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E S Radchenko, D V Anokhin, K L Gerasimov, A I Rodygin, A A Rychkov, E D Shabratova, S Grigorian, D A Ivanov
The control of structure formation in the active layers of organic solar cells allows for improvement in their processability and enhancement of the efficiency of the final devices. In the present work, in situ studies of film formation from binary toluene solutions of an electron donor, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and an electron acceptor such as [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) have been conducted. These experiments were carried out using GIWAXS with simultaneous electric current measurements...
March 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Peter R Tentscher, Marc Bourgin, Urs von Gunten
Phenolic moieties are common functional groups in organic micropollutants and in dissolved organic matter, and are exposed to ozone during drinking water and wastewater ozonation. Although unsubstituted phenol is known to yield potentially genotoxic p-benzoquinone during ozonation, little is known about the effects of substitution of the phenol ring on transformation product formation. With batch experiments employing differing ozone/target compound ratios, it is shown that para-substituted phenols ( p-alkyl, p-halo, p-cyano, p-methoxy, p-formyl, p-carboxy) yield p-benzoquinones, p-substituted catechols, and 4-hydroxy-4-alkyl-cyclohexadien-1-ones as common ozonation products...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nadège Hamon, Malika Kaci, Jean-Pierre Uttaro, Christian Périgaud, Christophe Mathé
The synthesis and the antiviral evaluation of 3'-halo (iodo and fluoro) 5'-norcarbocyclic nucleoside phosphonates is described. No antiviral activity was observed against Zika virus, Dengue virus 2, HSV-1, HSV-2 and Chikungunya virus. In contrast, some of the synthesized compounds are potent inhibitors of the replication of HIV-1, comparatively to (R)-PMPA, with no concomitant cytotoxicity.
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Wei-Hsin Yuan, Anna Fen-Yau Li, Yi-Hong Chou, Hui-Chen Hsu, Ying-Yuan Chen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of male breast tumors. METHODS: The medical records of male patients with breast lesions were retrieved from an electronic medical record database and a pathology database and retrospectively reviewed. A total of 112 men (125 breast masses) with preoperative breast ultrasonography (US) were included (median age, 59.50 years; age range, 15-96 years). Data extracted included patient age, if the lesions were bilateral, palpable, and tender, and the presence of nipple discharge...
2018: PloS One
Rosa Whalen, Joanne Harrold, Simon Child, Jason Halford, Emma Boyland
Monitoring the creative content within food marketing to children is strongly advocated by public health authorities, but few studies address the prevalence of health-related messaging in television adverts. Food and beverage adverts ( n = 18,888 in 2008, n = 6664 in 2010) from UK television channels popular with children were coded and analyzed. Physical-activity depiction displayed an 18.8 percentage point increase from 2008 (4.4%) to 2010 (23.2%). Of the food adverts containing physical-activity depiction in 2010, 81...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hidayat Hussain, Ivan R Green, Umair Shamraiz, Muhammad Saleem, Amin Badshah, Ghulam Abbas, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Irshad
Glycyrrhetinic acids (GAs) viz., 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid, are oleanane-type triterpenes having a carboxylic acid group at C-30, and are extracted from the Chines herbal medicine licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Although the pharmacological properties of GAs have long been known, attention to them has greatly increased in recent times due to their cytotoxic activity. Areas Covered: This review represents the patents granted about natural and synthetic glycyrrhetinic acid analogs from January 2010 to December 2017, the advances made by research groups in conjunction with pharmaceutical companies in the discovery of new natural or synthetic glycyrrhetinic acid analogs...
March 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Mikhail E Kandel, Michael Fanous, Catherine Best-Popescu, Gabriel Popescu
As a label-free, nondestructive method, phase contrast is by far the most popular microscopy technique for routine inspection of cell cultures. However, features of interest such as extensions near cell bodies are often obscured by a glow, which came to be known as the halo . Advances in modeling image formation have shown that this artifact is due to the limited spatial coherence of the illumination. Nevertheless, the same incoherent illumination is responsible for superior sensitivity to fine details in the phase contrast geometry...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Fahime Mohammadi, Morteza Eshaghi, Shabnam Razavi, Davood Darban Sarokhalil, Malihe Talebi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie
The purpose of the present study was to isolate Lactobacillus bacteria from mother's milk and to assess their probiotic potential. Sixty breast milk samples were collected from the volunteered mothers aged from 19-35 and from rural areas of Lorestan and Markazi Provinces, Iran. At first, 970 bacill-shaped bacterial colonies were isolated from these samples and stored in proper condition. Two hundred isolates were randomly selected and investigated for their ability to tolerate acidic condition and to tolerate bile salt as well...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
I S Lvov, A A Grin', M A Nekrasov, A Yu Kordonskiy, A V Sytnik
Compression of the caudal medulla oblongata and ventral portions of the spinal cord is the most dangerous complication of atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD). AIM: The study objective was to improve surgical management of patients with ventral compression of the spinal cord in the setting of AAD of various genesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed treatment outcomes in 250 patients with C1 and C2 injuries and diseases for the period between 2002 and 2016. Persistent ventral compression of the neural structures in the setting of AAD was detected in 34 (13...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Iacopo Vannozzi, Matteo Tesi, Marta Zangheri, Viola Maria Innocenti, Alessandra Rota, Simonetta Citi, Alessandro Poli
Ultrasonography is a valuable tool for the evaluation of neoplastic lesions in the dog and there is a growing interest in the use of this technique for the stadiation of canine mammary tumours. An accurate assessment of small sized nodules facilitates the stadiation of the mammary lesions and helps the clinician in the choice of the most indicated surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to identify those ultrasound criteria that may be useful in discriminating between benign and malignant lesions of small size (diameter smaller than 2 cm)...
March 14, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Yu Haranosono, Hiroki Ueoka, Gakushi Kito, Shingo Nemoto, Masaaki Kurata, Hideyuki Sakaki
Most of the α-halo carbonyl (AHC) compounds tend to be predicted as mutagenic by structure-activity relationship based on structural category only, because they have an alkyl halide structure as a structural alert of mutagenicity. However, some AHC compounds are not mutagenic. We hypothesized that AHC reacts with DNA by SN 2 reaction, and the reactivity relates to mutagenicity. As an index of SN 2 reactivity, we focused on molecular orbitals (MOs), as the direction and position of two molecules in collision are important in the SN 2 reaction...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
A Skiada, C Lass-Floerl, N Klimko, A Ibrahim, E Roilides, G Petrikkos
The diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis are challenging. The incidence of the disease seems to be increasing. Hematological malignancies are the most common underlying disease in countries with high income and uncontrolled diabetes in developing countries. Clinical approach to diagnosis lacks sensitivity and specificity. Radiologically, multiple (≥10) nodules and pleural effusion are reportedly associated with pulmonary mucormycosis. Another finding on computerized tomography (CT) scan, which seems to indicate the presence of mucormycosis, is the reverse halo sign...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Xinwei Shao, Jican Zeng, Yuchun Chen, Lixian Wu, Xinjia Wang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanism of the halo vest-assisted Z-shape elevating-pulling reduction technique for cervical unilateral locked facets, and confirm the safety of the spinal cord under the epidural pressure that occurs during the reduction process. METHODS: Eleven osteoligamentous whole coronal and cervical spine specimens were established as skull-neck-thorax models of cervical unilateral locked facets at the C5/6 level. The halo vest-assisted Z-shape elevating-pulling reduction technique was then applied to reduce the locked facets...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Christina Duftner, Christian Dejaco, Alexandre Sepriano, Louise Falzon, Wolfgang Andreas Schmidt, Sofia Ramiro
Objectives: To perform a systematic literature review on imaging techniques for diagnosis, outcome prediction and disease monitoring in large vessel vasculitis (LVV) informing the European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for imaging in LVV. Methods: Systematic literature review (until 10 March 2017) of diagnostic and prognostic studies enrolling >20 patients and investigating ultrasound, MRI, CT or positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with suspected and/or established primary LVV...
2018: RMD Open
Michael A Beasley, Ignacio Trujillo, Ryan Leaman, Mireia Montes
Massive galaxies are thought to form in two phases: an initial collapse of gas and giant burst of central star formation, followed by the later accretion of material that builds up their stellar and dark-matter haloes. The systems of globular clusters within such galaxies are believed to form in a similar manner. The initial central burst forms metal-rich (spectrally red) clusters, whereas more metal-poor (spectrally blue) clusters are brought in by the later accretion of less-massive satellites. This formation process is thought to result in the multimodal optical colour distributions that are seen in the globular cluster systems of massive galaxies...
March 12, 2018: Nature
Tiago B Ferreira, João Pinheiro, Leyre Zabala, Filomena J Ribeiro
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of a monofocal or an extended-range-of-vision intraocular lens (IOL). SETTING: Hospital da Luz, Lisbon Portugal. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Patients who previously had myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) had cataract surgery with bilateral implantation of an extended-range-of-vision IOL (Tecnis Symfony) or a monofocal IOL (Tecnis ZCB00)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Feng Zhao, Rongjiu Shi, Fang Ma, Siqin Han, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Rhamnolipids are the most extensively studied biosurfactants and has been successfully used in various areas from bioremediation to industrial fields. Rhamnolipids structural composition decide their physicochemical properties. Different physicochemical properties influence their application potential. Rhamnolipids can be produced at both aerobic conditions and anaerobic conditions by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study aims to evaluate the oxygen effects on the rhamnolipids yield, structural composition, physicochemical properties and the rhl-genes expression in P...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Enrique Barragán-Garza, Douglas D Koch, Luis G Vargas, Alan Lang, Adam Roy
PURPOSE: To assess the clinically acceptable range of inlay decentration with respect to the light-constricted pupil center and the coaxially sighted corneal light reflex (CSCLR) for an inlay (Raindrop Near Vision Inlay; ReVision Optics, Inc., Lake Forest, CA) that reshapes the anterior corneal surface. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational cohort study of 115 patients with emmetropic or low hyperopic presbyopia who were implanted with a shape-changing corneal inlay, visual acuity, task performance (in good and dim light), reports of halos and glare, and satisfaction data were collected from the preoperative and 3-month postoperative examinations...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Tzenge-Lien Shih, Ming-Hwa Liu, Chia-Wai Li, Chia-Feng Kuo
A series of B-ring, halo-substituted chalcones and azachalcones were synthesized to evaluate and compare their anti-inflammatory activity. Mouse BALB/c macrophage RAW 264.7 were pre-treated with 10 μg/mL of each compound for one hour before induction of inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/mL) for 6 h. Some halo-chalcones and -azachalcones suppressed expression of pro-inflammatory factors toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), IκB-α, transcription factor p65, interleukine 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)...
March 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Quinn R Ollivier, Edward Hammill, David J Booth, Elizabeth M P Madin, Charles Hinchliffe, Alastair R Harborne, Catherine E Lovelock, Peter I Macreadie, Trisha B Atwood
Benthic fauna play a crucial role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling at the sediment-water boundary in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial systems, grazing herbivores have been shown to influence below-ground communities through alterations to plant distribution and composition, however whether similar cascading effects occur in aquatic systems is unknown. Here, we assess the relationship between benthic invertebrates and above-ground fish grazing across the 'grazing halos' of Heron Island lagoon, Australia...
2018: PloS One
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