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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441781/dengue-virus-non-structural-protein-5
#1
REVIEW
Abbas El Sahili, Julien Lescar
The World Health Organization estimates that the yearly number of dengue cases averages 390 million. This mosquito-borne virus disease is endemic in over 100 countries and will probably continue spreading, given the observed trend in global warming. So far, there is no antiviral drug available against dengue, but a vaccine has been recently marketed. Dengue virus also serves as a prototype for the study of other pathogenic flaviviruses that are emerging, like West Nile virus and Zika virus. Upon viral entry into the host cell and fusion of the viral lipid membrane with the endosomal membrane, the viral RNA is released and expressed as a polyprotein, that is then matured into three structural and seven non-structural (NS) proteins...
April 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441762/replication-and-oncolytic-activity-of-an-avian-orthoreovirus-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#2
Robert A Kozak, Larissa Hattin, Mia J Biondi, Juan C Corredor, Scott Walsh, Max Xue-Zhong, Justin Manuel, Ian D McGilvray, Jason Morgenstern, Evan Lusty, Vera Cherepanov, Betty-Anne McBey, David Leishman, Jordan J Feld, Byram Bridle, Éva Nagy
Oncolytic viruses are cancer therapeutics with promising outcomes in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Animal viruses have the possibility to avoid pre-existing immunity in humans, while being safe and immunostimulatory. We isolated an avian orthoreovirus (ARV-PB1), and tested it against a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We found that ARV-PB1 replicated well and induced strong cytopathic effects. It was determined that one mechanism of cell death was through syncytia formation, resulting in apoptosis and induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs)...
April 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441759/synaptic-homeostasis-and-its-immunological-disturbance-in-neuromuscular-junction-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Masaharu Takamori
In the neuromuscular junction, postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) clustering, trans-synaptic communication and synaptic stabilization are modulated by the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. The synaptic functions are based presynaptically on the active zone architecture, synaptic vesicle proteins, Ca(2+) channels and synaptic vesicle recycling. Postsynaptically, they are based on rapsyn-anchored nAChR clusters, localized sensitivity to ACh, and synaptic stabilization via linkage to the extracellular matrix so as to be precisely opposed to the nerve terminal...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441662/buffalo-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-induces-differentiation-and-dome-like-secondary-structures-in-cos-1-cells
#4
Gurjeet Kaur, Syed Azmal Ali, Shikha Pachauri, Dhruba Malakar, Jai K Kaushik, Ashok K Mohanty, Sudarshan Kumar
This study aimed to understand the molecular characteristics of buffalo leukemia inhibitory factor (BuLIF) and the generation of a stably transfected COS-1_BuLIF cell line for its functional characterization. Cumulus cells, isolated from oocytes, were separated, and total cDNA was prepared. The BuLIF gene was ligated into the cloning vector pJET1.2/blunt and expression vector pAcGFP-N1 which was transfected into COS-1 cells and confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. BuLIF was immunoprecipitated and evaluated through a MTT assay...
April 26, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441625/influence-of-co-existed-tetrabromobisphenol-a-tbbpa-and-hexavalent-chromium-on-the-cellular-characteristics-of-pycnoporus-sanguineus-during-their-removal-and-reduction
#5
Mi Feng, Hua Yin, Hui Peng, Xintong Liu, Pingping Yang, Guining Lu, Zhi Dang
Simultaneous TBBPA removal and Cr(VI) reduction by Pycnoporus sanguineus together with the effect of these co-existed pollutants on the fungal cellular characteristics were investigated in this study, aiming at illuminating the mechanism involved in the interactions between contaminants and microbial cells. The results revealed that Cr(VI) reduction and TBBPA removal declined from 92.5%, 75.4-30.6%, 44.8% when Cr(VI) concentration increased from 5 to 40mg/L, respectively. The removal efficiencies for Cr(VI) and TBBPA reached 61...
April 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441586/kobuvirus-vp3-protein-restricts-the-ifn-%C3%AE-triggered-signaling-pathway-by-inhibiting-stat2-irf9-and-stat2-stat2-complex-formation
#6
Qianqian Peng, Xi Lan, Chen Wang, Yujie Ren, Ningning Yue, Junyong Wang, Bo Zhong, Qiyun Zhu
Emerged porcine kobuvirus (PKV) has adversely affected the global swine industry since 2008, but the etiological biology of PKV is unclear. Screening PKV-encoded structural and non-structural proteins with a type I IFN-responsive luciferase reporter showed that PKV VP3 protein inhibited the IFN-β-triggered signaling pathway, resulting in the decrease of VSV-GFP replication. QPCR data showed that IFN-β downstream cytokine genes were suppressed without cell-type specificity as well. The results from biochemical experiments indicated that PKV VP3 associated with STAT2 and IRF9, and interfered with the formation of the STAT2-IRF9 and STAT2-STAT2 complex, impairing nuclear translocation of STAT2 and IRF9...
April 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441562/bacterial-division-ftsz-treadmills-to-build-a-beautiful-wall
#7
Kara M Schoenemann, William Margolin
The tubulin-like FtsZ protein polymerizes into a contractile ring structure required for cytokinesis in most bacteria. Two new studies report that FtsZ polymers move around the ring by treadmilling, which guides and regulates the inward growth of the septal wall.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441533/a-global-view-of-rna-protein-interactions-identifies-post-transcriptional-regulators-of-root-hair-cell-fate
#8
Shawn W Foley, Sager J Gosai, Dongxue Wang, Nur Selamoglu, Amelia C Sollitti, Tino Köster, Alexander Steffen, Eric Lyons, Fevzi Daldal, Benjamin A Garcia, Dorothee Staiger, Roger B Deal, Brian D Gregory
The Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is comprised of two cell types, hair and nonhair cells, which differentiate from the same precursor. Although the transcriptional programs regulating these events are well studied, post-transcriptional factors functioning in this cell fate decision are mostly unknown. Here, we globally identify RNA-protein interactions and RNA secondary structure in hair and nonhair cell nuclei. This analysis reveals distinct structural and protein binding patterns across both transcriptomes, allowing identification of differential RNA binding protein (RBP) recognition sites...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441492/caenorhabditis-elegans-prmt-7-and-prmt-9-are-evolutionarily-conserved-protein-arginine-methyltransferases-with-distinct-substrate-specificities
#9
Andrea Hadjikyriacou, Steven Gerard Clarke
Caenorhabditis elegans protein arginine methyltransferases PRMT-7 and PRMT-9 are two evolutionarily conserved enzymes, with distinct orthologs in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Biochemical characterization of these two enzymes reveals that they share much in common with their mammalian orthologs. C. elegans PRMT-7 produces only monomethyl arginine (MMA) and preferentially methylates R-X-R motifs in a broad collection of substrates, including human histone peptides and RG-rich peptides. In addition, the activity of the PRMT-7 enzyme is dependent on temperature, the presence of metal ions, and the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT)...
April 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441432/dysbiosis-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-decrease-in-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptide-level-during-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-in-rats
#10
Jing Chen, Chunlan Huang, Jingjing Wang, Hui Zhou, Yingying Lu, Lihong Lou, Junyuan Zheng, Ling Tian, Xingpeng Wang, Zhongwei Cao, Yue Zeng
OBJECTIVES: Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) and intestinal microbiota dysbiosis was involved in intestinal barrier failure. Paneth cells protect intestinal barrier and are associated with intestinal microbiota. Here, we investigated changes in intestinal microbiota and antimicrobial peptides of Paneth cells in ileum during ANP. METHODS: Rats with ANP were established by retrograde injection of 3.5% sodium taurocholate into biliopancreatic duct and sacrificed at 24h and 48h, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441340/selection-characterization-and-interaction-studies-of-a-dna-aptamer-for-the-detection-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum
#11
Lujun Hu, Linlin Wang, Wenwei Lu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
A whole-bacterium-based SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) procedure was adopted in this study for the selection of an ssDNA aptamer that binds to Bifidobacterium bifidum. After 12 rounds of selection targeted against B. bifidum, 30 sequences were obtained and divided into seven families according to primary sequence homology and similarity of secondary structure. Four FAM (fluorescein amidite) labeled aptamer sequences from different families were selected for further characterization by flow cytometric analysis...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441108/novel-clades-of-the-hu-ihf-superfamily-point-to-unexpected-roles-in-the-eukaryotic-centrosome-chromosome-partitioning-and-biological-conflicts
#12
A Maxwell Burroughs, Gurmeet Kaur, Dapeng Zhang, L Aravind
The HU superfamily of proteins, with a unique DNA-binding mode, has been extensively studied as the primary chromosome-packaging protein of the bacterial superkingdom. Representatives also play a role in DNA-structuring during recombination events and in eukaryotic organellar genome maintenance. However, beyond these well-studied roles, little is understood of the functional diversification of this large superfamily. Using sensitive sequence and structure analysis methods we identify multiple novel clades of the HU superfamily...
April 25, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441058/protein-misfolding-diseases
#13
F Ulrich Hartl
The majority of protein molecules must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to acquire functional activity. However, protein chains can adopt a multitude of conformational states, and their biologically active conformation is often only marginally stable. Metastable proteins tend to populate misfolded species that are prone to forming toxic aggregates, including soluble oligomers and fibrillar amyloid deposits, which are linked with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and many other pathologies...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441013/cytotoxicity-of-pyrazine-based-cyclometalated-c-n-pz-c-au-iii-carbene-complexes-impact-of-the-nature-of-the-ancillary-ligand-on-the-biological-properties
#14
Benoît Bertrand, Julio Fernandez-Cestau, Jesus Angulo, Marco M D Cominetti, Zoë A E Waller, Mark Searcey, Maria A O'Connell, Manfred Bochmann
The synthesis of a series of cyclometalated gold(III) complexes supported by pyrazine-based (C^N^C)-type pincer ligands is reported, including the crystal structure of a cationic example. The compounds provide a new platform for the study of antiproliferative properties of gold(III) complexes. Seven complexes were tested: the neutral series (C^N(pz)^C)AuX [X = Cl (1), 6-thioguanine (4), C≡CPh (5), SPh (6)] and an ionic series that included the N-methyl complex [(C^N(pzMe)^C)AuCl]BF4 (7) and the N-heterocyclic carbene complexes [(C^N(pz)^C)AuL](+) with L = 1,3-dimethylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene (2) or 1,3,7,9-tetramethylxanthin-8-ylidene (3)...
April 25, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441004/insights-into-the-mechanisms-by-which-clostridial-neurotoxins-discriminate-between-gangliosides
#15
Joshua R Burns, Gregory S Lambert, Michael R Baldwin
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. Entry of toxins into neurons is mediated through initial interactions with gangliosides, followed by binding to a protein co-receptor. Herein we aimed to understand the mechanism through which individual neurotoxins recognize the carbohydrate motif of gangliosides. Using cell-based and in vitro binding assays, in conjunction with structure-driven site directed mutagenesis, a conserved hydrophobic residue within the BoNTs that contributes to both affinity and specificity towards Sia5-containing gangliosides was identified...
April 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440962/designed-heme-cage-%C3%AE-sheet-miniproteins
#16
Areetha D'Souza, Xiangyang Wu, Edwin Kok Lee Yeow, Surajit Bhattacharjya
The structure and function of naturally occurring proteins are governed by a large number of amino acids (≥100). The design of miniature proteins with desired structures and functions not only substantiates our knowledge about proteins but can also contribute to the development of novel applications. Excellent progress has been made towards the design of helical proteins with diverse functions. However, the development of functional β-sheet proteins remains challenging. Herein, we describe the construction and characterization of four-stranded β-sheet miniproteins made up of about 19 amino acids that bind heme inside a hydrophobic binding pocket or "heme cage" by bis-histidine coordination in an aqueous environment...
April 25, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440912/performance-of-in-silico-tools-for-the-evaluation-of-p16ink4a-cdkn2a-variants-in-cagi
#17
Marco Carraro, Giovanni Minervini, Manuel Giollo, Yana Bromberg, Emidio Capriotti, Rita Casadio, Roland Dunbrack, Lisa Elefanti, Pietro Fariselli, Carlo Ferrari, Julian Gough, Panagiotis Katsonis, Emanuela Leonardi, Olivier Lichtarge, Chiara Menin, Pier Luigi Martelli, Abhishek Niroula, Lipika R Pal, Susanna Repo, Maria Chiara Scaini, Mauno Vihinen, Qiong Wei, Qifang Xu, Yuedong Yang, Yizhou Yin, Jan Zaucha, Huiying Zhao, Yaoqi Zhou, Steven E Brenner, John Moult, Silvio C E Tosatto
Correct phenotypic interpretation of variants of unknown significance for cancer-associated genes is a diagnostic challenge as genetic screenings gain in popularity in the next-generation sequencing era. The Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) experiment aims to test and define the state of the art of genotype-phenotype interpretation. Here, we present the assessment of the CAGI p16INK4a challenge. Participants were asked to predict the effect on cellular proliferation of ten variants for the p16INK4a tumor suppressor, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor encoded by the CDKN2A gene...
April 25, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440894/chromatin-sumoylation-in-heat-stress-to-protect-pause-and-organise-sumo-stress-response-on-chromatin
#18
REVIEW
Einari A Niskanen, Jorma J Palvimo
Post-translational modifications, e.g. SUMO modifications (SUMOylation), provide a mechanism for swiftly changing a protein's activity. Various stress conditions trigger a SUMO stress response (SSR) - a stress-induced rapid change in the conjugation of SUMO to multiple proteins, which predominantly targets nuclear proteins. The SSR has been postulated to protect stressed cells by preserving the functionality of crucial proteins. However, it is unclear how it exerts its protective functions. Interestingly, heat stress (HS) increases SUMOylation of proteins at active promoters and enhancers...
April 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440887/microrna-regulation-of-extracellular-matrix-components-in-the-process-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-destabilization
#19
REVIEW
Michal Kowara, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Grzegorz Opolski, Pawel Wlodarski
The process of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization, leading to myocardial infarction, is still not fully understood. The pathway - composed of structural and regulatory proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen, elastin, small leucine-rich proteoglycans, metalloproteinases, cathepsins and serine proteases - is one potential way of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. The expression of these proteins is controlled by different microRNA molecules. The goal of this paper is to summarize the current investigations and knowledge about ECM in the process of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization, giving special attention to epigenetic expression regulation by microRNA...
April 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440865/generation-of-wavy-structure-on-lipid-membrane-by-peripheral-proteins-a-linear-elastic-analysis
#20
Paritosh Mahata, Sovan Lal Das
We carry out a linear elastic analysis to study wavy structure generation on lipid membrane by peripheral membrane proteins. We model the lipid membrane as linearly elastic and anisotropic material. The hydrophobic insertion by proteins into the lipid membrane has been idealized as penetration of rigid rodlike inclusions into the membrane and the electrostatic interaction between protein and membrane has been modeled by a distributed surface traction acting on the membrane surface. With the proposed model we study curvature generation by several binding domains of peripheral membrane proteins containing BAR domains and amphipathic alpha-helices...
April 25, 2017: FEBS Letters
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