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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752482/publisher-correction-single-cell-analysis-of-experience-dependent-transcriptomic-states-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#1
Sinisa Hrvatin, Daniel R Hochbaum, M Aurel Nagy, Marcelo Cicconet, Keiramarie Robertson, Lucas Cheadle, Rapolas Zilionis, Alex Ratner, Rebeca Borges-Monroy, Allon M Klein, Bernardo L Sabatini, Michael E Greenberg
In the version of this article initially published, the x-axis labels in Fig. 3c read Vglut, Gad1/2, Aldh1l1 and Pecam1; they should have read Vglut+ , Gad1/2+ , Aldh1l1+ and Pecam1+ . In Fig. 4, the range values were missing from the color scales; they are, from left to right, 4-15, 0-15, 4-15 and 0-15 in Fig. 4a and 4-15, 4-15 and 4-8 in Fig. 4h. In the third paragraph of the main text, the phrase reading "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types, thus masking the full diversity of excitatory populations" should have read "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types and masked the full diversity of excitatory populations...
May 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723577/ampa-receptor-dependent-glutamatergic-signaling-is-present-in-the-carotid-chemoreceptor
#2
Yuzhen Liu, Chaohong Li, Xianglei Jia, Lu Huang, J Woodrow Weiss
Exposure to both sustained and intermittent hypoxia for as little as a day produces sustained augmentation of carotid chemoreceptor sensitivity; however, the molecular basis for this chemoreflex plasticity remains uncertain. We previously reported that NMDA receptor dependent glutamatergic signaling in rat carotid body played a role in altered hypoxic sensitivity after exposure to cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Here we found that mRNAs of multiple AMPA and Kainate glutamate receptors were expressed in rat carotid body...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660932/neuroprotective-effects-of-ferruginol-jatrophone-and-junicedric-acid-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-injury-in-hippocampal-neurons
#3
Juan M Zolezzi, Carolina B Lindsay, Felipe G Serrano, Roxana C Ureta, Cristina Theoduloz, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have been recognized as early neurotoxic intermediates with a key role in the synaptic dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ oligomers block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and impair rodent spatial memory. Additionally, the presence of Aβ oligomers is associated with imbalanced intracellular calcium levels and apoptosis in neurons. In this context, we evaluated the effects of three diterpenes (ferruginol, jatrophone, and junicedric acid) that are found in medicinal plants and have several forms of biological activity...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649466/expression-of-vesicular-glutamate-transporters-in-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-trpa1-positive-neurons-in-the-rat-trigeminal-ganglion
#4
Yun Sook Kim, Sung Kuk Kim, Jae Sik Lee, Sang Jin Ko, Yong Chul Bae
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a cold receptor in sensory neurons activated by a variety of stimuli, is implicated in nociception and mechanotransduction. To help understand the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)-mediated glutamate signaling in TRPA1-immunopositive (+) neurons, we examined the expression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the TRPA1+ neurons in the male rat trigeminal ganglion (n = 19) under normal conditions and following experimental inflammation in the vibrissal pad by light microscopic immunohistochemistry (n = 11), western blot (n = 8), and quantitative analysis...
July 1, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605418/selective-downregulation-of-vesicular-glutamate-transporter2-in-ventral-posterolateral-nucleus-of-thalamus-attenuates-neuropathic-mechanical-allodynia-in-mice
#5
Zhi-Ling Zhang, Gang Yu, Xiao-Nan Liang, Rui-Bin Su, Ze-Hui Gong
Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) transport glutamate into synaptic vesicles prior to exocytotic release. The expression pattern of VGLUT2 and studies of genetically modified mice have revealed that VGLUT2 contributes to neuropathic pain. We previously showed that VGLUT2 is upregulated in supraspinal regions including the thalamus in mice following spared nerve injury (SNI), and blocking VGLUTs using the VGLUT inhibitor CSB6B attenuated mechanical allodynia. To further evaluate the role of VGLUT2 in neuropathic pain, in this study, we developed a lentiviral vector expressing small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against mouse VGLUT2, which was injected into the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus in the presence or absence of SNI...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603220/distribution-of-vesicular-glutamate-transporters-in-the-brain-of-the-turtle-pseudemys-scripta-elegans
#6
Sonjoy Sarkar, Yasuro Atoji
The distribution of glutamatergic neurons has been extensively studied in mammalian and avian brains, but its distribution in a reptilian brain remains unknown. In the present study, the distribution of subpopulations of glutamatergic neurons in the turtle brain was examined by in situ hybridization using probes for vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1-3. Strong VGLUT1 expression was observed in the telencephalic pallium; the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, the medial, dorsomedial, dorsal, and lateral parts of the cerebral cortex, pallial thickening, and dorsal ventricular ridge; and also, in granule cells of the cerebellar cortex...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532891/age-dependent-changes-in-vesicular-glutamate-transporter-1-and-2-expression-in-the-gerbil-hippocampus
#7
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Joon Ha Park, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Dae Won Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter that is stored in vesicles located in the presynaptic terminal. Glutamate is transported into vesicles via the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). In the present study, the age‑associated changes of the major VGLUTs, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, in the hippocampus were investigated, based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis at postnatal month 1 (PM1; adolescent), PM6, PM12 (adult group), PM18 and PM24 (the aged groups). VGLUT1 immunoreactivity was primarily detected in the mossy fibers, Schaffer collaterals and stratum lacunosum‑moleculare...
May 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526016/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-enhances-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-and-improves-memory-performance-in-huntington-s-disease
#8
N Cabezas-Llobet, L Vidal-Sancho, M Masana, A Fournier, J Alberch, D Vaudry, X Xifró
Deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity result in cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease (HD). Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that exerts neuroprotective actions, mainly through the PAC1 receptor. However, the role of PACAP in cognition is poorly understood, and no data exists in the context of Huntington's disease (HD). Here, we investigated the ability of PACAP receptor stimulation to enhance memory development in HD. First, we observed a hippocampal decline of all three PACAP receptor expressions, i...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476240/vesicular-glutamate-transporter-1-vglut1-and-vglut2-immunopositive-axon-terminals-on-the-rat-jaw-closing-and-jaw-opening-motoneurons
#9
Sook Kyung Park, Sang Jin Ko, Sang Kyoo Paik, Jong-Cheol Rah, Kea Joo Lee, Yong Chul Bae
To provide information on the glutamatergic synapses on the trigeminal motoneurons, which may be important for understanding the mechanism of control of jaw movements, we investigated the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)1-immunopositive (+) and VGLUT2 + axon terminals (boutons) on the rat jaw-closing (JC) and jaw-opening (JO) motoneurons, and their morphological determinants of synaptic strength by retrograde tracing, electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, and quantitative ultrastructural analysis...
February 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337309/role-for-vglut2-in-selective-vulnerability-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#10
Thomas Steinkellner, Vivien Zell, Zachary J Farino, Mark S Sonders, Michael Villeneuve, Robin J Freyberg, Serge Przedborski, Wei Lu, Zachary Freyberg, Thomas S Hnasko
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area are more resistant to this degeneration than those in the SNc, though the mechanisms for selective resistance or vulnerability remain poorly understood. A key to elucidating these processes may lie within the subset of DA neurons that corelease glutamate and express the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT2. Here, we addressed the potential relationship between VGLUT expression and DA neuronal vulnerability by overexpressing VGLUT in DA neurons of flies and mice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324300/hippocampal-insulin-resistance-links-maternal-obesity-with-impaired-neuronal-plasticity-in-adult-offspring
#11
Lisa Schmitz, Rebecca Kuglin, Inga Bae-Gartz, Ruth Janoschek, Sarah Appel, Andrea Mesaros, Igor Jakovcevski, Christina Vohlen, Marion Handwerk, Regina Ensenauer, Jörg Dötsch, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother
OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity and a disturbed metabolic environment during pregnancy and lactation have been shown to result in many long-term health consequences for the offspring. Among them, impairments in neurocognitive development and performance belong to the most dreaded ones. So far, very few mechanistic approaches have aimed to determine the responsible molecular events. METHODS: In a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity and perinatal hyperinsulinemia, we assessed adult offspring's hippocampal insulin signaling as well as concurrent effects on markers of hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and function using western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
March 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298905/gliotransmission-beyond-black-and-white
#12
Iaroslav Savtchouk, Andrea Volterra
Astrocytes are highly complex cells with many emerging putative roles in brain function. Of these, gliotransmission (active information transfer from glia to neurons) has probably the widest implications on our understanding of how the brain works: do astrocytes really contribute to information processing within the neural circuitry? "Positive evidence" for this stems from work of multiple laboratories reporting many examples of modulatory chemical signaling from astrocytes to neurons in the timeframe of hundreds of milliseconds to several minutes...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291238/developmental-emergence-of-phenotypes-in-the-auditory-brainstem-nuclei-of-fmr1-knockout-mice
#13
Sarah E Rotschafer, Karina S Cramer
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common monogenic cause of autism, is often associated with hypersensitivity to sound. Several studies have shown abnormalities in the auditory brainstem in FXS; however, the emergence of these auditory phenotypes during development has not been described. Here, we investigated the development of phenotypes in FXS model [ Fmr1 knockout (KO)] mice in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), and lateral superior olive (LSO). We studied features of the brainstem known to be altered in FXS or Fmr1 KO mice, including cell size and expression of markers for excitatory (VGLUT) and inhibitory (VGAT) synapses...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273736/vglut1-functions-as-a-glutamate-proton-exchanger-with-chloride-channel-activity-in-hippocampal-glutamatergic-synapses
#14
Magalie Martineau, Raul E Guzman, Christoph Fahlke, Jürgen Klingauf
Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. To maintain synaptic efficacy, recycling synaptic vesicles (SV) are refilled with glutamate by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The dynamics and mechanism of glutamate uptake in intact neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we show by live-cell imaging with pH- and chloride-sensitive fluorescent probes in cultured hippocampal neurons of wild-type and VGLUT1-deficient mice that in SVs VGLUT functions as a glutamate/proton exchanger associated with a channel-like chloride conductance...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199069/vglut1-binding-to-endophilin-or-intersectin1-and-dynamin-phosphorylation-in-a-diurnal-context
#15
Karin Richter, Isabelle Schmutz, Mahesh Darna, Johannes-F Zander, Rohit Chavan, Urs Albrecht, Gudrun Ahnert-Hilger
Glutamate is concentrated into synaptic vesicles (SV) by the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT) 1 and 2. VGLUTs also harbor a Na+/Pi-transport activity when residing at the plasma membrane. Here we aimed to identify whether the diurnal switches of VGLUT1 parallels interactions with or modification of endocytic proteins. VGLUT1 and dynamin bind to SH3 domains of either endophilin (Enph) or intersectin 1 (ITSN1) harboring one or five SH3 domains A-E, respectively. We followed diurnal variations by pull down experiments using SH3 fusion protein and brains from mice entrained in a strict 24-h light-dark cycle (12-h light Zeitgeber (ZT) 0, 6; 12-h dark ZT 12 and 18)...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160768/diverse-modes-of-synaptic-signaling-regulation-and-plasticity-distinguish-two-classes-of-c-elegans-glutamatergic-neurons
#16
Donovan Ventimiglia, Cornelia I Bargmann
Synaptic vesicle release properties vary between neuronal cell types, but in most cases the molecular basis of this heterogeneity is unknown. Here, we compare in vivo synaptic properties of two neuronal classes in the C. elegans central nervous system, using VGLUT-pHluorin to monitor synaptic vesicle exocytosis and retrieval in intact animals. We show that the glutamatergic sensory neurons AWCON and ASH have distinct synaptic dynamics associated with tonic and phasic synaptic properties, respectively. Exocytosis in ASH and AWCON is differentially affected by SNARE-complex regulators that are present in both neurons: phasic ASH release is strongly dependent on UNC-13, whereas tonic AWCON release relies upon UNC-18 and on the protein kinase C homolog PKC-1...
November 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123471/vglut2-trafficking-is-differentially-regulated-by-adaptor-proteins-ap-1-and-ap-3
#17
Haiyan Li, Magda S Santos, Chihyung K Park, Yuriy Dobry, Susan M Voglmaier
Release of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate by synaptic vesicle exocytosis depends on glutamate loading into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The two principal isoforms, VGLUT1 and 2, exhibit a complementary pattern of expression in adult brain that broadly distinguishes cortical (VGLUT1) and subcortical (VGLUT2) systems, and correlates with distinct physiological properties in synapses expressing these isoforms. Differential trafficking of VGLUT1 and 2 has been suggested to underlie their functional diversity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101523/functional-comparison-of-corticostriatal-and-thalamostriatal-postsynaptic-responses-in-striatal-neurons-of-the-mouse
#18
M A Arias-García, D Tapia, J A Laville, V M Calderón, Y Ramiro-Cortés, J Bargas, E Galarraga
Synaptic inputs from cortex and thalamus were compared in electrophysiologically defined striatal cell classes: direct and indirect pathways' striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs), fast-spiking interneurons (FS), cholinergic interneurons (ChINs), and low-threshold spiking-like (LTS-like) interneurons. Our purpose was to observe whether stimulus from cortex or thalamus had equivalent synaptic strength to evoke prolonged suprathreshold synaptic responses in these neuron classes. Subthreshold responses showed that inputs from either source functionally mix up in their dendrites at similar electrotonic distances from their somata...
April 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091932/essential-roles-of-aspartate-aminotransferase-1-and-vesicular-glutamate-transporters-in-%C3%AE-cell-glutamate-signaling-for-incretin-induced-insulin-secretion
#19
Naoya Murao, Norihide Yokoi, Kohei Honda, Guirong Han, Tomohide Hayami, Ghupurjan Gheni, Harumi Takahashi, Kohtaro Minami, Susumu Seino
Incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) potentiate insulin secretion through cAMP signaling in pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. We recently proposed a mechanistic model of incretin-induced insulin secretion (IIIS) that requires two critical processes: 1) generation of cytosolic glutamate through the malate-aspartate (MA) shuttle in glucose metabolism and 2) glutamate transport into insulin granules by cAMP signaling to promote insulin granule exocytosis. To directly prove the model, we have established and characterized CRISPR/Cas9-engineered clonal mouse β-cell lines deficient for the genes critical in these two processes: aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AST1, gene symbol Got1), a key enzyme in the MA shuttle, which generates cytosolic glutamate, and the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and VGLUT3, gene symbol Slc17a7, Slc17a6, and Slc17a8, respectively), which participate in glutamate transport into secretory vesicles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066956/cell-type-specific-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-binding-protein-in-gabaergic-interneurons-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Kyle D Ketchesin, Nicholas S Huang, Audrey F Seasholtz
Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP) is a secreted glycoprotein that binds CRH with very high affinity to modulate CRH receptor activity. CRH-BP is widely expressed throughout the brain, with particularly high expression in regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Recent studies suggest a role for CRH-BP in stress-related psychiatric disorders and addiction, with the PFC being a potential site of interest. However, the molecular phenotype of CRH-BP-expressing cells in this region has not been well-characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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