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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454483/efficient-carrier-injection-transport-relaxation-and-recombination-associated-with-a-stronger-carrier-localization-and-a-low-polarization-effect-of-nonpolar-m-plane-ingan-gan-light-emitting-diodes
#1
Fann-Wei Yang, Yu-Siang You, Shih-Wei Feng
Based on time-resolved electroluminescence (TREL) measurement, more efficient carrier injection, transport, relaxation, and recombination associated with a stronger carrier localization and a low polarization effect in a nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode (m-LED), compared with those in a polar c-LED, are reported. With a higher applied voltage in the c-LED, decreasing response time and rising time improve device performance, but a longer recombination time degrades luminescence efficiency. By using an m-LED with a stronger carrier localization and a low polarization effect, shorter response, rising, and recombination times provide more efficient carrier injection, transport, relaxation, and recombination...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454482/effects-of-environmental-factors-and-metallic-electrodes-on-ac-electrical-conduction-through-dna-molecule
#2
S Abdalla, A Obaid, F M Al-Marzouki
BACKGROUND: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the best candidate materials for various device applications such as in electrodes for rechargeable batteries, biosensors, molecular electronics, medical- and biomedical-applications etc. Hence, it is worthwhile to examine the mechanism of charge transport in the DNA molecule, however, still a question without a clear answer is DNA a molecular conducting material (wire), semiconductor, or insulator? The answer, after the published data, is still ambiguous without any confirmed and clear scientific answer...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454466/identification-of-molecular-characteristics-induced-by-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer-based-on-microarray-data
#3
Chang Ge, Mengxia Wu, Guifang Chen, Guanying Yu, Dehui Ji, Shaozhao Wang
The present study aimed to reveal the molecular characteristics induced by radiotherapy in rectal cancer at the transcriptome level. Microarray data (ID, GSE26027) downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were re-analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between rectal cancer tissues during and prior to radiotherapy. The DEGs were then inputted into the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery, an online tool to perform enrichment analyses, and into the search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins database to identify protein-protein interactions (PPIs)...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454150/selective-propagation-and-beam-splitting-of-surface-plasmons-on-metallic-nanodisk-chains
#4
Yuhui Hu, Di Zhao, Zhenghan Wang, Fei Chen, Xiang Xiong, Ruwen Peng, Mu Wang
Manipulating the propagation of surface plasmons (SPs) on a nanoscale is a fundamental issue of nanophotonics. By using focused electron beam, SPs can be excited with high spatial accuracy. Here we report on the propagation of SPs on a chain of gold nanodisks with cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. Experimental evidence for the propagation of SPs excited by the focused electron beam is demonstrated. The wavelength of the transmitted SPs depends on the geometrical parameters of the nanodisk chain. Furthermore, we design and fabricate a beam splitter, which selectively transmits SPs of certain wavelengths to a specific direction...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454098/the-impact-of-receptor-recycling-on-the-exocytosis-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-targeted-gold-nanoparticles
#5
Yanan Cui, Xiaoning Song, Suxin Li, Bing He, Lan Yuan, Wenbing Dai, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Bin Yang, Qiang Zhang
Among the diverse factors that may influence the therapeutic outcomes, the exocytosis of targeted drug delivery systems (TDDS) and its relationship with the corresponding receptor receive little attentions. In this study, cRGDfK modified gold nanoparticles (cRGDfK-PEG-AuNPs) were synthesized, and their cellular transportation including endocytosis and exocytosis, as well as the potential relations with αvβ3 integrin were carefully studied. The results showed that the enhanced and fast internalization of cRGDfK-PEG-AuNPs into U87 cells was associated with the high expression level of αvβ3 integrin...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454029/aerosol-contributions-at-an-urban-background-site-in-eastern-mediterranean-potential-source-regions-of-pahs-in-pm10-mass
#6
Konstantinos Dimitriou, Pavlos Kassomenos
In this paper, two backward air mass trajectory-based models (Potential Source Contribution Function [PSCF] and Concentration Weighted Trajectory [CWT]) were combined, aiming to identify sources and factors defining the load of PM in the city of Limassol (Cyprus). The study also focused on the determination of atmospheric pathways enriching the aerosol phase of four carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), Benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) and Benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), in PM10 mass...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454026/textural-characteristics-and-sedimentary-environment-of-sediment-at-eroded-and-deposited-regions-in-the-severely-eroded-coastline-of-batu-pahat-malaysia
#7
Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar, Siti Aminah Bassa Nawang, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Yannie Anak Benson, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Mohamed Azhary
This study investigates the textural characteristics of sediments collected at eroded and deposited areas of highly severed eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia. Samples were taken from systematically selected 23 locations along the 67km stretch of coastline and are extended to the fluvial sediments of the main river of Batu Pahat. Grain size distribution analysis was conducted to identify its textural characteristics and associated sedimentary transport behaviours. Sediments obtained along the coastline were fine-grained material with averaged mean size of 7...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454025/review-and-analysis-of-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-agro-ecosystem-models-for-simulating-c-and-n-fluxes
#8
REVIEW
Lorenzo Brilli, Luca Bechini, Marco Bindi, Marco Carozzi, Daniele Cavalli, Richard Conant, Cristopher D Dorich, Luca Doro, Fiona Ehrhardt, Roberta Farina, Roberto Ferrise, Nuala Fitton, Rosa Francaviglia, Peter Grace, Ileana Iocola, Katja Klumpp, Joël Léonard, Raphaël Martin, Raia Silvia Massad, Sylvie Recous, Giovanna Seddaiu, Joanna Sharp, Pete Smith, Ward N Smith, Jean-Francois Soussana, Gianni Bellocchi
Biogeochemical simulation models are important tools for describing and quantifying the contribution of agricultural systems to C sequestration and GHG source/sink status. The abundance of simulation tools developed over recent decades, however, creates a difficulty because predictions from different models show large variability. Discrepancies between the conclusions of different modelling studies are often ascribed to differences in the physical and biogeochemical processes incorporated in equations of C and N cycles and their interactions...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453984/functional-and-genetic-evidence-that-nucleoside-transport-is-highly-conserved-in-leishmania-species-implications-for-pyrimidine-based-chemotherapy
#9
Khalid J H Alzahrani, Juma A M Ali, Anthonius A Eze, Wan Limm Looi, Daniel N A Tagoe, Darren J Creek, Michael P Barrett, Harry P de Koning
Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and 5F,2'deoxyuridine (5F,2'dUrd), and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1); the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2'dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1)...
April 20, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453970/on-chip-ultrasonic-manipulation-of-microparticles-by-using-the-flexural-vibration-of-a-glass-substrate
#10
Ryota Yamamoto, Daisuke Koyama, Mami Matsukawa
As biotechnology develops, techniques for manipulating and separating small particles such as cells and DNA are required in the life sciences. This paper investigates on-chip manipulation of microparticles in small channels by using ultrasonic vibration. The chip consists of a rectangular glass substrate with a cross-shaped channel (cross-section: 2.0×2.0mm(2)) and four lead zirconate titanate transducers attached to the substrate's four corners. To efficiently generate the flexural vibration mode on the chip, we used finite element analysis to optimize the configurations of the glass substrate and transducers...
December 15, 2016: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453943/supercharging-a-mno-sub-2-sub-nanowire-an-amine-altered-morphology-retains-capacity-at-high-rates-and-mass-loadings
#11
Girija Thesma Chandran, Gaurav Jha, Shaopeng Qiao, Mya Le Thai, Rajen Kumar Dutta, Alana F Ogata, Ji-Soo Jang, Il-Doo Kim, Reginald M Penner
The influence of hexamethylenetetraamine (HMTA) on the morphology of δ- MnO<sub>2</sub> and its properties for electrical energy storage are investigated - specifically for ultra-thick δ-MnO<sub>2<\sub> layers in the micron scale. Planar arrays of gold@δ-MnO<sub>2</sub>, core@shell nanowires, were prepared by electrodeposition with and without the HMTA and their elec- trochemical properties evaluated. HMTA alters the MnO<sub>2</sub> in three ways: First, it creates a more open morphology for the MnO<sub>2</sub> coating, characterized by "petals" with a thickness of 6 nm to 9 nm, rather than much thinner δ-MnO<sub>2</sub> sheets seen in the absence of HMTA...
April 28, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453940/competition-between-hydrogen-evolution-and-carbon-dioxide-reduction-on-copper-electrodes-in-mildly-acidic-media
#12
Hideshi Ooka, Marta C Figueiredo, Marc T M Koper
Understanding the competition between hydrogen evolution and CO2 reduction is of fundamental importance to increase the faradaic efficiency for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction in aqueous electrolytes. Here, by using a copper rotating disc electrode, we find that the major hydrogen evolution pathway competing with CO2 reduction is water reduction, even in a relatively acidic electrolyte (pH 2.5). The mass-transport-limited reduction of protons takes place at potentials for which there is no significant competition with CO2 reduction...
April 28, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453936/metallic-twin-grain-boundaries-embedded-in-mose2-monolayers-grown-by-molecular-beam-epitaxy
#13
Yujing Ma, Sadhu Kolekar, Horacio Coy Diaz, Johannes Aprojanz, Ilio Miccoli, Christoph Tegenkamp, Matthias Batzill
Twin grain boundaries in MoSe2 are metallic and undergo a metal to insulator Peierls transition at low temperature. Growth of MoSe2 by molecular beam epitaxy results in the spontaneous formation of a high density of these twin grain boundaries, likely as a mechanism to incorporation Se-deficiency in the film. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we study the grain boundary network that is formed in homoepitaxially grown MoSe2, and for MoSe2 grown heteroepitaxially on MoS2- and HOPG- substrates. No statistically relevant variation of the grain boundary concentration has been found for the different substrates, indicating that the grain boundary formation is substrate independent and depends mainly on the growth conditions...
April 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453907/aggregation-behaviour-of-non-ionic-twinned-amphiphiles-and-their-application-as-biomedical-nanocarriers
#14
Abhishek K Singh, Bala N S Thota, Boris Schade, Katharina Achazi, Abdullah Khan, Christoph Böttcher, Sunil K Sharma, Rainer Haag
A new class of twinned amphiphiles was developed by conjugating a pair of hydrophilic head groups from mPEG chains (Mn: 350 or 1000) and a pair of hydrophobic segments from linear alkyl chains (C11 or C18) through a novel spacer synthesized from glycerol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The aggregation phenomena of the amphiphiles were proven by DLS and fluorescence experiments, whereas size and morphology of the aggregates were evaluated by cryo-TEM, the measurements proved the formation of globular, thread-like or rod-like micelles as well as planar double-layer assemblies, depending on the amphiphile's molecular structure...
April 28, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453883/stomatal-function-density-and-pattern-and-co2-assimilation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-tmm1-and-sdd1-1-mutants
#15
Martina Vráblová, Daniel Vrábl, Marie Hronková, Jiří Kubásek, Jiří Šantrůček
Stomata modulate the exchange of water and CO2 between plant and atmosphere. Although stomatal density is known to affect CO2 diffusion into the leaf and thus photosynthetic rate, the effect of stomatal density and patterning on CO2 assimilation is not fully understood. We used wild-types Col-0 and C24 and stomatal mutants sdd1-1 and tmm1 of Arabidopsis thaliana, differing in stomatal density and pattern, to study the effects of these variations on both stomatal and mesophyll conductance and CO2 assimilation rate...
April 28, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453831/sortilin-1-loss-of-function-protects-against-cholestatic-liver-injury-by-attenuating-hepatic-bile-acid-accumulation-in-bile-duct-ligated-mice
#16
Jibiao Li, Benjamin L Woolbright, Wen Zhao, Yifeng Wang, David Matye, Bruno Hagenbuch, Hartmut Jaeschke, Tiangang Li
Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is an intracellular trafficking receptor that mediates protein sorting in the endocytic or secretory pathways. Recent studies revealed a role of Sort1 in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. This study further investigated the role of Sort1 in modulating bile acid detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in bile duct ligated mice. We found that Sort1 KO mice had attenuated liver injury 24 h after BDL, which was mainly attributed to less bile infarct formation. Sham-operated Sort1 KO mice had about 20% larger bile acid pool size than sham-operated WT mice, but 24 h after BDL Sort1 KO mice had significantly attenuated hepatic bile acid accumulation and smaller bile acid pool size...
April 26, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453723/gtp-binding-regulates-cellular-localization-of-parkinso%C3%A5-s-disease-associated-lrrk2
#17
Marian Blanca Ramírez, Antonio Jesús Lara Ordóñez, Elena Fdez, Jesús Madero-Pérez, Adriano Gonnelli, Matthieu Drouyer, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Jean-Marc Taymans, Luigi Bubacco, Elisa Greggio, Sabine Hilfiker
Mutations in LRRK2 comprise the most common cause of familial Parkinsońs disease (PD), and sequence variants modify risk for sporadic PD. Previous studies indicate that LRRK2 interacts with microtubules and alters microtubule-mediated vesicular transport processes. However, the molecular determinants within LRRK2 required for such interactions have remained unknown. Here we report that most pathogenic LRRK2 mutants cause relocalization of LRRK2 to filamentous structures which colocalize with a subset of microtubules, and an identical relocalization is seen upon pharmacological LRRK2 kinase inhibition...
April 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453711/improving-access-to-child-health-services-at-the-community-level-in-zambia-a-country-case-study-on-progress-in-child-survival-2000-2013
#18
Aaron M Kipp, Margaret Maimbolwa, Marie A Brault, Penelope Kalesha-Masumbu, Mary Katepa-Bwalya, Phanuel Habimana, Sten H Vermund, Kasonde Mwinga, Connie A Haley
Reductions in under-five mortality in Africa have not been sufficient to meet the Millennium Development Goal #4 (MDG#4) of reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds by 2015. Nevertheless, 12 African countries have met MDG#4. We undertook a four country study to examine barriers and facilitators of child survival prior to 2015, seeking to better understand variability in success across countries. The current analysis presents indicator, national document, and qualitative data from key informants and community women describing the factors that have enabled Zambia to successfully reduce under-five mortality over the last 15 years and achieve MDG#4...
June 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453647/photosynthetic-acclimation-to-warming-in-tropical-forest-tree-seedlings
#19
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Tropical forests have a mitigating effect on man-made climate change by acting as a carbon sink. For that effect to continue, tropical trees will have to acclimate to rising temperatures, but it is currently unknown whether they have this capacity. We grew seedlings of three tropical tree species over a range of temperature regimes (TGrowth = 25, 30, 35 °C) and measured the temperature response of photosynthetic CO2 uptake. All species showed signs of acclimation: the temperature-response curves shifted, such that the temperature at which photosynthesis peaked (TOpt) increased with increasing TGrowth...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453610/the-future-of-uk-healthcare-problems-and-potential-solutions-to-a-system-in-crisis
#20
H E Montgomery, A Haines, N Marlow, G Pearson, M G Mythen, M P W Grocott, C Swanton
The UK's Health System is in crisis, central funding no longer keeping pace with demand. Traditional responses-spending more, seeking efficiency savings or invoking market forces-are not solutions. The health of our nation demands urgent delivery of a radical new model, negotiated openly between public, policymakers and healthcare professionals. Such a model could focus on disease prevention, modifying health behaviour and implementing change in public policy in fields traditionally considered unrelated to health such as transport, food and advertising...
April 27, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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