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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342449/increased-use-of-adrenaline-in-the-management-of-childhood-anaphylaxis-over-the-last-decade
#1
Kristina Rueter, Brennan Ta, Natasha Bear, Michaela Lucas, Meredith L Borland, Susan L Prescott
BACKGROUND: We recently determined that allergy training programs have improved physician recognition and diagnosis of pediatric anaphylaxis in the last decade. OBJECTIVE: To investigate for changes in management, in particular the appropriate use of adrenaline for the treatment of anaphylaxis in a tertiary pediatric emergency department (PED). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case note study including children aged 0 to 16 years coded and verified for anaphylaxis comparing cases in years 2003/2004 with 2012...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342419/investigation-of-the-transport-of-xanthine-dehydrogenase-inhibitors-by-the-urate-transporter-abcg2
#2
Makiko Nakamura, Kyoko Fujita, Yu Toyoda, Tappei Takada, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Kimiyoshi Ichida
Hyperuricemia induces gout and kidney stones and accelerates the progression of renal and cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) is a urate transporter, and common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2, non-functional Q126X (rs72552713) and semi-functional Q141K (rs2231142), are risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. A recent genome wide association study suggested that allopurinol, a serum uric acid-lowering drug that inhibits xanthine dehydrogenase, is a potent substrate of ABCG2...
November 22, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342357/diffusion-controlled-epitaxy-of-large-area-coalesced-wse2-monolayers-on-sapphire
#3
Xiaotian Zhang, Tanushree H Choudhury, Mikhail Chubarov, Yu Xiang, Bhakti Jariwala, Fu Zhang, Nasim Alem, Gwo-Ching Wang, Joshua A Robinson, Joan M Redwing
A multi-step diffusion-mediated process was developed to control the nucleation density, size and lateral growth rate of WSe2 domains on c-plane sapphire for the epitaxial growth of large area monolayer films by gas source chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process consists of an initial nucleation step followed by an annealing period in H2Se to promote surface diffusion of tungsten-containing species to form oriented WSe2 islands with uniform size and controlled density. The growth conditions were then adjusted to suppress further nucleation and laterally grow the WSe2 islands to form a fully coalesced monolayer film in less than one hour...
January 17, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342282/membrane-fluxes-bypass-flows-and-sodium-stress-in-rice-the-influence-of-silicon
#4
Rubens Flam-Shepherd, Wayne Q Huynh, Devrim Coskun, Ahmed M Hamam, Dev T Britto, Herbert J Kronzucker
Provision of silicon (Si) to roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) can alleviate salt stress by blocking apoplastic, transpirational bypass flow of Na+ from root to shoot. However, little is known about how Si affects Na+ fluxes across cell membranes. Here, we measured radiotracer fluxes of 24Na+, plasma membrane depolarization, tissue ion accumulation, and transpirational bypass flow, to examine the influence of Si on Na+ transport patterns in hydroponically grown, salt-sensitive (cv. IR29) and salt-tolerant (cv...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342275/hot-spot-kif5a-mutations-cause-familial-als
#5
David Brenner, Rüstem Yilmaz, Kathrin Müller, Torsten Grehl, Susanne Petri, Thomas Meyer, Julian Grosskreutz, Patrick Weydt, Wolfgang Ruf, Christoph Neuwirth, Markus Weber, Susana Pinto, Kristl G Claeys, Berthold Schrank, Berit Jordan, Antje Knehr, Kornelia Günther, Annemarie Hübers, Daniel Zeller, Christian Kubisch, Sibylle Jablonka, Michael Sendtner, Thomas Klopstock, Mamede de Carvalho, Anne Sperfeld, Guntram Borck, Alexander E Volk, Johannes Dorst, Joachim Weis, Markus Otto, Joachim Schuster, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Karin M Danzer, Axel Freischmidt, Thomas Meitinger, Tim M Strom, Albert C Ludolph, Peter M Andersen, Jochen H Weishaupt
Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
January 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342185/nanocarrier-mediated-foliar-zinc-fertilization-influences-expression-of-metal-homeostasis-related-genes-in-flag-leaves-and-enhances-gluten-content-in-durum-wheat
#6
Paresh Deshpande, Ashwin Dapkekar, Manoj Oak, Kishore Paknikar, Jyutika Rajwade
BACKGROUND: Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342177/a-new-fluorescent-dye-accumulation-assay-for-parallel-measurements-of-the-abcg2-abcb1-and-abcc1-multidrug-transporter-functions
#7
Edit Szabó, Dóra Türk, Ágnes Telbisz, Nóra Kucsma, Tamás Horváth, Gergely Szakács, László Homolya, Balázs Sarkadi, György Várady
ABC multidrug transporters are key players in cancer multidrug resistance and in general xenobiotic elimination, thus their functional assays provide important tools for research and diagnostic applications. In this study we have examined the potential interactions of three key human ABC multidrug transporters with PhenGreen diacetate (PGD), a cell permeable fluorescent metal ion indicator. The non-fluorescent, hydrophobic PGD rapidly enters the cells and, after cleavage by cellular esterases, in the absence of quenching metal ions, PhenGreen (PG) becomes highly fluorescent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342148/a-strong-summer-phytoplankton-bloom-southeast-of-vietnam-in-2007-a-transitional-year-from-el-ni%C3%A3-o-to-la-ni%C3%A3-a
#8
Hui Zhao, Jian Zhao, Xingli Sun, Fajin Chen, Guoqi Han
Summer upwelling occurs frequently off the southeast Vietnam coast in the western South China Sea (SCS), where summer phytoplankton blooms generally appear during June-August. In this study, we investigate inter-annual variation of Ekman pumping and offshore transport, and its modulation on summer blooms southeast of Vietnam. The results indicate that there are low intensities of summer blooms in El Niño years, under higher sea surface temperatures (SST) and weaker winds. However, a different pattern of monthly chlorophyll a (Chl-a) blooms occurred in summer of 2007, a transitional stage from El Niño to La Niña, with weak (strong) wind and high (low) SST before (after) early July...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342078/spin-absorption-effect-at-ferromagnet-ge-schottky-tunnel-contacts
#9
Michihiro Yamada, Yuichi Fujita, Shinya Yamada, Kentarou Sawano, Kohei Hamaya
We study the influence of the junction size in ferromagnet (FM)/semiconductor (SC) contacts on four-terminal nonlocal spin signals in SC-based lateral spin-valve (LSV) structures. When we use FM/Ge Schottky-tunnel junctions with relatively low resistance-area products, the magnitude of the nonlocal spin signal depends clearly on the junction size, indicating the presence of the spin absorption effect at the spin-injector contact. The temperature-dependent spin signal can also be affected by the spin absorption effect...
January 17, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341928/a-novel-brown-adipocyte-enriched-long-non-coding-rna-that-is-required-for-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-and-sufficient-to-drive-thermogenic-gene-program-in-white-adipocytes
#10
Yan Xiong, Feng Yue, Zhihao Jia, Yun Gao, Wen Jin, Keping Hu, Yong Zhang, Dahai Zhu, Gongshe Yang, Shihuan Kuang
The thermogenic activities of brown and beige adipocytes can be exploited to reduce energy surplus and counteract obesity. Recent RNA sequencing studies have uncovered a number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) uniquely expressed in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT), but whether and how these lncRNAs function in adipogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel brown adipocyte-enriched LncRNA (AK079912), and its nuclear localization, function and regulation. The expression of AK079912 increases during brown preadipocyte differentiation and in response to cold-stimulated browning of white adipocytes...
January 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341920/effect-of-structural-factors-on-release-profiles-of-camptothecin-from-block-copolymer-conjugates-with-high-load-of-drug
#11
Andrzej Plichta, Sebastian Kowalczyk, Ewa Olędzka, Marcin Sobczak, Marcin Strawski
The aim of the present work was the synthesis and study the kinetics and profiles of camptothecin (CPT) release form block co- and ter-polymer conjugates comprising polylactide (PLA) segments and CPT moieties, structurally diverse by degrees of branching, content of D-PLA units and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). Six PLA, non-toxic macroinitiators (MIs), terminated with α-bromoester were synthesized. MIs were subjected to polymerization of CPT methacrylic derivative (CPTMA) with PEGMA at various ratios...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341916/effects-of-surfactant-based-permeation-enhancers-on-mannitol-permeability-histology-and-electrogenic-ion-transport-responses-in-excised-rat-colonic-mucosae
#12
Sam Maher, Joanne Heade, Fiona McCartney, Seona Waters, Sinéad B Bleiel, David J Brayden
Surfactant-based intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are constituents of several oral macromolecule formulations in clinical trials. This study examined the interaction of a test panel of surfactant-based PEs with isolated rat colonic mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers in an attempt to determine if increases in transepithelial permeability can be separated from induction of mucosal perturbation. The aim was to assess the effects of PEs on (i) apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [14C]-mannitol on (ii) histology score and (iii) short-circuit current (ΔIsc) responses to a cholinomimetic (carbachol, CCh)...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341889/adventitial-activation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-injury-induced-arterial-remodeling-potential-implications-in-transplant-vasculopathy
#13
REVIEW
Jianli Wang, Yuan Wang, Jingjing Wang, Xiaosun Guo, Elsa C Chan, Fan Jiang
Transplant vasculopathy is one of the major causes of chronic rejection following solid organ transplantation. The pathogenic mechanisms of transplant vasculopathy are still poorly understood. Here we summarize current evidence suggesting that activation of the tunica adventitia may be involved in the pathogenesis of transplant vasculopathy. Adventitia is an early responder to various vascular injuries and plays an integral role in eliciting vascular inflammation and remodeling. Accumulation of macrophages in the adventitia promotes the development of vascular remodeling by releasing a variety of paracrine factors that have profound impacts on vascular mural cells...
January 13, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341887/molecular-basis-of-substrate-polyspecificity-of-the-candida-albicans-mdr1p-multidrug-h-antiporter
#14
Archana Kumari Redhu, Atanu Banerjee, Abdul Haseeb Shah, Alexis Moreno, Manpreet Kaur Rawal, Remya Nair, Pierre Falson, Rajendra Prasad
The molecular basis of polyspecificity of Mdr1p, a major drug/H+ antiporter of Candida albicans, is not elucidated. We have probed the nature of the drug-binding pocket by performing systematic mutagenesis of the 12 transmembrane segments. Replacement of the 252 amino acid residues with alanine or glycine yielded 2/3 neutral mutations while 1/3 led to the complete or selective lost of resistance to drugs or substrates transported by the pump. Using the GlpT-based 3D-model of Mdr1p, we roughly categorized these critical residues depending on their type and localization 1°/ main structural impact ("S" group), 2°/ exposure to the lipid interface ("L" group), 3°/ buried but not facing the main central pocket, inferred as critical for the overall H+/drug antiport mechanism ("M" group) and finally 4°/ buried and facing the main central pocket ("B" group)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#15
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341859/an-indoor-air-quality-evaluation-in-a-residential-retrofit-project-using-spray-polyurethane-foam
#16
Shen Tian, Scott Ecoff, John Sebroski, Jason Miller, Harold Rickenbacker, Melissa Bilec
Understanding of indoor air quality (IAQ) during and after spray polyurethane foam (SPF) application is essential to protect the health of both workers and building occupants. Previous efforts such as field monitoring, micro-chamber/spray booth emission studies and fate/transport modeling have been conducted to understand the chemical exposure of SPF and guide risk mitigation strategies. However, each type of research has its limitation and can only reveal partial information on the relationship between SPF and IAQ...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341801/local-vs-national-epidemiology-of-pedestrian-injury-in-a-mid-atlantic-city
#17
Elizabeth D Nesoff, Keshia M Pollack, Amy R Knowlton, Janice V Bowie, Andrea C Gielen
OBJECTIVE: Understanding pedestrian injury trends at the local level is essential for program planning and allocation of funds for urban planning and improvement. Because we hypothesize that local injury trends differ from national trends in significant and meaningful ways, we investigated city-wide pedestrian injury trends to assess injury risk among nationally-identified risk groups, as well as identify risk groups and locations specific to Baltimore City. METHODS: Pedestrian injury data, obtained from the Baltimore City Fire Department, were gathered through EMS records collected from January 1 to December 31, 2014...
January 17, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341784/fractional-transport-in-strongly-turbulent-plasmas
#18
Heinz Isliker, Loukas Vlahos, Dana Constantinescu
We analyze statistically the energization of particles in a large scale environment of strong turbulence that is fragmented into a large number of distributed current filaments. The turbulent environment is generated through strongly perturbed, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, and it emerges naturally from the nonlinear evolution, without a specific reconnection geometry being set up. Based on test-particle simulations, we estimate the transport coefficients in energy space for use in the classical Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, and we show that the latter fails to reproduce the simulation results...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341779/mesoscopic-transport-in-electrostatically-defined-spin-full-channels-in-quantum-hall-ferromagnets
#19
Aleksandr Kazakov, George Simion, Yuli Lyanda-Geller, Valery Kolkovsky, Zbigniew Adamus, Grzegorz Karczewski, Tomasz Wojtowicz, Leonid P Rokhinson
In this work, we use electrostatic control of quantum Hall ferromagnetic transitions in CdMnTe quantum wells to study electron transport through individual domain walls (DWs) induced at a specific location. These DWs are formed due to the hybridization of two counterpropagating edge states with opposite spin polarization. Conduction through DWs is found to be symmetric under magnetic field direction reversal, consistent with the helical nature of these DWs. We observe that long domain walls are in the insulating regime with a localization length of 4-6  μm...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341776/magnetic-domain-walls-as-hosts-of-spin-superfluids-and-generators-of-skyrmions
#20
Se Kwon Kim, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak
A domain wall in a magnet with easy-axis anisotropy is shown to harbor spin superfluid associated with its spontaneous breaking of the U(1) spin-rotational symmetry. The spin superfluid is shown to have several topological properties, which are absent in conventional superfluids. First, the associated phase slips create and destroy Skyrmions to obey the conservation of the total Skyrmion charge, which allows us to use a domain wall as a generator and detector of Skyrmions. Second, the domain wall engenders the emergent magnetic flux for magnons along its length, which are proportional to the spin supercurrent flowing through it, and thereby provides a way to manipulate magnons...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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