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Evidence based medine

Pamela Newland, Angela Starkweather, Matthew Sorenson
CONCEPT: Fatigue is a major concern for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A clear definition of MS-related fatigue is a prerequisite for appropriate instruments for fatigue assessment. In turn, accurate assessment of fatigue in MS will enhance exploration of plausible mechanisms underlying this common and distressing symptom. Content/Objectives: To provide an integrative review of the current literature on theoretical models used to study fatigue in MS, instruments used to assess fatigue and other factors that impact fatigue during the various phases of MS...
July 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Linda Gellerstedt, Jörgen Medin, Maria Kumlin, Monica Rydell Karlsson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe nurses' experiences of patients' sleep at an emergency hospital and their perceptions of sleep-promoting interventions. BACKGROUND: Promotion of patients' sleep during hospital care is an important intervention for the nursing profession. To promote sleep and to initiate sleep-promoting interventions, nurses need basic knowledge about sleep and its physiology. Therefore, it is of importance to explore and expand knowledge about how nurses experience patients' sleep and how they perceive working with it while providing care...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Suzanne Jolley, Claire Thompson, James Hurley, Evelina Medin, Lucy Butler, Paul Bebbington, Graham Dunn, Daniel Freeman, David Fowler, Elizabeth Kuipers, Philippa Garety
Understanding how people with delusions arrive at false conclusions is central to the refinement of cognitive behavioural interventions. Making hasty decisions based on limited data ('jumping to conclusions', JTC) is one potential causal mechanism, but reasoning errors may also result from other processes. In this study, we investigated the correlates of reasoning errors under differing task conditions in 204 participants with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis who completed three probabilistic reasoning tasks...
October 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
Takeya Sato, Anton Neschadim, Arnon Lavie, Teruyuki Yanagisawa, Jeffrey A Medin
We previously described a novel suicide (or 'cell fate control') gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of human thymidylate kinase (TMPK) that potentiates azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of a suicide gene sequence into tumors by lentiviral transduction embodies a cancer gene therapy that could employ bystander cell killing as a mechanism driving significant tumor regression in vivo. Here we present evidence of a significant bystander cell killing in vitro and in vivo mediated by the TMPK/AZT suicide gene axis that is reliant on the formation of functional gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJICs)...
2013: PloS One
Sofia Orrskog, Emma Medin, Svetla Tsolova, Jan C Semenza
BACKGROUND: The global burden of disease has shifted from communicable diseases in children to chronic diseases in adults. This epidemiologic shift varies greatly by region, but in Europe, chronic conditions account for 86% of all deaths, 77% of the disease burden, and up to 80% of health care expenditures. A number of risk factors have been implicated in chronic diseases, such as exposure to infectious agents. A number of associations have been well established while others remain uncertain...
2013: PloS One
James C M Wang, Tânia C Felizardo, Bryan C Y Au, Daniel H Fowler, Gregory A Dekaban, Jeffrey A Medin
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are promising mediators of anti-tumor immune responses due to their potent antigen-presentation capacity. Unfortunately, cancer cells can often disarm differentiated DCs by rendering them incapable of maturation or by promoting their apoptosis. DC vaccine regimens attempt to generate functional DCs and preload them with Tumor-Associated Antigens (TAAs) to target various malignancies. Despite these efforts, the efficacy of DC vaccines in clinical trials is still rather disappointing to date...
2013: Virology Journal
Natalie L Payne, Guizhi Sun, Courtney McDonald, Leon Moussa, Ashley Emerson-Webber, Séverine Loisel-Meyer, Jeffrey A Medin, Christopher Siatskas, Claude C A Bernard
Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine shown to impact inflammatory processes as manifested in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Several lines of evidence indicate that the effectiveness of IL-10-based therapies may be dependent on the timing and mode of delivery. In the present study we engineered the expression of IL-10 in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Adi-IL-10-MSCs) and transplanted these cells early in the disease course to mice with EAE...
May 2013: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yunee Kim, Vladimir Ignatchenko, Cindy Q Yao, Irina Kalatskaya, Julius O Nyalwidhe, Raymond S Lance, Anthony O Gramolini, Dean A Troyer, Lincoln D Stein, Paul C Boutros, Jeffrey A Medin, O John Semmes, Richard R Drake, Thomas Kislinger
Current protocols for the screening of prostate cancer cannot accurately discriminate clinically indolent tumors from more aggressive ones. One reliable indicator of outcome has been the determination of organ-confined versus nonorgan-confined disease but even this determination is often only made following prostatectomy. This underscores the need to explore alternate avenues to enhance outcome prediction of prostate cancer patients. Fluids that are proximal to the prostate, such as expressed prostatic secretions (EPS), are attractive sources of potential prostate cancer biomarkers as these fluids likely bathe the tumor...
December 2012: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Medine C Yilmaz, Serap Aksoylar, Durdane Erdogan, Bengu Demirag
Although central venous catheters (CVCs) have become an integral element of the care of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the associated complications can lead to treatment delays and negatively affect the child and family's quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify the types, rate of, and risk factors for the complications relating to CVCs used in children undergoing HSCT in Turkey. One hundred children were followed prospectively to track catheter-related complications in the transplantation unit...
July 2012: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
Johan Creutzfeldt, Leif Hedman, Christopher Medin, Wm LeRoy Heinrichs, Li Felländer-Tsai
BACKGROUND: Contemporary learning technologies, such as massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW), create new means for teaching and training. However, knowledge about the effectiveness of such training is incomplete, and there are no data regarding how students experience it. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a field within medicine in high demand for new and effective training modalities. OBJECTIVE: In addition to finding a feasible way to implement CPR training, our aim was to investigate how a serious game setting in a virtual world using avatars would influence medical students' subjective experiences as well as their retention of knowledge...
2010: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Aidan Feeney, John D Coley, Aimée Crisp
Relevance theory (Sperber & Wilson, 1995) suggests that people expend cognitive effort when processing information in proportion to the cognitive effects to be gained from doing so. This theory has been used to explain how people apply their knowledge appropriately when evaluating category-based inductive arguments (Medin, Coley, Storms, & Hayes, 2003). In such arguments, people are told that a property is true of premise categories and are asked to evaluate the likelihood that it is also true of conclusion categories...
July 2010: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Mac Otten, Maru Aregawi, Wilson Were, Corine Karema, Ambachew Medin, Worku Bekele, Daddi Jima, Khoti Gausi, Ryuichi Komatsu, Eline Korenromp, Daniel Low-Beer, Mark Grabowsky
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. METHODS: In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs...
2009: Malaria Journal
Roberth Byström, Christopher Aisenbrey, Tomasz Borowik, Marcus Bokvist, Fredrick Lindström, Marc-Antoine Sani, Anders Olofsson, Gerhard Gröbner
Aberrant folded proteins and peptides are hallmarks of amyloidogenic diseases. However, the molecular processes that cause these proteins to adopt non-native structures in vivo and become cytotoxic are still largely unknown, despite intense efforts to establish a general molecular description of their behavior. Clearly, the fate of these proteins is ultimately linked to their immediate biochemical environment in vivo. In this review, we focus on the role of biological membranes, reactive interfaces that not only affect the conformational stability of amyloidogenic proteins, but also their aggregation rates and, probably, their toxicity...
2008: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Koen Lamberts, Christopher Kent
The inverse base-rate effect in categorization (Medin & Edelson, 1988) arises when participants assign an ambiguous stimulus to a category that occurred less frequently than an alternative category, against the principles of Bayesian decision making. In the experiment reported in this article, rule-based and attention-shifting accounts of the inverse base-rate effect were evaluated. Participants completed a categorization task, known to produce the inverse base-rate effect, under standard conditions, under time pressure, and with a secondary task load...
December 2007: Memory & Cognition
Sergey V Blok, Douglas L Medin, Daniel N Osherson
Existing research on category-based induction has primarily focused on reasoning about blank properties, or predicates that are designed to elicit little prior knowledge. Here, we address reasoning about nonblank properties. We introduce a model of conditional probability that assumes that the conclusion prior probability is revised to the extent warranted by the evidence in the premise. The degree of revision is a function of the relevance of the premise category to the conclusion and the informativeness of the premise statement...
September 2007: Memory & Cognition
Josh D Silvertown, Juliane C Symes, Anton Neschadim, Takahiro Nonaka, Jessica C H Kao, Alastair J S Summerlee, Jeffrey A Medin
Hormone antagonists can be effective tools to delineate receptor signaling pathways and their resulting downstream physiological actions. Mutation of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of human H2 relaxin (deltaH2) impaired its biological function as measured by cAMP signaling. In a competition assay, deltaH2 exhibited antagonistic activity by blocking recombinant H2 relaxin from binding to receptors on THP-1 cells. In a flow cytometry-based binding assay, deltaH2 demonstrated weak binding to 293T cells expressing the LGR7 receptor in the presence of biotinylated H2 relaxin...
March 2007: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Anders Winman, Pia Wennerholm, Peter Juslin, David R Shanks
Three studies provide convergent evidence that the inverse base-rate effect (Medin & Edelson, 1988) is mediated by rule-based cognitive processes. Experiment 1 shows that, in contrast to adults, prior to the formal operational stage most children do not exhibit the inverse base-rate effect. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that an adult sample is a mix of participants relying on associative processes who categorize according to the base-rate and participants relying on rule-based processes who exhibit a strong inverse base-rate effect...
July 2005: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A, Human Experimental Psychology
P Wolff, D L Medin, C Pankratz
In this paper we present evidence in support of the hypothesis that the average person's knowledge about trees, and about the natural world in general, has declined during the 20th century. Our investigations are based on examination of a large sample of written material from the 16th through 20th centuries contained in the Oxford English Dictionary. In Analysis 1, we show a precipitous decline in the use of tree terms after, but not before, the 19th century. In Analysis 2, we analyze tree terms at different levels of organization and show that the decline observed in Analysis 1 occurs for all levels of organization...
December 7, 1999: Cognition
J K Kruschke
Previous researchers have discovered perplexing inconsistencies in how people appear to utilize category base rates when making category judgments. In particular, D.L. Medin and S.M. Edelson (1988) found an inverse base-rate effect, in which participants tended to select a rare category when tested with a combination of conflicting cues, and M.A. Gluck and G.H. Bower (1988) reported apparent base-rate neglect, in which participants tended to select a rare category when tested with a single symptom for which objective diagnosticity was equal for all categories...
January 1996: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
H Keller, A Mahfoudi, C Dreyer, A K Hihi, J Medin, K Ozato, W Wahli
PPARs are nuclear hormone receptors which, like the retinoid, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, and steroid hormone receptors, are ligand-activated transcription factors mediating the hormonal control of gene expression. Two lines of evidence indicate that PPARs have an important function in fatty acid metabolism. First, PPARs are activated by hypolipidemic drugs and physiological concentrations of fatty acids, and second, PPARs control the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids through transcriptional induction of the gene encoding the acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pathway...
June 11, 1993: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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