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organ perfusion

J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Jinny Robson, Parham Aram, Martyn P Nash, Chris P Bradley, Martin Hayward, David J Paterson, Peter Taggart, Richard H Clayton, Visakan Kadirkamanathan
In this paper, we present a novel approach to quantify the spatio-temporal organization of electrical activation during human ventricular fibrillation (VF). We propose three different methods based on correlation analysis, graph theoretical measures and hierarchical clustering. Using the proposed approach, we quantified the level of spatio-temporal organization during three episodes of VF in ten patients, recorded using multi-electrode epicardial recordings with 30 s coronary perfusion, 150 s global myocardial ischaemia and 30 s reflow...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Derick Okwan-Duodu, Laura Hansen, Giji Joseph, Alicia N Lyle, Daiana Weiss, David R Archer, W Robert Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The adaptive response to vascular injury is the formation of functional collateral vessels to maintain organ integrity. Many of the clinical complications associated with sickle cell disease can be attributed to repeated bouts of vascular insufficiency, yet the detailed mechanisms of collateral vessel formation after injury are largely unknown in sickle cell disease. Here, we characterize postischemic neovascularization in sickle cell disease and the role of neutrophils in the production of reactive oxygen species...
March 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Katharine M Hinchcliff, Jessica Crockett, Steven W Thorpe, Christopher O Bayne
Long ischemia times adversely affect free flap survival, and large muscle flaps are particularly vulnerable. Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) is a well-established method of organ preservation, and recent literature has detailed the use of HMP to extend free flap ischemia times, predominantly in the laboratory setting. One limitation in the study and adoption of free flap HMP has been the availability of standardized perfusion machinery, as thus far institutions have built their own devices. We present a case of a 75-year-old woman with dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of her right proximal femur...
March 14, 2018: Microsurgery
Jan-Michael Abicht, Riccardo Sfriso, Bruno Reichart, Matthias Längin, Katja Gahle, Gisella L Puga Yung, Jörg D Seebach, Robert Rieben, David Ayares, Eckhard Wolf, Nikolai Klymiuk, Andrea Baehr, Alexander Kind, Tanja Mayr, Andreas Bauer
BACKGROUND: In pig-to-human xenotransplantation, early cellular rejection reactions are mediated by natural killer cells (NK cells). Human NK cells are inhibited by HLA-E via CD94/NKG2A receptors. To protect porcine grafts against human NK cell responses, transgenic GTKO pigs expressing hCD46 and HLA-E have been generated. The aim of this study was to test the effect of this genetic modification on xenogeneic, and in particular human NK cell response, using an ex vivo perfusion model of pig hearts with human blood...
March 14, 2018: Xenotransplantation
A C Van Erp, R A Rebolledo, D Hoeksma, N R Jespersen, P J Ottens, R Nørregaard, M Pedersen, C Laustsen, J G M Burgerhof, J C Wolters, J Ciapaite, H E Bøtker, H G D Leuvenink, B Jespersen
Hepatic and renal energy status prior to transplantation correlates with graft survival. However, effects of brain death (BD) on organ-specific energy status are largely unknown. We studied metabolism, perfusion, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial function in the liver and kidneys following BD. BD was induced in mechanically-ventilated rats, inflating an epidurally-placed Fogarty-catheter, with sham-operated rats as controls. A 9.4T-preclinical MRI system measured hourly oxygen availability (BOLD-related R2*) and perfusion (T1-weighted)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kangjun Shen, Xinmin Zhou, Ling Tan, Feng Li, Jun Xiao, Hao Tang
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the arch-first procedure without extra devices under moderate-to-mild systemic hypothermia during acute type A aortic dissection is safe and efficient and will improve patient outcome compared with the standard total arch replacement technique. METHODS: From December 2014 to February 2017, 89 patients were enrolled in this study, 52 of whom underwent conventional deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA, 24.2 ± 0.71°C) using the antegrade cerebral perfusion surgical procedure (Group A) and 37 of whom underwent the "arch-first" technique with moderate (27...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Claudia Miranda, Zenia Pérez-Rodríguez, Rosario Hernández-Armengol, Yaidel Quiñones-García, Tania Betancourt-Purón, Miguel Ángel Cabrera-Pérez
The aim of the present study is to contribute to the scientific characterization of sildenafil citrate according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for biowaivers. The solubility and intestinal permeability data of sildenafil citrate were collected from literature; however, the experimental solubility studies are inconclusive and its "high permeability" suggests an API in the borderline of BCS Class I and Class II. The pH-solubility profile was determined using the saturation shake-flask method over the pH range of 1...
March 12, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
VijayKrishna Raghunathan, Julia Benoit, Ramesh Kasetti, Gulab Zode, Michelle Salemi, Brett S Phinney, Kate E Keller, Julia A Staverosky, Christopher J Murphy, Ted Acott, Janice Vranka
Ocular hypertension is a causal risk-factor to developing glaucoma. This is associated with stiffening of the trabecular meshwork (TM), the primary site of resistance to aqueous-humor-outflow. The mechanisms underlying this stiffening or how pathologic extracellular matrix (ECM) affects cell function are poorly understood. It is recognized that mechanotransduction systems allow cells to sense and translate the intrinsic biophysical properties of ECM into intracellular signals to control gene transcription, protein expression, and cell behavior...
March 7, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Stephanie Häfner, Finn Burg, Martina Kannler, Nicole Urban, Peter Mayer, Alexander Dietrich, Dirk Trauner, Johannes Broichhagen, Michael Schaefer
Natural products have many health benefits and their application can improve the quality of life. Recently, the diterpene (+) larixol and its acetylated congeners demonstrated a selective inhibition of the second messenger-gated cation channel transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) over its close isoforms TRPC3 and TRPC7. Building on this knowledge, we expand these findings by chemical diversification of (+)-larixol mostly at position C6. Implementing High-Throughput Ca2+ FLIPR screening assays and electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings, we showcase larixyl N-methylcarbamate, dubbed SH045, as a compound with nanomolar affinity and a 13-fold subtype selectivity over TRPC3 in stably expressing HEK293 cells...
March 9, 2018: ChemMedChem
Satyanarayan T Shanbhag, Bernard Choong, Maxim Petrov, Brett Delahunt, John A Windsor, Anthony R J Phillips
BACKGROUND: Critical illness including severe acute pancreatitis is associated with the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The "gut-lymph" hypothesis states that multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is due to release of toxic factors from the intestine into the mesenteric lymph. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of normotensive acute pancreatitis conditioned mesenteric lymph on cardiac function and whether external drainage of mesenteric lymph would protect the heart...
March 5, 2018: Surgery
Paul S Malchesky
In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2017 are organized by category and summarized. We provide a brief reflection of the research and progress in artificial organs intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of these technologies and methods. Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world...
March 2018: Artificial Organs
Junko Arakawa, Tomoo Nagai, Mai Tahara, Hirotsugu Tabata
A 43-year-old asymptomatic male patient with a positive stress myocardial perfusion imaging result was admitted to our institution. Although no organic lesion was detected by 64-row coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), invasive coronary angiography revealed a unique anatomy with a long lesion in the middle of the left anterior descending artery. Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) demonstrated the details of the recanalized occlusion with coronary dissection. OFDI provides in vivo coronary images with high spatial resolution and better three-dimensional reconstructions and supports invasive coronary angiography to elucidate infinitesimal and complicated intraluminal morphology that might be missed by CCTA alone...
December 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Rolf Schreckenberg, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter
Initially identified in the parathyroidea, the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is now recognized as an ubiquitously expressed receptor that exerts specific functions in multiple organs including the cardiovascular system. This review will focus on the role that CaSR plays in vascular and cardiac tissues. In the vasculature, CaSR is expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. CaSR of endothelial cells participates in part to the regulation of local perfusion by linkage of CaSR activation to endothelial hyperpolarization and nitric oxide release...
March 4, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Stiljan Hoxha, Riccardo Giuseppe Abbasciano, Camilla Sandrini, Lucia Rossetti, Tiziano Menon, Luca Barozzi, Daniele Linardi, Alessio Rungatscher, Giuseppe Faggian, Giovanni Battista Luciani
Aortic arch repair in newborns and infants has traditionally been accomplished using a period of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. To reduce neurologic and cardiac dysfunction related to circulatory arrest and myocardial ischemia during complex aortic arch surgery, an alternative and novel strategy for cerebro-myocardial protection was recently developed, where regional low-flow perfusion is combined with controlled and independent coronary perfusion. The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess short-term and mid-term results of selective and independent cerebro-myocardial perfusion in neonatal aortic arch surgery...
March 6, 2018: Artificial Organs
Amanda R Jensen, Natalie A Drucker, Michael J Ferkowicz, Troy A Markel
BACKGROUND: Umbilical-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (USCs) have shown promise in the protection of ischemic organs. We hypothesized that USCs would improve mesenteric perfusion, preserve intestinal histological architecture, and limit inflammation by nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms following intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. METHODS: Adult wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock out (eNOS KO) mice were used: (1) WT IR + vehicle, (2) WT IR + USC, (3) eNOS KO IR + vehicle, and (4) eNOS KO IR + USC...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Norman Zinne, Marcus Krueger, Doris Hoeltig, Burkhard Tuemmler, Erin C Boyle, Christian Biancosino, Klaus Hoeffler, Peter Braubach, Taufiek K Rajab, Anatol Ciubotaru, Judith Rohde, Karl-Heinz Waldmann, Axel Haverich
The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria threatens to end the era of antibiotics. Drug resistant bacteria have evolved mechanisms to overcome antibiotics at therapeutic doses and further dose increases are not possible due to systemic toxicity. Here we present a pilot study of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) with high dose antibiotic therapy followed by autotransplantation as a new therapy of last resort for otherwise incurable multidrug resistant lung infections. Severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia was induced in the lower left lungs (LLL) of 18 Mini-Lewe pigs...
2018: PloS One
Cathelijne W van den Berg, Laila Ritsma, M Cristina Avramut, Loes E Wiersma, Bernard M van den Berg, Daniëlle G Leuning, Ellen Lievers, Marije Koning, Jessica M Vanslambrouck, Abraham J Koster, Sara E Howden, Minoru Takasato, Melissa H Little, Ton J Rabelink
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived kidney organoids may facilitate disease modeling and the generation of tissue for renal replacement. Long-term application, however, will require transferability between hPSC lines and significant improvements in organ maturation. A key question is whether time or a patent vasculature is required for ongoing morphogenesis. Here, we show that hPSC-derived kidney organoids, derived in fully defined medium conditions and in the absence of any exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor, develop host-derived vascularization...
February 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Rajesh Guruswamy Damodaran, Patrick Vermette
Diabetes Mellitus involves the loss of function and/or absolute numbers of insulin-producing β-cells in pancreatic islets. Islet transplantation is currently being investigated as a potential cure, and advances in tissue engineering methods can be used to improve pancreatic islets survival and functionality. Transplanted islets experience anoikis, hypoxia and inflammation-mediated immune response, leading to early damage and subsequent failure of the graft. Recent development in tissue engineering enables the use of decellularized organs as scaffolds for cell therapies...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Russell Knutsen, Scott C Beeman, Thomas J Broekelmann, Delong Liu, Kit Man Tsang, Attila Kovacs, Li Ye, Joshua Danback, Anderson Watson, Amanda Wardlaw, Jessica Wagenseil, Joel R Garbow, Michael Shoykhet, Beth A Kozel
Increased vascular stiffness correlates with higher risk of cardiovascular complications in aging adults. Elastin insufficiency, as observed in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome or with familial supravalvular aortic stenosis, also increases vascular stiffness and leads to arterial narrowing. We used Eln+/- mice to test the hypothesis that pathologically increased vascular stiffness with concomitant arterial narrowing leads to decreased blood flow to end organs such as the brain. We also hypothesized that drugs which remodel arteries and increase lumen diameter would improve flow...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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