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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731906/c1-inhibitor-treatment-decreases-renal-injury-in-an-established-brain-dead-rat-model
#1
Felix Poppelaars, Neeltina M Jager, Juha Kotimaa, Henri G D Leuvenink, Mohamed R Daha, Cees van Kooten, Marc A Seelen, Jeffrey Damman
BACKGROUND: Kidneys derived from brain-dead (BD) donors have lower graft survival rates compared to kidneys from living donors. Complement activation plays an important role in brain death. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the effect of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) on BD-induced renal injury. METHODS: Brain death was induced in rats by inflating a subdurally placed balloon catheter. Thirty minutes after BD, rats were treated with saline, low-dose or high-dose C1-INH...
July 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729907/current-status-of-pediatric-transplantation-in-japan
#2
REVIEW
Nao Nishimura, Mureo Kasahara, Kenji Ishikura, Satoshi Nakagawa
Brain-dead donor organ transplantation has been available to children in Japan since the 2010 revision of the Organ Transplant Law. Of the 50-60 brain-dead donor organ transplants performed annually in Japan, however, very few (0-4 per year) are performed in children. Again, while those receiving liver, heart, and kidney transplants are reported to fare better than their counterparts in the rest of the world, organ shortage is becoming a matter of great concern. Very few organs become available from brain-dead donors or are transplanted to adults if made available at all, with some children dying while on the brain-dead organ waiting list...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729027/micrornas-as-multifaceted-players-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#3
Neri Mercatelli, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and inevitably lethal primary brain tumor, with a median survival rate of only 15 months from diagnosis. The current standard treatment involves maximal surgical resection flanked by radiotherapy and chemotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide. However, even such aggressive treatment is never curative, and recurrent tumors always arise, commonly in more aggressive, chemo- and radio-resistant forms, leading to untreatable and deadly tumors. MicroRNAs, recognized major players in cancer, are deeply involved in GBM, as shown by more than a decade of studies...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728846/the-effects-of-type-i-interferon-on-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells
#4
Ziyun Du, Chun Cai, Michelle Sims, Frederick A Boop, Andrew M Davidoff, Lawrence M Pfeffer
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly invasive brain tumors that are extremely deadly. The highly aggressive nature of GBM as well as its heterogeneity at the molecular and cellular levels has been attributed to a rare subpopulation of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs). Interferons (IFNs) are a family of endogenous antiviral proteins that have anticancer activity in vitro, and have been used clinically to treat GBM. IFN inhibits the proliferation of various established GBM cell lines, but the effects of IFNs on GSCs remain relatively unknown...
July 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719147/human-immunology-studies-using-organ-donors-impact-of-clinical-variations-on-immune-parameters-in-tissues-and-circulation
#5
D J Carpenter, T Granot, N Matsuoka, T Senda, B V Kumar, J J C Thome, C L Gordon, M Miron, J Weiner, T Connors, H Lerner, A Friedman, T Kato, A D Griesemer, D L Farber
Organ donors are sources of physiologically healthy organs and tissues for life-saving transplantation, and have been recently used for human immunology studies which are typically confined to the sampling of peripheral blood. Donors comprise a diverse population with different causes of death and clinical outcomes during hospitalization, and the effects of such variations on immune parameters in blood and tissues are not known. We present here coordinate analyses of innate and adaptive immune components in blood, lymphoid (bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes), and mucosal (lungs, intestines) sites from a population of brain-dead organ donors (3-months-93-years; n=291) across eight clinical parameters...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716259/roald-dahl-and-the-complete-locked-in-syndrome-cold-dead-body-living-brain
#6
Daniel Kondziella
The classical locked-in syndrome in which partially preserved eye movements allow for communication is well-recognized by most neurologists. Yet, it is much less well-known that patients exist who are clearly conscious but have lost all means of communicating it to the outside world because they no longer have any motor output at all. Of note, Roald Dahl, the internationally acclaimed children book author, described this complete locked-in syndrome in one of his short stories, William and Mary (1959), almost half a century before the medical community became aware of this devastating condition...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715721/pushing-the-boundaries-in-liver-graft-utilisation-in-transplantation-case-report-of-a-donor-with-previous-bile-duct-injury-repair
#7
Asma Sultana, James J Powell, Gabriel C Oniscu
INTRODUCTION: Liver transplantation is a recognised treatment for extensive bile duct injuries with secondary biliary cirrhosis or recurring sepsis. However, there have been no reports of successful liver transplantation from a donor who sustained a previous bile duct injury. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Here we discuss the case of a liver transplant from a 51-year-old brain dead donor who had suffered a Strasberg E1 bile duct injury and had undergone a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy 24 years prior to donation...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710785/effect-of-thyroid-hormone-on-cardiac-function-following-orthotopic-heart-transplantation-in-piglets
#8
T K Susheel Kumar, Craig Mathis, Shyam Sathanandam, David Zurakowski, Saradha Subramanian, Jerry Allen, Michael Solimine, Lindsay Berrios, Scott Jackson, Mark Landers, Ryan Sullivan, Stacey Barnett, Mark Rayburn, Christopher Loftis, Lauren Price, James B Tansey, Deepthi Hoskoppal, Christopher Knott-Craig
Studies in adult HT have demonstrated improved cardiac function in the recipient following administration of T3 to the donor. The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effects of T3 on the function of the immature donor heart following HT in a piglet model. A total of 32 piglets were divided into 16 donors and 16 recipients. Following creation of brain death, half of the donor piglets were randomized to receive three doses of T3 (0.2 μg/kg) along with hydrocortisone (1 mg/kg). The donor hearts were then transplanted into the recipient piglets on CPB...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708601/synergistic-and-targeted-therapy-with-a-procaspase-3-activator-and-temozolomide-extends-survival-in-glioma-rodent-models-and-is-feasible-for-the-treatment-of-canine-malignant-glioma-patients
#9
Avadhut D Joshi, Rachel C Botham, Lisa J Schlein, Howard S Roth, Antonella Mangraviti, Alexandra Borodovsky, Betty Tyler, Steve Joslyn, Jayme S Looper, Michael Podell, Timothy M Fan, Paul J Hergenrother, Gregory J Riggins
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma is a deadly brain cancer with a median survival time of ~15 months. Ionizing radiation plus the DNA alkylator temozolomide (TMZ) is the current standard therapy. PAC-1, a procaspase-3 activating small molecule, is blood-brain barrier penetrant and has previously demonstrated ability to synergize with diverse pro-apoptotic chemotherapeutics. We studied if PAC-1 could enhance the activity of TMZ, and whether addition of PAC-1 to standard treatment would be feasible in spontaneous canine malignant gliomas...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707595/functional-roles-of-the-ca2-activated-k-channel-kca3-1-in-brain-tumors
#10
Giuseppina D' Alessandro, Cristina Limatola, Myriam Catalano
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and deadly brain tumor, with low disease-free period even after surgery and combined radio and chemotherapies. Among the factors contributing to rapid tumor growth in the brain are the elevated proliferation and invasion rate, and the ability to induce a local immunosuppressive environment. The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is expressed on glioblastoma cells and in tumor-infiltrating cells. In tumor cells, the functional expression of KCa3.1 is important to modulate cell invasion and proliferation...
July 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702153/neurobrucellosis-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#11
Jamshid Vafaeimanesh, Alireza Shahamzeh, Mohammad Bagherzadeh
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection which is endemic in many countries. It is a multisystem disease which may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of brucellosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old woman with a history of lupus for 5 months referred to the emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Qom due to vertigo, drop attack and a convulsion episode from the previous day...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698708/pope-john-paul-ii-and-the-neurological-standard-for-the-determination-of-death-a-critical-analysis-of-his-address-to-the-transplantation-society
#12
Doyen Nguyen
The introduction of the "brain death" criterion constitutes a significant paradigm shift in the determination of death. The perception of the public at large is that the Catholic Church has formally endorsed this neurological standard. However, a critical reading of the only magisterial document on this subject, Pope John Paul II's 2000 address, shows that the pope's acceptance of the neurological criterion is conditional in that it entails a twofold requirement. It requires that certain medical presuppositions of the neurological standard are fulfilled, and that its philosophical premise coheres with the Church's teaching on the body-soul union...
May 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696429/glud1-linked-to-schizophrenia-controls-the-burst-firing-of-dopamine-neurons
#13
N Benamer, F Marti, R Lujan, R Hepp, T G Aubier, A A M Dupin, G Frébourg, S Pons, U Maskos, P Faure, Y A Hay, B Lambolez, L Tricoire
Human mutations of the GRID1 gene encoding the orphan delta1 glutamate receptor-channel (GluD1) are associated with schizophrenia but the explicit role of GluD1 in brain circuits is unknown. Based on the known function of its paralog GluD2 in cerebellum, we searched for a role of GluD1 in slow glutamatergic transmission mediated by metabotropic receptor mGlu1 in midbrain dopamine neurons, whose dysfunction is a hallmark of schizophrenia. We found that an mGlu1 agonist elicits a slow depolarizing current in HEK cells co-expressing mGlu1 and GluD1, but not in cells expressing mGlu1 or GluD1 alone...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694621/the-challenges-of-management-of-high-grade-gliomas-in-nigeria
#14
Chika Anele Ndubuisi, Wilfred C Mezue, Martin Nzegwu, Okwuoma Okwunodulu, Gabriel Ejembi, Samuel C Ohaegbulam
BACKGROUND: High-grade gliomas (HGG) are among the most challenging brain tumors despite many research efforts worldwide. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the local challenges that may influence outcome of HGG managed in a neurosurgical center in Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data of patients managed for intracranial HGG at Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu, Nigeria, between the year 2006 and 2015...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691951/fatal-self-poisoning-with-massive-propranolol-ingestion-in-a-young-male-physician
#15
Supawon Srettabunjong
Suicidal intoxication from massive propranolol ingestion is rare. Surprisingly, no reported cases have involved physicians. The author herein reports a case of self-poisoning death due to ingestion of propranolol by a young male physician. A 31-year-old man with major depressive disorder was found dead in his dormitory room. Fifteen empty packages, each having contained ten 40-mg propranolol tablets, were found without any tablets leftover in his room. A suicide note was also found in his room. He was thus alleged to have ingested 6 g of propranolol for self-poisoning...
July 4, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675360/four-years-of-hepatic-transplantation-in-the-republic-of-moldova
#16
Vladimir Hotineanu, Adrian Hotineanu, Serghei Burgoci, Grigore Ivancov, Natalia Taran, Angela Peltec, Dumitru Cazacu, Vitalie Sîrghi
Ever since the first liver transplant in the Republic of Moldova in 2013 we have performed 30 liver transplantations, the first having been performed in collaboration with the surgical team from Romania, led by Professor Irinel Popescu. The serious deficit of available cadaveric organs has forced us to begin with right hemi-liver transplantation from a living donor. In one third of liver transplantations we used right hemi-liver graft from a living donor, and in 2/3 of cases whole liver graft was harvested from brain-dead donors...
May 2017: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671899/clinicians-perception-and-experience-of-organ-donation-from-brain-dead-patients
#17
Nancy Kentish-Barnes, Jacques Duranteau, Claire Montlahuc, Julien Charpentier, Laurent Martin-Lefevre, Liliane Joseph, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Fabienne Fieux, Anne Renault, Marie Thuong, Sylvie Chevret, Elie Azoulay
OBJECTIVE: ICU clinicians are primarily involved in organ donation after brain death of ICU patients. Their perceptions of organ donation may affect outcomes. Our objective was to describe ICU clinician's perceptions and experience of organ donation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study among physicians and nurses (90 ICUs in France). We used factorial correspondence analysis to describe categories of clinicians regarding their perceptions and experience of organ donation...
June 30, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665230/documentation-of-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-spp-infection-and-associated-mortality-in-a-common-loon-gavia-immer
#18
Ellen S Martinsen, Inga F Sidor, Sean Flint, John Cooley, Mark A Pokras
We report malaria parasite infection ( Plasmodium spp.) and associated mortality in a Common Loon (Gavia immer) found dead on Lake Umbagog in New Hampshire, US. Necropsy findings showed the bird to be in good body condition but with pericardial edema and splenomegaly. Histopathological examination of brain and heart revealed intraendothelial and intrahistiocytic proliferation of Plasmodium merozoites with myocarditis. By PCR, the presence of Plasmodium parasites was confirmed from all tissues screened including spleen, muscle, and kidney...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664184/microrna-29-mediates-a-novel-negative-feedback-loop-to-regulate-scap-srebp-1-and-lipid-metabolism
#19
Peng Ru, Deliang Guo
The membrane-bound transcription factors, SREBPs (sterol regulatory element-binding proteins), play a central role in regulating lipid metabolism. The transcriptional activation of SREBPs requires the key protein SCAP (SREBP-cleavage activating protein) to translocate their precursors from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi for subsequent proteolytic activation, a process tightly regulated by a cholesterol-mediated negative feedback loop. Our previous work showed that the SCAP/SREBP-1 pathway is significantly upregulated in human glioblastoma (GBM), the most deadly brain cancer, and that glucose-mediated N-glycosylation of SCAP is a prerequisite step for SCAP/SREBP trafficking...
2017: RNA & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661110/-single-fetal-demise-in-monochorionic-twins
#20
REVIEW
Isaac Blickstein
Single fetal death in a monochorionic twin pregnancy is more frequent than in a dichorionic twin gestation. Due to inter-twin vascular anastomosis in the monochorionic common placenta, the death of one twin causes a drop in blood pressure due to a shift of blood from the survivor to the dead fetus. If the drop of blood pressure is abrupt and serious, the survivor will die soon after (as occurs in 15% of cases). If the drop is less serious, the survivor may sustain ischemic injury (in about 26% of the cases) and if the drop in blood pressure is subtle, the survivor will be intact...
June 2017: Harefuah
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