report the synthesis of 6'-fluoro sisomicin, the first 6'-fluorinated aminoglycoside, which specifically interacts with the protozoal cytoplasmic rRNA A-site, but not the bacterial A-site, as evidenced by X-ray co-crystal structures...
May 15, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766031/a-rationally-engineered-capsid-variant-of-aav9-for-systemic-cns-directed-and-peripheral-tissue-detargeted-gene-delivery-in-neonates
#18
Dan Wang, Shaoyong Li, Dominic J Gessler, Jun Xie, Li Zhong, Jia Li, Karen Tran, Kim Van Vliet, Lingzhi Ren, Qin Su, Ran He, Jason E Goetzmann, Terence R Flotte, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Guangping Gao
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has provided the gene therapy field with the most powerful in vivo gene delivery vector to realize safe, efficacious, and sustainable therapeutic gene expression. Because many clinically relevant properties of AAV-based vectors are governed by the capsid, much research effort has been devoted to the development of AAV capsids for desired features. Here, we combine AAV capsid discovery from nature and rational engineering to report an AAV9 capsid variant, designated as AAV9.HR, which retains AAV9's capability to traverse the blood-brain barrier and transduce neurons...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765883/the-validity-of-two-neuromotor-assessments-for-predicting-motor-performance-at-12-months-in-preterm-infants
#19
You Hong Song, Hyun Jung Chang, Yong Beom Shin, Young Sook Park, Yun Hee Park, Eun Sol Cho
Objective: To evaluate the validity of the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) and general movements (GMs) assessment for predicting Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) score at 12 months in preterm infants. Methods: A total of 44 preterm infants who underwent the GMs and TIMP at 1 month and 3 months of corrected age (CA) and whose motor performance was evaluated using AIMS at 12 months CA were included. GMs were judged as abnormal on basis of poor repertoire or cramped-synchronized movements at 1 month CA and abnormal or absent fidgety movement at 3 months CA...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765611/intermolecular-correlations-are-necessary-to-explain-diffuse-scattering-from-protein-crystals
#20
Ariana Peck, Frédéric Poitevin, Thomas J Lane
Conformational changes drive protein function, including catalysis, allostery and signaling. X-ray diffuse scattering from protein crystals has frequently been cited as a probe of these correlated motions, with significant potential to advance our understanding of biological dynamics. However, recent work has challenged this prevailing view, suggesting instead that diffuse scattering primarily originates from rigid-body motions and could therefore be applied to improve structure determination. To investigate the nature of the disorder giving rise to diffuse scattering, and thus the potential applications of this signal, a diverse repertoire of disorder models was assessed for its ability to reproduce the diffuse signal reconstructed from three protein crystals...
March 1, 2018: IUCrJ
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