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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335548/study-of-different-variants-of-mo-enzyme-crarc-and-the-interaction-with-its-partners-crcytb5-r-and-crcytb5-1
#1
Alejandro Chamizo-Ampudia, Aurora Galvan, Emilio Fernandez, Angel Llamas
The mARC (mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component) proteins are recently discovered molybdenum (Mo) Cofactor containing enzymes. They are involved in the reduction of several N-hydroxylated compounds (NHC) and nitrite. Some NHC are prodrugs containing an amidoxime structure or mutagens such as 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). We have studied this protein in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (crARC). Interestingly, all the ARC proteins need the reducing power supplied by other proteins. It is known that crARC requires a cytochrome b₅ (crCytb5-1) and a cytochrome b₅ reductase (crCytb5-R) that form an electron transport chain from NADH to the substrates...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335521/gene-transformation-induced-changes-in-chemical-functional-group-features-and-molecular-structure-conformation-in-alfalfa-plants-co-expressing-lc-bhlh-and-c1-myb-transcriptive-flavanoid-regulatory-genes-effects-of-single-gene-and-two-gene-insertion
#2
Ravindra G Heendeniya, Peiqiang Yu
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes transformed with Lc-bHLH and Lc transcription genes were developed with the intention of stimulating proanthocyanidin synthesis in the aerial parts of the plant. To our knowledge, there are no studies on the effect of single-gene and two-gene transformation on chemical functional groups and molecular structure changes in these plants. The objective of this study was to use advanced molecular spectroscopy with multivariate chemometrics to determine chemical functional group intensity and molecular structure changes in alfalfa plants when co-expressing Lc-bHLH and C1-MYB transcriptive flavanoid regulatory genes in comparison with non-transgenic (NT) and AC Grazeland (ACGL) genotypes...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335502/catechins-and-their-therapeutic-benefits-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
REVIEW
Fei-Yan Fan, Li-Xuan Sang, Min Jiang
Catechins are natural polyphenolic phytochemicals that exist in food and medicinal plants, such as tea, legume and rubiaceae. An increasing number of studies have associated the intake of catechins-rich foods with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some studies have demonstrated that catechins could significantly inhibit the excessive oxidative stress through direct or indirect antioxidant effects and promote the activation of the antioxidative substances such as glutathione peroxidases (GPO) and glutathione (GSH), reducing the oxidative damages to the colon...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335455/viral-protein-kinetics-of-piscine-orthoreovirus-infection-in-atlantic-salmon-blood-cells
#4
Hanne Merethe Haatveit, Øystein Wessel, Turhan Markussen, Morten Lund, Bernd Thiede, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Stine Braaen, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad
Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and the cause of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. Erythrocytes are important target cells for PRV. We have investigated the kinetics of PRV infection in salmon blood cells. The findings indicate that PRV causes an acute infection of blood cells lasting 1-2 weeks, before it subsides into persistence. A high production of viral proteins occurred initially in the acute phase which significantly correlated with antiviral gene transcription...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335410/non-canonical-roles-of-dengue-virus-non-structural-proteins
#5
REVIEW
Julianna D Zeidler, Lorena O Fernandes-Siqueira, Glauce M Barbosa, Andrea T Da Poian
The Flaviviridae family comprises a number of human pathogens, which, although sharing structural and functional features, cause diseases with very different outcomes. This can be explained by the plurality of functions exerted by the few proteins coded by viral genomes, with some of these functions shared among members of a same family, but others being unique for each virus species. These non-canonical functions probably have evolved independently and may serve as the base to the development of specific therapies for each of those diseases...
March 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335409/the-formyl-peptide-receptors-diversity-of-ligands-and-mechanism-for-recognition
#6
REVIEW
Hui-Qiong He, Richard D Ye
The formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein-coupled receptors that transduce chemotactic signals in phagocytes and mediate host-defense as well as inflammatory responses including cell adhesion, directed migration, granule release and superoxide production. In recent years, the cellular distribution and biological functions of FPRs have expanded to include additional roles in homeostasis of organ functions and modulation of inflammation. In a prototype, FPRs recognize peptides containing N-formylated methionine such as those produced in bacteria and mitochondria, thereby serving as pattern recognition receptors...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335397/emerging-anti-mitotic-activities-and-other-bioactivities-of-sesquiterpene-compounds-upon-human-cells
#7
REVIEW
Alessandra Bosco, Roy M Golsteyn
We review the bio-activities of natural product sesquiterpenes and present the first description of their effects upon mitosis. This type of biological effect upon cells is unexpected because sesquiterpenes are believed to inactivate proteins through Michael-type additions that cause non-specific cytotoxicity. Yet, certain types of sesquiterpenes can arrest cells in mitosis as measured by cell biology, biochemical and imaging techniques. We have listed the sesquiterpenes that arrest cells in mitosis and analyzed the biological data that support those observations...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335324/dna-origami-reorganizes-upon-interaction-with-graphite-implications-for-high-resolution-dna-directed-protein-patterning
#8
Masudur Rahman, David Neff, Nathaniel Green, Michael L Norton
Although there is a long history of the study of the interaction of DNA with carbon surfaces, limited information exists regarding the interaction of complex DNA-based nanostructures with the important material graphite, which is closely related to graphene. In view of the capacity of DNA to direct the assembly of proteins and optical and electronic nanoparticles, the potential for combining DNA-based materials with graphite, which is an ultra-flat, conductive carbon substrate, requires evaluation. A series of imaging studies utilizing Atomic Force Microscopy has been applied in order to provide a unified picture of this important interaction of structured DNA and graphite...
October 31, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335001/fastkd1-and-fastkd4-have-opposite-effects-on-expression-of-specific-mitochondrial-rnas-depending-upon-their-endonuclease-like-rap-domain
#9
Erik Boehm, Sofia Zaganelli, Kinsey Maundrell, Alexis A Jourdain, Stéphane Thore, Jean-Claude Martinou
FASTK family proteins have been identified as regulators of mitochondrial RNA homeostasis linked to mitochondrial diseases, but much remains unknown about these proteins. We show that CRISPR-mediated disruption of FASTKD1 increases ND3 mRNA level, while disruption of FASTKD4 reduces the level of ND3 and of other mature mRNAs including ND5 and CYB, and causes accumulation of ND5-CYB precursor RNA. Disrupting both FASTKD1 and FASTKD4 in the same cell results in decreased ND3 mRNA similar to the effect of depleting FASTKD4 alone, indicating that FASTKD4 loss is epistatic...
March 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334996/amelogenesis-imperfecta-caused-by-n-terminal-enamelin-point-mutations-in-mice-and-men-is-driven-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
Steven J Brookes, Martin J Barron, Claire E L Smith, James A Poulter, Alan J Mighell, Chris F Inglehearn, Catriona J Brown, Helen Rodd, Jennifer Kirkham, Michael J Dixon
"Amelogenesis imperfecta" (AI) describes a group of inherited diseases of dental enamel that have major clinical impact. Here, we identify the aetiology driving AI in mice carrying a p.S55I mutation in enamelin; one of the most commonly mutated proteins underlying AI in humans. Our data indicate that the mutation inhibits the ameloblast secretory pathway leading to ER stress and an activated unfolded protein response (UPR). Initially, with the support of the UPR acting in pro-survival mode, Enamp.S55I heterozygous mice secreted structurally normal enamel...
March 11, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334966/structural-and-mechanistic-insights-into-regulation-of-hbo1-histone-acetyltransferase-activity-by-brpf2
#11
Ye Tao, Chen Zhong, Junjun Zhu, Shutong Xu, Jianping Ding
HBO1, a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), is required for global acetylation of histone H3K14 and embryonic development. It functions as a catalytic subunit in multisubunit complexes comprising a BRPF1/2/3 or JADE1/2/3 scaffold protein, and two accessory proteins. BRPF2 has been shown to be important for the HAT activity of HBO1 toward H3K14. Here we demonstrated that BRPF2 can regulate the HAT activity of HBO1 toward free H3 and H4, and nucleosomal H3. Particularly, a short N-terminal region of BRPF2 is sufficient for binding to HBO1 and can potentiate its activity toward H3K14...
February 24, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334934/a-pseudaminic-acid-or-a-legionaminic-acid-derivative-transferase-is-strain-specifically-implicated-in-the-general-protein-o-glycosylation-system-of-the-periodontal-pathogen-tannerella-forsythia
#12
Markus B Tomek, Bettina Janesch, Daniel Maresch, Markus Windwarder, Friedrich Altmann, Paul Messner, Christina Schäffer
The occurrence of nonulosonic acids in bacteria is wide-spread and linked to pathogenicity. However, the knowledge of cognate nonulosonic acid transferases is scarce. In the periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, several proposed virulence factors carry strain-specifically either a pseudaminic or a legionaminic acid derivative as terminal sugar on an otherwise structurally identical, protein-bound oligosaccharide. This study aims to shed light on the transfer of either nonulosonic acid derivative on a proximal N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid residue within the O-glycan structure, exemplified with the bacterium's abundant S-layer glycoproteins...
March 16, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334932/ribosome-dependent-vibrio-cholerae-mrnase-higb2-is-regulated-by-a-%C3%AE-strand-sliding-mechanism
#13
San Hadži, Abel Garcia-Pino, Sarah Haesaerts, Dukas Jurenas, Kenn Gerdes, Jurij Lah, Remy Loris
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are small operons involved in bacterial stress response and persistence. higBA operons form a family of TA modules with an inverted gene organization and a toxin belonging to the RelE/ParE superfamily. Here, we present the crystal structures of chromosomally encoded Vibrio cholerae antitoxin (VcHigA2), toxin (VcHigB2) and their complex, which show significant differences in structure and mechanisms of function compared to the higBA module from plasmid Rts1, the defining member of the family...
February 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334903/n6-methyladenosine-alters-rna-structure-to-regulate-binding-of-a-low-complexity-protein
#14
Nian Liu, Katherine I Zhou, Marc Parisien, Qing Dai, Luda Diatchenko, Tao Pan
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), and affects almost every stage of the mRNA life cycle. The YTH-domain proteins can specifically recognize m6A modification to control mRNA maturation, translation and decay. m6A can also alter RNA structures to affect RNA-protein interactions in cells. Here, we show that m6A increases the accessibility of its surrounding RNA sequence to bind heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G (HNRNPG). Furthermore, HNRNPG binds m6A-methylated RNAs through its C-terminal low-complexity region, which self-assembles into large particles in vitro...
February 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334889/the-primary-transcriptome-of-neisseria-meningitidis-and-its-interaction-with-the-rna-chaperone-hfq
#15
Nadja Heidrich, Saskia Bauriedl, Lars Barquist, Lei Li, Christoph Schoen, Jörg Vogel
Neisseria meningitidis is a human commensal that can also cause life-threatening meningitis and septicemia. Despite growing evidence for RNA-based regulation in meningococci, their transcriptome structure and output of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) are incompletely understood. Using dRNA-seq, we have mapped at single-nucleotide resolution the primary transcriptome of N. meningitidis strain 8013. Annotation of 1625 transcriptional start sites defines transcription units for most protein-coding genes but also reveals a paucity of classical σ70-type promoters, suggesting the existence of activators that compensate for the lack of -35 consensus sequences in N...
March 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334881/random-pseuoduridylation-in-vivo-reveals-critical-region-of-escherichia-coli-23s-rrna-for-ribosome-assembly
#16
Margus Leppik, Aivar Liiv, Jaanus Remme
Pseudouridine is the most common modified nucleoside in RNA, which is found in stable RNA species and in eukaryotic mRNAs. Functional analysis of pseudouridine is complicated by marginal effect of its absence. We demonstrate that excessive pseudouridines in rRNA inhibit ribosome assembly. Ten-fold increase of pseudouridines in the 16S and 23S rRNA made by a chimeric pseudouridine synthase leads to accumulation of the incompletely assembled large ribosome subunits. Hyper modified 23S rRNA is found in the r-protein assembly defective particles and are selected against in the 70S and polysome fractions showing modification interference...
March 7, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334877/iron-mediates-catalysis-of-nucleic-acid-processing-enzymes-support-for-fe-ii-as-a-cofactor-before-the-great-oxidation-event
#17
C Denise Okafor, Kathryn A Lanier, Anton S Petrov, Shreyas S Athavale, Jessica C Bowman, Nicholas V Hud, Loren Dean Williams
Life originated in an anoxic, Fe2+-rich environment. We hypothesize that on early Earth, Fe2+ was a ubiquitous cofactor for nucleic acids, with roles in RNA folding and catalysis as well as in processing of nucleic acids by protein enzymes. In this model, Mg2+ replaced Fe2+ as the primary cofactor for nucleic acids in parallel with known metal substitutions of metalloproteins, driven by the Great Oxidation Event. To test predictions of this model, we assay the ability of nucleic acid processing enzymes, including a DNA polymerase, an RNA polymerase and a DNA ligase, to use Fe2+ in place of Mg2+ as a cofactor during catalysis...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334870/annealing-helicase-harp-closes-rpa-stabilized-dna-bubbles-non-processively
#18
Daniel R Burnham, Bas Nijholt, Iwijn De Vlaminck, Jinhua Quan, Timur Yusufzai, Cees Dekker
We investigate the mechanistic nature of the Snf2 family protein HARP, mutations of which are responsible for Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. Using a single-molecule magnetic tweezers assay, we construct RPA-stabilized DNA bubbles within torsionally constrained DNA to investigate the annealing action of HARP on a physiologically relevant substrate. We find that HARP closes RPA-stabilized bubbles in a slow reaction, taking on the order of tens of minutes for ∼600 bp of DNA to be re-annealed. The data indicate that DNA re-anneals through the removal of RPA, which is observed as clear steps in the bubble-closing traces...
February 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334869/emerging-concepts-in-sporadic-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#19
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, M Edip Gurol, Cenk Ayata, Brian J Bacskai, Matthew P Frosch, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common, well-defined small vessel disease and a largely untreatable cause of intracerebral haemorrhage and contributor to age-related cognitive decline. The term 'cerebral amyloid angiopathy' now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological finding, but also different clinical syndromes (both acute and progressive), brain parenchymal lesions seen on neuroimaging and a set of diagnostic criteria-the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detected disease during life...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334865/structure-of-human-pofut1-its-requirement-in-ligand-independent-oncogenic-notch-signaling-and-functional-effects-of-dowling-degos-mutations
#20
Brian J McMillan, Brandon Zimmerman, Emily D Egan, Michael Lofgren, Xiang Xu, Anthony Hesser, Stephen C Blacklow
Protein O-fucosyltransferase-1 (POFUT1), which transfers fucose residues to acceptor sites on serine and threonine residues of epidermal growth factor-like repeats of recipient proteins, is essential for Notch signal transduction in mammals. Here, we examine the consequences of POFUT1 loss on the oncogenic signaling associated with certain leukemia-associated mutations of human Notch1, report the structures of human POFUT1 in free and GDP-fucose bound states, and assess the effects of Dowling-Degos mutations on human POFUT1 function...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
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