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brain dead

Jian-Kai Yang, Jian Song, Hao-Ran Huo, Yin-Long Zhao, Guang-Yu Zhang, Zong-Mao Zhao, Guo-Zhu Sun, Bao-Hua Jiao
Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and deadly primary brain cancer that arises from astrocytes and classified as grade IV. Recently, exosomes have been reported as an essential mediator in diverse cancer carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, their role in GBM is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether blood exosomes can be potential clinical diagnostic markers for GBM. Methods: We used a xenograft orthotopic mouse model to detect the differentially expressed genes in the brain and blood exosomes of original/recurrent GBM...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Yusuke Hara, Tatsuya Sudo, Yu Togane, Hiromi Akagawa, Hidenobu Tsujimura
Programmed cell death is a conserved strategy for neural development both in vertebrates and invertebrates and is recognized at various developmental stages in the brain from neurogenesis to adulthood. To understand the development of the central nervous system, it is essential to reveal not only molecular mechanisms but also the role of neural cell death (Pinto-Teixeira et al., 2016). To understand the role of cell death in neural development, we investigated the effect of inhibition of cell death on optic lobe development...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
Paweł Chudoba, Wojciech Krajewski, Joanna Wojciechowska, Dorota Kamińska
BACKGROUND: At present, organ transplantation is the most efficient treatment of end-stage failure of various organs, including the heart, lungs, pancreas, intestines, kidney, and liver. Despite the efforts to use organs from living donors or from donors after circulatory death, most of the organs are recovered from brain dead (BD) donors. METHODS: The Medline and Web of Science databases were searched without time limit on November 2015 using the terms "brain dead donor" and "deceased donor" in conjunction with "transplantation", "graft", "organ", "hemodynamic", "hormonal", or "management"...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Rebecca W Olsen, Gertrude Ecklu-Mensah, Anja Bengtsson, Michael F Ofori, John P A Lusingu, Filip C Castberg, Lars Hviid, Yvonne Adams, Anja T R Jensen
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a potentially deadly outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria that is precipitated by sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the brain. The adhesion of IEs to brain endothelial cells is mediated by a subtype of parasite-encoded PfEMP1 that facilitate dual binding to host ICAM-1 and EPCR. The PfEMP1 subtype is characterized by the presence of a particular motif (DBLβ_motif) in the constituent ICAM-1-binding DBLβ domain. The rate of natural acquisition of DBLβ_motif-specific IgG and the ability to induce such antibodies by vaccination are unknown, and the aim of this study was to provide such data...
February 5, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Neha Kamran, Mahmoud S Alghamri, Felipe J Nunez, Diana Shah, Antonela S Asad, Marianela Candolfi, David Altshuler, Pedro R Lowenstein, Maria G Castro
There is a large unmet need for effective therapeutic approaches for glioma, the most malignant brain tumor. Clinical and preclinical studies have enormously expanded our knowledge about the molecular aspects of this deadly disease and its interaction with the host immune system. In this review we highlight the wide array of immunotherapeutic interventions that are currently being tested in glioma patients. Given the molecular heterogeneity, tumor immunoediting and the profound immunosuppression that characterize glioma, it has become clear that combinatorial approaches targeting multiple pathways tailored to the genetic signature of the tumor will be required in order to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy...
February 1, 2018: Immunotherapy
Gael D Maganga, Ingrid Labouba, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Andriniaina A Nkili-Meyong, Daniel Obame Ondo, Eric M Leroy, Nicolas Berthet
Canine distemper (CD) is the most deadly disease in dogs with mortality rates reaching 50%. The pathological agent, the CD virus (CDV), generally causes a severe systemic disease, although the nervous form can coexist with the acute catarrhal form in the same individual. In this study, we describe an outbreak of 18 cases of CD that occurred in 2015 in a German Shepherd dog population in northwestern Gabon. In addition, we determined the sequence of the CDV genotype associated with this fatal distemper infection in Gabon and compared it with other published CDV sequences...
January 30, 2018: Virus Research
Nicolas Nesseler, Antoine Roquilly, Sigismond Lasocki, Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, Yoann Launey, Cinotti Raphaël, Marine Hubert, Sonia Isslame, Pierre-François Perrigault, Thomas Geeraerts, Olivier Mimoz, Fouad Marhar, Yannick Mallédant, Fanny Feuillet, Karim Asehnoune, Philippe Seguin
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the factors associated with the decision to withdraw or withhold life support (WWLS) in brain-injured patients is limited. However, most deaths in these patients may involve such a decision. OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with the decision to WWLS in brain-injured patients requiring mechanical ventilation who survive the first 24 h in the ICU, and to analyse the outcomes and time to death. DESIGN: A retrospective observational multicentre study...
February 3, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Ajay Pradhan, Per-Erik Olsson
Zebrafish sex differentiation is under the control of multiple genes, but also relies on germ cell number for gonadal development. Morpholino and chemical mediated germ cell depletion leads to sterile male development in zebrafish. In this study we produced sterile males, using a dead end gene morpholino, to determine gonadal-brain interactions. Germ cell depletion following dnd inhibition downregulated the germ cell markers, vasa and ziwi, and later the larvae developed as sterile males. Despite lacking proper testis, the gonadal 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and estradiol (E2) levels of sterile males were similar to wild type males...
February 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
T Okita, E Hsu, K Aizawa, H Nakada, W Toya, K Matsui
BACKGROUND: In comparison with foreign countries, living-organ transplantations (LOT) have been performed more frequently than dead organ transplants, including brain-dead organ transplantation (BOT) in Japan. This situation has given rise to organ transplantation tourism. Therefore, we clarify laypersons' preferences regarding organ transplantation that are producing the current situation in Japan, to suggest a possible framework for further efforts. METHODS: Voluntary completion of a quantitative and anonymous survey was promoted online (a sample size of 1030)...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
G W Lee, J-M Lee, W J Lee, Y B Kim, Y G Min
BACKGROUND: Although cancer screening tests are not mentioned under brain-dead organ donor care guidelines in Korea, we assessed the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an important prostate cancer marker, and performed prostate biopsies when needed in brain-dead organ donors. We believe that insisting on a screening test for cancer diagnosis in donors' organs is important. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected between January 2010 and July 2015 from Ajou University Hospital...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
M Mojtabaee, F Ghorbani, M Mohsenzadeh, F S Beigee
INTRODUCTION: After significant improvement of the family consent rate to organ donation (OD) in recent years, owing to an increase in cultural activities and social awareness, a plateau has been reached. This study was performed to detect the causes for this plateau. METHODS: We reviewed exact causes of family refusal after providing a list of failed potential donors from July 2015 to December 2016. The expert coordinators responsible for handling the failed cases chose the cause of refusal from the previously prepared list...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Rajesh Rajesh, Rajesh Tampi
Steven R, a 21-year-old man, visited the clinic accompanied by his mother. He did not speak much, and his mother provided his history. Over the previous 2 months, she had overheard him whispering in an agitated voice, even though no one else was nearby. And, lately, he refused to answer or make calls on his cell phone, claiming that if he did it would activate a deadly chip that had been implanted in his brain by evil aliens. He also stopped attending classes at the community college. He occasionally had a few beers with his friends, but he had never been known to abuse alcohol or use other recreational drugs...
February 2018: Journal of Family Practice
Seth P Thibado, Jerry T Thornthwaite, Thomas K Ballard, Brandon T Goodman
Rapidly accumulating laboratory and clinical research evidence indicates that anthocyanins exhibit anticancer activity and the evaluation of bilberry anthocyanins as chemo-preventive agents is progressing. It has previously been demonstrated that anthocyanins upregulate tumor suppressor genes, induce apoptosis in cancer cells, repair and protect genomic DNA integrity, which is important in reducing age-associated oxidative stress, and improve neuronal and cognitive brain function. Bilberry anthocyanins have pronounced health effects, even though they have a low bioavailability...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Zohreh Ghalavand, Alireza Heidary Rouchi, Hassan Bahraminasab, Elham Ravanasa, Elnaz Sadat Mirsamadi, Narges Nodeh Farahani, Bahram Nikmanesh
Microbiological screening of tissue allografts is crucial to prevent the transmission of bacterial and fungal infections to transplant recipients. Klebsiella was the most prevalent and resistant contaminating microorganism observed in our setting in the Iranian Tissue Bank. This study was conducted to determine the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, antimicrobial resistance patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, and their clonal relationships in allograft materials. K. pneumoniae contaminating bone and other tissue allografts recovered from deceased donors were identified and ESBL isolates were detected using a phenotypic confirmatory method...
February 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
N Sumru Bayin, Lin Ma, Dimitris G Placantonakis, Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
Glioblastoma (GBM), a deadly primary brain malignancy, manifests pronounced radioresistance. Identifying agents that improve the sensitivity of tumor tissue to radiotherapy is critical for improving patient outcomes. The response to ionizing radiation is regulated by both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms. In particular, the tumor microenvironment is known to promote radioresistance in GBM. Therefore, model systems used to test radiosensitizing agents need to take into account the tumor microenvironment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Catherine J Libby, Anh Nhat Tran, Sarah E Scott, Corinne Griguer, Anita B Hjelmeland
De-regulated cellular energetics is an emerging hallmark of cancer with alterations to glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, the pentose phosphate pathway, lipid oxidation and synthesis and amino acid metabolism. Understanding and targeting of metabolic reprogramming in cancers may yield new treatment options, but metabolic heterogeneity and plasticity complicate this strategy. One highly heterogeneous cancer for which current treatments ultimately fail is the deadly brain tumor glioblastoma. Therapeutic resistance, within glioblastoma and other solid tumors, is thought to be linked to subsets of tumor initiating cells, also known as cancer stem cells...
January 26, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
S G Michel, M L L Madariaga, G M I I LaMuraglia, V Villani, M Sekijima, E A Farkash, R B Colvin, D H Sachs, K Yamada, B R Rosengard, J S Allan, J C Madsen
We have previously shown that 12 days of high-dose calcineurin inhibition induced tolerance in MHC inbred miniature swine receiving MHC-mismatched lung, kidney, or co-transplanted heart/kidney allografts. However, if lung grafts were procured from brain dead donors, and transplanted alone, they were rejected within 19-45 days. Here, we investigated whether donor brain death with or without allograft ischemia would also prevent tolerance induction in kidney or heart/kidney recipients. Four kidney recipients treated with 12 days of calcineurin inhibition received organs from donors rendered brain dead for 4 hours...
January 29, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Franklin G Miller
Judgments of futility are always relative to some goal. In light of that proposition, continued treatment for those diagnosed as "brain dead" is not necessarily futile.
2018: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Antonio Ríos, A López-Navas, A López-López, F J Gómez, J Iriarte, R Herruzo, G Blanco, F J Llorca, A Asunsolo, P Sánchez, P R Gutiérrez, A Fernández, M T de Jesús, L Martínez Alarcón, M Del Olivo, L Fuentes, J R Hernández, J Virseda, J Yelamos, J A Bondía, A M Hernández, M A Ayala, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the level of understanding of the brain death concept among medical students in universities in Spain. METHODS: This cross-sectional sociological, interdisciplinary, and multicenter study was performed on 9598 medical students in Spain. The sample was stratified by geographical area and academic year. A previously validated self-reported measure of brain death knowledge (questionnaire Proyecto Colaborativo Internacional Donante sobre la Donación y Transplante de Organos) was completed anonymously by students...
January 1, 2018: Progress in Transplantation
Yechan Joh, Won-Seok Choi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the progressive decline of memory, cognitive functions, and changes in personality. The major pathological features in postmortem brains are neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits. The majority of AD cases are sporadic and age-related. Although AD pathogenesis has not been established, aging and declining mitochondrial function has been associated. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been observed in AD patients' brains and AD mice models, and the mice with a genetic defect in mitochondrial complex I showed enhanced Aβ level in vivo...
December 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
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