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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633805/somatic-support-following-cardiac-arrest-for-90%C3%A2-days-leading-to-a-healthy-baby-boy-a-case-report
#1
Sarah Holliday, Barbara Magnuson-Woodward
Due to a lack of published case reports regarding the somatic support of brain dead pregnant patients, each one adds to the limited knowledge that directs care for this patient population. A young woman experienced a cardiac arrest and was subsequently determined to be approximately 20 weeks pregnant following cardio pulmonary resuscitation. Soon after, she was diagnosed as brain dead, but her family chose to keep her supported in hopes of the delivery of a healthy child. She was transferred to our facility, where she was supported after being diagnosed as brain dead for a total of 90 days and delivered a healthy baby boy at almost 32 weeks gestational age...
June 17, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621640/clinical-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-brain-dead-donors-as-predictors-of-early-and-long-term-renal-function-after-transplant
#2
Ewa Kwiatkowska, Leszek Domański, Joanna Bober, Krzysztof Safranow, Andrzej Pawlik, Kazimierz Ciechanowski, Magda Wiśniewska, Karolina Kędzierska
OBJECTIVES: Organs from brain-dead donors are the main source of allografts for transplant. Comparisons between living-donor and brain-dead donor kidneys show that the latter are more likely to demonstrate delayed graft function and lower long-term survival. This study aimed to assess the effects of various clinical and biochemical factors of donors on early- and long-term renal function after transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from kidney recipients treated between 2006 and 2008 who received organs from brain-dead donors...
June 16, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621636/is-brain-dead-donor-fluid-therapy-with-colloids-associated-with-better-kidney-grafts
#3
Niko Limnell, Alexey A Schramko
OBJECTIVES: Fluid therapy is required to maintain perfusion to donor organs. Recent reviews on the choices of fluids have emphasized the safety of using crystalloids, as opposed to fluid therapy with colloids, which has been reported to be either unequivocally or potentially harmful in a number of studies on various patient populations. We aimed to analyze whether the type of fluid administered to donors is connected with kidney transplant outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive brain-dead multiorgan donors and their respective 181 kidney recipients were studied retrospectively...
June 16, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621261/ag488-as-a-therapy-against-gliomas
#4
Jadith Ziegler, Anja Bastian, Megan Lerner, Lora Bailey-Downs, Debra Saunders, Nataliya Smith, Jake Sutton, James D Battiste, Michael A Ihnat, Aleem Gangjee, Rheal A Towner
High-grade gliomas such as glioblastomas (GBM) present a deadly prognosis following diagnosis and very few effective treatment options. Here, we investigate if the small molecule AG488 can be an effective therapy against GBM with both anti-angiogenic as well as an anti-microtubule inhibiting modalities, using a human G55 glioma xenograft model in nude mice. From in vitro studies, we report that AG488 incubation reduced cell viability in G55 and HMEC-1 cells more so than TMZ treatment, and AG488 treatment also decreased cell viability in normal astrocytes, but not as much as for G55 cells (p<0...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615623/proboscis-infection-route-of-beauveria-bassiana-triggers-early-death-of-anopheles-mosquito
#5
Minehiro Ishii, Hirotaka Kanuka, Athanase Badolo, N'Falé Sagnon, Wamdaogo M Guelbeogo, Masanori Koike, Daigo Aiuchi
Entomopathogenic fungi are known to control vector mosquito populations. Thus, understanding the infection dynamics of entomopathogenic fungi is crucial for the effective control of insect pests such as mosquitoes. We investigated the dynamics of Beauveria bassiana s.l. 60-2 infection of Anopheles stephensi by exposing the mosquito to fungus-impregnated filter paper through two infection routes and then comparing the mortality and extent of infection. Fungal development was observed after using this inoculation method with both the tarsus route and the proboscis route, but early mosquito death occurred only after infection through the proboscis route...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614080/legal-briefing-unwanted-cesareans-and-obstetric-violence
#6
Thaddeus Mason Pope
A capacitated pregnant woman has a nearly unqualified right to refuse a cesarean section. Her right to say "no" takes precedence over clinicians' preferences and even over clinicians' concerns about fetal health. Leading medical societies, human rights organizations, and appellate courts have all endorsed this principle. Nevertheless, clinicians continue to limit reproductive liberty by forcing and coercing women to have unwanted cesareans. This "Legal Briefing" reviews recent court cases involving this type of obstetric violence...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602010/closed-loop-regulation-of-arterial-pressure-after-acute-brain-death
#7
Kristian Soltesz, Trygve Sjöberg, Tomas Jansson, Rolf Johansson, Anders Robertsson, Audrius Paskevicius, Quiming Liao, Guangqi Qin, Stig Steen
The purpose of this concept study was to investigate the possibility of automatic mean arterial pressure (MAP) regulation in a porcine heart-beating brain death (BD) model. Hemodynamic stability of BD donors is necessary for maintaining acceptable quality of donated organs for transplantation. Manual stabilization is challenging, due to the lack of vasomotor function in BD donors. Closed-loop stabilization therefore has the potential of increasing availability of acceptable donor organs, and serves to indicate feasibility within less demanding patient groups...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601603/enhanced-classical-complement-pathway-activation-and-altered-phagocytosis-signaling-molecules-in-human-epilepsy
#8
Season K Wyatt, Thomas Witt, Nicholas M Barbaro, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Amy L Brewster
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is widely associated with seizures and epilepsy. Although microglial cells are professional phagocytes, less is known about the status of this phenotype in epilepsy. Recent evidence supports that phagocytosis-associated molecules from the classical complement (C1q-C3) play novel roles in microglia-mediated synaptic pruning. Interestingly, in human and experimental epilepsy, altered mRNA levels of complement molecules were reported. Therefore, to identify a potential role for complement and microglia in the synaptodendritic pathology of epilepsy, we determined the protein levels of classical complement proteins (C1q-C3) along with other phagocytosis signaling molecules in human epilepsy...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599959/photodynamic-process-induced-by-chloro-aluminum-phthalocyanine-nanoemulsion-in-glioblastoma
#9
Andrielle Castilho-Fernandes, Tácila G Lopes, Fernando L Primo, Marcelo R Pinto, Antonio C Tedesco
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a tumor characterized by rapid cell proliferation and migration. GBM constitutes the most aggressive and deadly type of brain tumor and is classified into several subtypes that show high resistance to conventional therapies. There are currently no curative treatments for malignant glioma despite the numerous advances in surgical techniques, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Therefore, alternative approaches are required to improve GBM treatment...
June 6, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596336/regenerating-optic-pathways-from-the-eye-to-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Bireswar Laha, Ben K Stafford, Andrew D Huberman
Humans are highly visual. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that connect the eyes to the brain, fail to regenerate after damage, eventually leading to blindness. Here, we review research on regeneration and repair of the optic system. Intrinsic developmental growth programs can be reactivated in RGCs, neural activity can enhance RGC regeneration, and functional reformation of eye-to-brain connections is possible, even in the adult brain. Transplantation and gene therapy may serve to replace or resurrect dead or injured retinal neurons...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592187/outcomes-of-organ-donation-in-brain-dead-patient-s-families-ethical-perspective
#11
Shamsi Ahmadian, Abolfazl Rahimi, Ebrahim Khaleghi
BACKGROUND: The families of brain-dead patients have a significant role in the process of decision making for organ donation. Organ donation is a traumatic experience. The ethical responsibility of healthcare systems respecting organ donation is far beyond the phase of decision making for donation. The principles of donation-related ethics require healthcare providers and organ procurement organizations to respect donor families and protect them against any probable harm. Given the difficult and traumatic nature of donation-related experience, understanding the outcomes of donation appears crucial...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582547/the-torc1-2-inhibitor-tak228-sensitizes-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors-to-cisplatin-induced-cytotoxicity
#12
Jeffrey A Rubens, Sabrina Z Wang, Antoinette Price, Melanie F Weingart, Sariah J Allen, Brent A Orr, Charles G Eberhart, Eric H Raabe
Background: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are deadly pediatric brain tumors driven by LIN28. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is activated in many deadly, drug-resistant cancers and governs important cellular functions such as metabolism and survival. LIN28 regulates mTOR in normal cells. We therefore hypothesized that mTOR is activated downstream of LIN28 in AT/RT, and the brain-penetrating mTOR complex 1 and 2 (mTORC1/2) kinase inhibitor TAK228 would reduce AT/RT tumorigenicity...
June 3, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580337/neural-network-based-learning-kernel-for-automatic-segmentation-of-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-images
#13
H Khastavaneh, H Ebrahimpour-Komleh
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative disease of central nervous system. MS patients have some dead tissues in their brains called MS lesions. MRI is an imaging technique sensitive to soft tissues such as brain that shows MS lesions as hyper-intense or hypo-intense signals. Since manual segmentation of these lesions is a laborious and time consuming task, automatic segmentation is a need. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to segment MS lesions, a method based on learning kernels has been proposed...
June 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573190/randomized-trial-of-machine-perfusion-versus-cold-storage-in-recipients-of-deceased-donor-kidney-transplants-with-high-incidence-of-delayed-graft-function
#14
Helio Tedesco-Silva, Juliano Chrystian Mello Offerni, Vanessa Ayres Carneiro, Mayara Ivani de Paula, Elias David Neto, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho Lemos, Lúcio Roberto Requião Moura, Alvaro Pacheco E Silva Filho, Mirian de Fátima de Morais Cunha, Erica Francisco da Silva, Luiz Antonio Miorin, Daniela Priscila Demetrio, Paulo Sérgio Luconi, Waldere Tania da Silva Luconi, Savina Adriana Bobbio, Liz Milstein Kuschnaroff, Irene Lourdes Noronha, Sibele Lessa Braga, Renata Cristina Barsante, João Cezar Mendes Moreira, Ida Maria Maximina Fernandes-Charpiot, Mario Abbud-Filho, Luis Gustavo Modelli de Andrade, Paula Dalsoglio Garcia, Luciana Tanajura Santamaria Saber, Alan Fernandes Laurindo, Pedro Renato Chocair, Américo Lourenço Cuvello Neto, Juliana Aparecida Zanocco, Antonio Jose Duboc de Almeida Soares Filho, Wilson Ferreira Aguiar, Jose Medina Pestana
BACKGROUND: This study compared the use of static cold storage versus continuous hypothermic machine perfusion in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients at high risk for delayed graft function (DGF). METHODS: In this national, multicenter, and controlled trial, 80 pairs of kidneys recovered from brain-dead deceased donors were randomized to cold storage or machine perfusion, transplanted, and followed up for 12 months. The primary endpoint was the incidence of DGF...
May 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567523/bystander-mechanism-for-complement-initiated-early-oligodendrocyte-injury-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#15
Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Xiaoming Yao, Tao Su, Alex J Smith, Alan S Verkman
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (herein called NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in which immunoglobulin G antibodies against astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) cause demyelination and neurological deficit. Injury to oligodendrocytes, which do not express AQP4, links the initiating pathogenic event of AQP4-IgG binding to astrocyte AQP4 to demyelination. Here, we report evidence for a complement 'bystander mechanism' to account for early oligodendrocyte injury in NMO in which activated, soluble complement proteins following AQP4-IgG binding to astrocyte AQP4 result in deposition of the complement membrane attack complex (MAC) on nearby oligodendrocytes...
July 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548570/embolic-mycotic-encephalitis-in-a-cow-following-mortierella-wolfii-infection-of-a-surgery-site
#16
Benjamin Curtis, Charlotte Hollinger, Ailam Lim, Matti Kiupel
A 5-y-old Holstein dairy cow had surgery for a suspected displaced abomasum 10 d postpartum, developed acute neurologic signs at day 19, and was found dead 21 d postpartum. At autopsy, there was a peri-incisional intramuscular abscess that communicated with the peritoneal cavity, as well as hemorrhage and malacia involving the brain, and multiple nodules in the liver, kidneys, and lungs. Fungal hyphae were seen histologically at the surgery site, on the surface of the liver, and in lesions of severe necrotizing vasculitis in the lungs, kidneys, brain, and liver...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545090/neotropical-bats-that-co-habit-with-humans-function-as-dead-end-hosts-for-dengue-virus
#17
Amanda Vicente-Santos, Andres Moreira-Soto, Claudio Soto-Garita, Luis Guillermo Chaverri, Andrea Chaves, Jan Felix Drexler, Juan Alberto Morales, Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón, Bernal Rodríguez-Herrera, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar
Several studies have shown Dengue Virus (DENV) nucleic acids and/or antibodies present in Neotropical wildlife including bats, suggesting that some bat species may be susceptible to DENV infection. Here we aim to elucidate the role of house-roosting bats in the DENV transmission cycle. Bats were sampled in households located in high and low dengue incidence regions during rainy and dry seasons in Costa Rica. We captured 318 bats from 12 different species in 29 households. Necropsies were performed in 205 bats to analyze virus presence in heart, lung, spleen, liver, intestine, kidney, and brain tissue...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541557/live-or-let-die-fine-margins-between-life-and-death-in-a-brain-dead-pregnancy
#18
Rob Heywood
In PP v Health Service Executive, the Irish High Court was recently asked to decide on the lawfulness of maintaining somatic treatment that was being provided to a brain-dead woman who was 15-weeks pregnant. In delivering judgment, Kearns P held that the treatment should not be maintained and that the artificial support being provided to the woman could lawfully be withdrawn. The legal basis for this ruling, however, is not free from criticism. The focus of this discussion is to consider how an English court would deal with a case similar to this should the need ever arise...
May 24, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534953/proteomic-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-kidneys-of-brain-dead-rabbits
#19
Ling Li, Ning Li, Chongxiang He, Wei Huang, Xiaoli Fan, Zibiao Zhong, Yanfeng Wang, Qifa Ye
A large number of previous clinical studies have reported a delayed graft function for brain dead donors, when compared with living relatives or cadaveric organ transplantations. However, there is no accurate method for the quality evaluation of kidneys from brain‑dead donors. In the present study, two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI‑TOF MS‑based comparative proteomic analysis were conducted to profile the differentially‑expressed proteins between brain death and the control group renal tissues...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529554/novel-drugs-in-pediatric-gliomas
#20
Dongli Zhang, Xiaoming Liu, Conghai Fan, Jiao Chen
Astrocytomas (gliomas) are the most common primary brain tumors among adults and second most frequent neoplasm among children. New ideas and novel approaches are being explored world over with aim to devise better management strategeies for this deadly pathological state. We searched the electronic database PubMed for pre-clinical as well as clinical controlled trials reporting importance of various therapeutic drugs against gliomas. It was observed clearly that this approach of using therapeutic drugs is clearly evolving and has been observed to be promising future therapeutic avenue against gliomas...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
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