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Translocator protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644974/immature-human-dcs-efficiently-translocate-endocytosed-antigens-into-the-cytosol-for-proteasomal-processing
#1
Renato B Baleeiro, Peter Walden
Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen is essential for induction of CD8 effector T cell responses and a hallmark of dendritic cells (DCs). The mode of antigen processing in this context is controversial and some models imply translocation of the antigen from the endosomes into the cytosol. To test this hypothesis we made use of the pro-apoptotic properties of cytochrome c when in the cytosol, and confirmed that it indeed triggered apoptosis of human immature DCs but only at high concentrations. Proteasome inhibitors reduced the required concentration of cytochrome c thousand-fold, indicating that protein translocated into the cytosol is rapidly degraded by proteasomes...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643947/effect-of-tet1-regulating-mgmt-on-chemotherapy-resistance-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-stem-cells
#2
Wei Wang, Xin Li, Fan Wang, Xiang-Yu Sun
The study was to evaluate the effect of ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) regulating o6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in chemotherapy resistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) stem cells. OSCC stem cells were divided into the blank, negative control (NC), TET1-siRNA, TET1-siRNA + MGMT-OE and MGMT-OE groups. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), qRT-PCR and western blotting were conducted to detect the methylation status of MGMT, expressions of TET1, MGMT, ABCG2 and Oct-4...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643791/ewsr1-fusion-proteins-mediate-pax7-expression-in-ewing-sarcoma
#3
Gregory W Charville, Wei-Lien Wang, Davis R Ingram, Angshumoy Roy, Dafydd Thomas, Rajiv M Patel, Jason L Hornick, Matt van de Rijn, Alexander J Lazar
PAX7 is a paired-box transcription factor that is required for the developmental specification of adult skeletal muscle progenitors in mice. We previously demonstrated PAX7 expression as a marker of skeletal muscle differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, using analyses of published whole-genome gene expression microarray data, we identify PAX7 as a gene with significantly increased expression in Ewing sarcoma in comparison to CIC-DUX4 round cell sarcoma. Analysis of PAX7 in a large cohort of 103 Ewing sarcoma cases by immunohistochemistry revealed expression in 99...
June 23, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642762/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-augments-arsenic-tolerance-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-by-strengthening-antioxidant-defense-system-and-thiol-metabolism
#4
Surbhi Sharma, Garima Anand, Neeraja Singh, Rupam Kapoor
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#5
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642704/quercetin-a-lead-compound-against-type-2-diabetes-ameliorates-glucose-uptake-via-ampk-pathway-in-skeletal-muscle-cell-line
#6
R Dhanya, A D Arya, P Nisha, P Jayamurthy
Herein we investigated the molecular mechanism of action of the citrus flavonoid, quercetin in skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes). Taking advantage of protein kinase inhibitors, we proved that the effect of quercetin on 2-NBDG uptake in L6 myotubes was not through insulin signaling pathway, but through adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) pathway and its downstream target p38 MAPK. An increase in the cellular AMP to ATP ratio on pretreatment may account for AMPK activation which was coupled with a transient change in mitochondrial membrane potential...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642677/a-novel-workflow-combining-plaque-imaging-plaque-and-plasma-proteomics-identifies-biomarkers-of-human-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-disruption
#7
Regent Lee, Roman Fischer, Philip D Charles, David Adlam, Alessandro Valli, Katalin Di Gleria, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Robin P Choudhury, Charalambos Antoniades, Benedikt M Kessler, Keith M Channon
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the culprit event which underpins most acute vascular syndromes such as acute myocardial infarction. Novel biomarkers of plaque rupture could improve biological understanding and clinical management of patients presenting with possible acute vascular syndromes but such biomarker(s) remain elusive. Investigation of biomarkers in the context of de novo plaque rupture in humans is confounded by the inability to attribute the plaque rupture as the source of biomarker release, as plaque ruptures are typically associated with prompt down-stream events of myocardial necrosis and systemic inflammation...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641777/role-of-parl-pink1-parkin-pathway-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#8
Ming-Yuh Shiau, Pin-Shen Lee, Ying-Jyun Huang, Ching-Ping Yang, Chiao-Wan Hsiao, Kai-Yun Chang, Huan-Wen Chen, Yih-Hsin Chang
OBJECTIVE: Adipogenesis determines the number of adipocytes which is increased when individuals become obese. Mitochondria undergo remarkable morphological and functional changes during adipogenesis. PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is pivotal to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in neural cells. The present study aimed at investigating effects of PINK1 on adipogenesis and energy metabolism. METHODS: Expression of presenilin associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL), PINK1 and Parkin, as well as the interaction among these proteins was temporally examined during adipogenesis...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640879/dual-targeting-of-a-virus-movement-protein-to-er-and-plasma-membrane-subdomains-is-essential-for-plasmodesmata-localization
#9
Kazuya Ishikawa, Masayoshi Hashimoto, Akira Yusa, Hiroaki Koinuma, Yugo Kitazawa, Osamu Netsu, Yasuyuki Yamaji, Shigetou Namba
Plant virus movement proteins (MPs) localize to plasmodesmata (PD) to facilitate virus cell-to-cell movement. Numerous studies have suggested that MPs use a pathway either through the ER or through the plasma membrane (PM). Furthermore, recent studies reported that ER-PM contact sites and PM microdomains, which are subdomains found in the ER and PM, are involved in virus cell-to-cell movement. However, functional relationship of these subdomains in MP traffic to PD has not been described previously. We demonstrate here the intracellular trafficking of fig mosaic virus MP (MPFMV) using live cell imaging, focusing on its ER-directing signal peptide (SPFMV)...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640690/a-new-layer-of-rrna-regulation-by-small-interference-rnas-and-the-nuclear-rnai-pathway
#10
Xufei Zhou, Xiangyang Chen, Yun Wang, Xuezhu Feng, Shouhong Guang
Ribosome biogenesis drives cell growth and proliferation, but mechanisms that modulate this process remain poorly understood. For a long time, small ribosomal RNA sequences have been widely treated as non-specific degradation products and neglected as garbage sequences. Recently, we identified a new class of antisense ribosomal siRNAs (risiRNAs) that downregulate pre-rRNA through the nuclear RNAi pathway in C. elegans. risiRNAs exhibit sequence characteristics similar to 22G RNA while complement to 18S and 26S rRNA...
June 22, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640357/rna-sequencing-of-esophageal-adenocarcinomas-identifies-novel-fusion-transcripts-including-npc1-melk-arising-from-a-complex-chromosomal-rearrangement
#11
Zhixiong Wang, Yulan Cheng, John M Abraham, Rong Yan, Xi Liu, Wei Chen, Sariat Ibrahim, Gary P Schroth, Xiquan Ke, Yulong He, Stephen J Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Studies of chromosomal rearrangements and fusion transcripts have elucidated mechanisms of tumorigenesis and led to targeted cancer therapies. This study was aimed at identifying novel fusion transcripts in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). METHODS: To identify new fusion transcripts associated with EAC, targeted RNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) verification were performed in 40 EACs and matched nonmalignant specimens from the same patients...
June 22, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640253/a-role-for-tspo-in-mitochondrial-ca-2-homeostasis-and-redox-stress-signaling
#12
Jemma Gatliff, Daniel A East, Aarti Singh, Maria Soledad Alvarez, Michele Frison, Ivana Matic, Caterina Ferraina, Natalie Sampson, Federico Turkheimer, Michelangelo Campanella
The 18 kDa translocator protein TSPO localizes on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Systematically overexpressed at sites of neuroinflammation it is adopted as a biomarker of brain conditions. TSPO inhibits the autophagic removal of mitochondria by limiting PARK2-mediated mitochondrial ubiquitination via a peri-organelle accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we describe that TSPO deregulates mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling leading to a parallel increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) pools that activate the Ca(2+)-dependent NADPH oxidase (NOX) thereby increasing ROS...
June 22, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639894/deregulated-expression-of-cdc6-as-bcr-abl-dependent-survival-factor-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#13
Jia-Hua Zhang, Yan-Li He, Rui Zhu, Wen Du, Jun-Hua Xiao
Chronic myeloid leukemia is characterized by the presence of the reciprocal translocation t(9;22) and the BCR/ABL oncogene. The BCR/ABL oncogene activates multiple signaling pathways and involves the dysregulation of oncogenes during the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia. The cell division cycle protein 6, an essential regulator of DNA replication, is elevated in some human cancer cells. However, the expression of cell division cycle protein 6 in chronic myeloid leukemia and the underlying regulatory mechanism remain to be elucidated...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639287/exploration-of-conformational-changes-in-lactose-permease-upon-sugar-binding-and-proton-transfer-through-coarse-grained-simulations
#14
Yead Jewel, Prashanta Dutta, Jin Liu
Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) actively transports lactose and other galactosides across cell membranes through lactose/H(+) symport process. Lactose/H(+) symport is a highly complex process that involves sugar translocation, H(+) transfer, as well as large-scale protein conformational changes. The complete picture of lactose/H(+) symport is largely unclear due to the complexity and multiscale nature of the process. In this work, we develop the force field for sugar molecules compatible with PACE, a hybrid and coarse-grained force field that couples the united-atom protein models with the coarse-grained MARTINI water/lipid...
June 22, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639275/statin-regulated-erk5-stimulates-tight-junction-formation-and-reduces-permeability-in-human-cardiac-endothelial-cells
#15
Emma L Wilkinson, James E Sidaway, Michael J Cross
The MEKK3/MEK5/ERK5 signalling axis is required for cardiovascular development in vivo. We analysed the physiological role of ERK5 in cardiac endothelial cells and the consequence of activation of this kinase by the statin class of HMG Co-A reductase inhibitor drugs. We utilised human microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) and altered ERK5 expression using siRNA mediated gene silencing or overexpression of constitutively active MEK5 and ERK5 to reveal a role for ERK5 in regulating endothelial tight junction formation and cell permeability...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639251/regulation-of-the-extracellular-serpina5-protein-c-inhibitor-penetration-through-cellular-membranes
#16
Felix C Wahlmüller, Hanjiang Yang, Margareta Furtmüller, Margarethe Geiger
It is generally accepted that the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane is impermeable for proteins and peptides and that these molecules require special mechanisms for their transport from the extra- to the intracellular space. Recently there is increasing evidence that certain proteins/peptides can also directly cross the phospholipid membrane. SERPINA5 (protein C inhibitor) is a secreted protease inhibitor with broad protease reactivity and wide tissue distribution. It binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospoholipids, which can modulate its inhibitory activity...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638870/apoptosis-induction-of-epifriedelinol-on-human-cervical-cancer-cell-line
#17
Jie Yang, Jing Fa, Bingxing Li
BACKGROUND: Present investigation evaluates the antitumor activity of epifriedelinol for the management of cervical cancer by inducing process of apoptosis. METHODS: Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line, C33A and HeLa were selected for study and treated with epifriedelinol at a concentration of (50-1000 µg/ml). Cytotoxicity of epifriedelinol was estimated by MTT assay and induction of apoptosis was assessed by estimating the activity of caspase 3, 8 and 9 enzyme, apoptosis assay and translocation of cytochrome c...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638803/peptide-nucleic-acid-knockdown-and-intra-host-cell-complementation-of-ehrlichia-type-iv-secretion-system-effector
#18
Pratibha Sharma, Omid Teymournejad, Yasuko Rikihisa
Survival of Ehrlichia chaffeensis depends on obligatory intracellular infection. One of the barriers to E. chaffeensis research progress has been the inability, using conventional techniques, to generate knock-out mutants for genes essential for intracellular infection. This study examined the use of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) technology to interrupt type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein expression in E. chaffeensis followed by intracellular complementation of the effector to determine its requirement for infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638475/tamoxifen-activates-nrf2-dependent-sqstm1-transcription-to-promote-endometrial-hyperplasia
#19
Lifeng Feng, Jiaqiu Li, Lixian Yang, Libo Zhu, Xiufeng Huang, Shuzheng Zhang, Likang Luo, Zhinong Jiang, Tingting Jiang, Wenxia Xu, Xian Wang, Hongchuan Jin
Long-term application of Tamoxifen (TAM) is usually recommended for hormone receptor positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, TAM will inevitably increase the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia even endometrial cancer. Despite of substantial investigations, no effective approaches to prevent TAM-induced endometrial carcinogenesis have been acknowledged. In this study, we found that inhibition of Nrf2 could be valuable to prevent TAM-induced endometrial hyperplasia. Upon TAM treatment, the mRNA and protein expression of autophagy adaptor SQSTM1 was specifically increased in endometrial cells but not breast cancer cells...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637941/a-novel-danshensu-tetramethylpyrazine-conjugate-dt-010-provides-cardioprotection-through-the-pgc-1%C3%AE-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#20
Xiaojing Zhang, Huihui Hu, Jingxiong Luo, Huixing Deng, Pei Yu, Zaijun Zhang, Gaoxiao Zhang, Luchen Shan, Yuqiang Wang
In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of action of DT-010, a novel danshensu-tetramethylpyrazine conjugate. DT-010 significantly preserved cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis in H9c2 cells injured by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and hypoxia-reoxygenation. In addition, DT-010 pre-treatment reduced the intracellular level of free radicals including superoxide anion (•O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (•OH) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) after t-BHP exposure...
June 22, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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