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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911373/the-mouse-isolated-perfused-kidney-technique
#1
Jan Czogalla, Frank Schweda, Johannes Loffing
The mouse isolated perfused kidney (MIPK) is a technique for keeping a mouse kidney under ex vivo conditions perfused and functional for 1 hr. This is a prerequisite for studying the physiology of the isolated organ and for many innovative applications that may be possible in the future, including perfusion decellularization for kidney bioengineering or the administration of anti-rejection or genome-editing drugs in high doses to prime the kidney for transplantation. During the time of the perfusion, the kidney can be manipulated, renal function can be assessed, and various pharmaceuticals administered...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910802/near-infrared-spectroscopy-evaluated-cerebral-oxygenation-during-anesthesia
#2
Henrik Sørensen
Likely, maintained organ and notably cerebral perfusion, secures rapid recovery following anesthesia. To secure cerebral blood flow (CBF) at least mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) need to be considered. CBF is "autoregulated", i.e. stays more or less stable within a MAP of 50-150 mmHg, but the lower limit appears to depend on the central blood volume and/or cardiac output, illustrated by a decrease in CBF at a MAP of 80 mmHg with a compromised central blood volume, while CBF remains constant with a MAP < 40 mmHg, if the central blood volume is maintained...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909337/optimization-of-the-optical-transparency-of-rodent-tissues-by-modified-pact-based-passive-clearing
#3
Jiwon Woo, Mirae Lee, Jeong Min Seo, Hyo Suk Park, Yong Eun Cho
Recently, a bio-electrochemical technique known as CLARITY was reported for three-dimensional phenotype mapping within transparent tissues, allowing clearer whole-body and organ visualization with CB-perfusion (CUBIC) and leading to the development of whole-body clearing and transparency of intact tissues with the PACT (passive clarity technique) and PARS (perfusion-assisted agent release in situ) methodologies. We evaluated the structure-function relationships in circuits of the whole central nervous system (CNS) and various internal organs using improved methods with optimized passive clarity...
December 2, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908340/end-points-of-sepsis-resuscitation
#4
REVIEW
John C Greenwood, Clinton J Orloski
Resuscitation goals for the patient with sepsis and septic shock are to return the patient to a physiologic state that promotes adequate end-organ perfusion along with matching metabolic supply and demand. Ideal resuscitation end points should assess the adequacy of tissue oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption, and be quantifiable and reproducible. Despite years of research, a single resuscitation end point to assess adequacy of resuscitation has yet to be found. Thus, the clinician must rely on multiple end points to assess the patient's overall response to therapy...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907050/when-is-the-brain-dead-living-like-electrophysiological-responses-and-photon-emissions-from-applications-of-neurotransmitters-in-fixed-post-mortem-human-brains
#5
Michael A Persinger, Nicolas Rouleau, Nirosha J Murugan, Lucas W E Tessaro, Justin N Costa
The structure of the post-mortem human brain can be preserved by immersing the organ within a fixative solution. Once the brain is perfused, cellular and histological features are maintained over extended periods of time. However, functions of the human brain are not assumed to be preserved beyond death and subsequent chemical fixation. Here we present a series of experiments which, together, refute this assumption. Instead, we suggest that chemical preservation of brain structure results in some retained functional capacity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906828/presence-of-cytotoxic-extracellular-histones-in-machine-perfusate-of-donation-after-circulatory-death-kidneys
#6
Tim C van Smaalen, Daniëlle M H Beurskens, E R Pieter Hoogland, Bjorn Winkens, Maarten H L Christiaans, Chris P Reutelingsperger, L W Ernest van Heurn, Gerry A F Nicolaes
BACKGROUND: Extracellular histones are cytotoxic molecules that are related to cell stress and death. They have been shown to play a crucial role in multiple pathophysiologic processes like sepsis, inflammation, vascular dysfunction and thrombosis. Their role in organ donation and graft function and survival is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether an association exists between the presence of extracellular histones in machine perfusates and deceased donor kidney viability...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905554/increased-plasma-vegf-levels-following-ischemic-preconditioning-are-associated-with-downregulation-of-mirna-762-and-mir-3072-5p
#7
Koji Ueno, Makoto Samura, Tamami Nakamura, Yuya Tanaka, Yuriko Takeuchi, Daichi Kawamura, Masaya Takahashi, Tohru Hosoyama, Noriyasu Morikage, Kimikazu Hamano
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has protective effects against ischemia-perfusion injury of organs. In the present study, we investigated the associated mechanisms after performing remote IPC (rIPC) of lower limbs by clamping abdominal aorta in mice. Subsequent experiments showed decreased damage and paralysis of lower limbs following spinal cord injury (SCI). Concomitantly, plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were increased 24 h after rIPC compared with those in sham-operated animals. In subsequent microRNA analyses, thirteen microRNAs were downregulated in exosomes 24 h after rIPC...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905369/-systemic-disorders-management-in-patients-with-acute-pancreatic-necrosis
#8
G V Rodoman, T I Shalaeva, A B Bargandzhiya
AIM: To study the effectiveness of sulodexide for systemic disorders correction in patients with acute pancreatic necrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 60 patients with acute pancreatic necrosis who were divided into main and control groups by 30  patients. Their age varied from 27 to 79. Standard combined therapy with prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombotic complications was recommended in all patients. In the control group enoxaparin therapy in prophylactic doses (4,000 IU (40 mg) per day) was used...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904441/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-of-the-bowel-wall-with-quantitative-assessment-of-crohn-s-disease-activity-in-childhood
#9
Damjana Kljucevsek, Dubravka Vidmar, Darja Urlep, Rok Dezman
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become an established non-invasive, patient-friendly imaging technique which improves the characterization of lesions. In addition, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) provides valuable information concerning perfusion of examined organs. This review addresses current applications of CEUS in children, focused on DCE-US of the bowel wall in patients with Crohn disease, which enables realtime assessment of the bowel wall vascularity with semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of disease activity and response to medical treatment...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901279/dopamine-agonists-for-preventing-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Huilin Tang, Selma Mourad, Suo-Di Zhai, Roger J Hart
BACKGROUND: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially serious complication of ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction technology (ART). It is characterised by enlarged ovaries and an acute fluid shift from the intravascular space to the third space, resulting in bloating, increased risk of venous thromboembolism and decreased organ perfusion. Most cases are mild, but forms of moderate or severe OHSS appear in 3% to 8% of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. The dopamine agonist cabergoline was introduced as a secondary prevention intervention for OHSS in women at high risk of OHSS undergoing ART treatment...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901159/a-portable-and-reconfigurable-multi-organ-platform-for-drug-development-with-onboard-microfluidic-flow-control
#11
J R Coppeta, M J Mescher, B C Isenberg, A J Spencer, E S Kim, A R Lever, T J Mulhern, R Prantil-Baun, J C Comolli, J T Borenstein
The drug development pipeline is severely limited by a lack of reliable tools for prediction of human clinical safety and efficacy profiles for compounds at the pre-clinical stage. Here we present the design and implementation of a platform technology comprising multiple human cell-based tissue models in a portable and reconfigurable format that supports individual organ function and crosstalk for periods of up to several weeks. Organ perfusion and crosstalk are enabled by a precision flow control technology based on electromagnetic actuators embedded in an arrayed format on a microfluidic platform...
November 30, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900758/99mtc-hmpao-perfusion-spect-ct-in-the-diagnosis-of-brain-death
#12
Thorsten Derlin, Desiree Weiberg
This report describes a case of brain death (BD) evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A 16-year-old boy with a history of rapid unexpected brain herniation due to pilocytic astrocytoma underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT for evaluation of brain death in the context of organ donation. Flow images demonstrated lack of blood flow to the brain, and delayed images showed absence of demonstrable radionuclide activity within the brain...
2016: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900374/spatially-resolved-microfluidic-stimulation-of-lymphoid-tissue-ex-vivo
#13
Ashley E Ross, Maura C Belanger, Jacob F Woodroof, Rebecca R Pompano
The lymph node is a structurally complex organ of the immune system, whose dynamic cellular arrangements are thought to control much of human health. Currently, no methods exist to precisely stimulate substructures within the lymph node or analyze local stimulus-response behaviors, making it difficult to rationally design therapies for inflammatory disease. Here we describe a novel integration of live lymph node slices with a microfluidic system for local stimulation. Slices maintained the cellular organization of the lymph node while making its core experimentally accessible...
November 30, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897967/an-observational-study-of-donor-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-in-uk-lung-transplantation-develop-uk
#14
Andrew Fisher, Anders Andreasson, Alexandros Chrysos, Joanne Lally, Chrysovalanto Mamasoula, Catherine Exley, Jennifer Wilkinson, Jessica Qian, Gillian Watson, Oli Lewington, Thomas Chadwick, Elaine McColl, Mark Pearce, Kay Mann, Nicola McMeekin, Luke Vale, Steven Tsui, Nizar Yonan, Andre Simon, Nandor Marczin, Jorge Mascaro, John Dark
BACKGROUND: Many patients awaiting lung transplantation die before a donor organ becomes available. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows initially unusable donor lungs to be assessed and reconditioned for clinical use. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVLP in increasing UK lung transplant activity. DESIGN: A multicentre, unblinded, non-randomised, non-inferiority observational study to compare transplant outcomes between EVLP-assessed and standard donor lungs...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895453/a-case-of-a-living-related-kidney-transplantation-after-ex-vivo-repair-of-the-donor-renal-artery-aneurysm
#15
P Christopoulos, A Faryal, M Dosani, D Rix, D Talbot
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation is the definite surgical treatment for end-stage renal disease. Shortage of organs and the increasing number of patients with end-stage renal disease has led to an expansion of the selection criteria promoting the use of organs from marginal donors. Use of kidneys with renal artery aneurysm (RAA) is one such example. Description of the case: We report a case of living-related kidney transplantation from a 46-year-old female donor with unilateral RAA to her 68-year-old father...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894918/laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-and-oxygen-to-see-for-assessing-microcirculatory-liver-blood-flow-changes-following-different-volumes-of-hepatectomy
#16
Chong Hui Li, Xin Lan Ge, Ke Pan, Peng Fei Wang, Yi Nan Su, Ai Qun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Portal hyperperfusion after extended hepatectomy or small-for-size liver transplantation may induce organ dysfunction and failure. This study was designed to monitor and characterize the hepatic microcirculatory perfusion following different volumes of hepatectomy in rats by using laser speckle contrast image (LSCI) and Oxygen to See (O2C), a spectrometric device. METHODS: The microcirculatory liver blood flow of the rats that underwent 68%, 85% and 90% hepatectomy (68PH, 85PH and 90PH) was monitored with LSCI and O2C before and following the hepatectomy...
November 25, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894293/lung-bioengineering-physical-stimuli-and-stem-progenitor-cell-biology-interplay-towards-biofabricating-a-functional-organ
#17
REVIEW
Paula N Nonaka, Juan J Uriarte, Noelia Campillo, Vinicius R Oliveira, Daniel Navajas, Ramon Farré
A current approach to obtain bioengineered lungs as a future alternative for transplantation is based on seeding stem cells on decellularized lung scaffolds. A fundamental question to be solved in this approach is how to drive stem cell differentiation onto the different lung cell phenotypes. Whereas the use of soluble factors as agents to modulate the fate of stem cells was established from an early stage of the research with this type of cells, it took longer to recognize that the physical microenvironment locally sensed by stem cells (e...
November 28, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886553/mechanical-stress-regulates-transport-in-a-compliant-3d-model-of-the-blood-brain-barrier
#18
Paul P Partyka, George A Godsey, John R Galie, Mary C Kosciuk, Nimish K Acharya, Robert G Nagele, Peter A Galie
Transport of fluid and solutes is tightly controlled within the brain, where vasculature exhibits a blood-brain barrier and there is no organized lymphatic network facilitating waste transport from the interstitial space. Here, using a compliant, three-dimensional co-culture model of the blood-brain barrier, we show that mechanical stimuli exerted by blood flow mediate both the permeability of the endothelial barrier and waste transport along the basement membrane. Application of both shear stress and cyclic strain facilitates tight junction formation in the endothelial monolayer, with and without the presence of astrocyte endfeet in the surrounding matrix...
November 17, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884776/inverted-orientation-improves-decellularization-of-whole-porcine-hearts
#19
Po-Feng Lee, Eric Chau, Rafael Cabello, Alvin T Yeh, Luiz C Sampaio, Andrea S Gobin, Doris A Taylor
In structurally heterogeneous organs, such as heart, it is challenging to retain extracellular matrix integrity in the thinnest regions (eg, valves) during perfusion decellularization and completely remove cellular debris from thicker areas. The high inflow rates necessary to maintain physiologic pressure can distend or damage thin tissues, but lower pressures prolong the process and increase the likelihood of contamination. We examined two novel retrograde decellularization methods for porcine hearts: inverting the heart or venting the apex to decrease inflow rate...
November 21, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882461/migration-and-proliferative-activity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-3d-polylactide-scaffolds-depends-on-cell-seeding-technique-and-collagen-modification
#20
A V Rodina, T Kh Tenchurin, V P Saprykin, A D Shepelev, V G Mamagulashvili, T E Grigor'ev, K I Lukanina, A S Orekhov, E Yu Moskaleva, S N Chvalun
We analyzed viability of mesenchymal stem cells seeded by static and dynamic methods to highly porous fibrous 3D poly-L-lactide scaffolds with similar physical and chemical properties, but different spatial organization modified with collagen. Standard collagen coating promoted protein adsorption on the scaffold surface and improved adhesive properties of 100 μ-thick scaffolds. Modification of 600-μ scaffolds with collagen under pressure increased proliferative activity of mesenchymal stem cells seeded under static and dynamic (delivery of 100,000 cells in 10 ml medium in a perfusion system at a rate of 1 ml/min) conditions by 47 and 648%, respectively (measured after 120-h culturing by MTT test)...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
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