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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034362/lipid-droplets-potential-biomarker-and-metabolic-target-in-glioblastoma
#1
Feng Geng, Deliang Guo
Lipid droplets (LDs) are subcellular organelles that store large amounts of the neutral lipids, triglycerides (TG) and/or cholesteryl esters (CE). LDs are commonly formed in adipocytes, liver cells and macrophages, and their formation has been shown to be associated with the progression of metabolic diseases, i.e., obesity, fatty liver and atherosclerosis. Interestingly, LDs are also found in some tumor tissues. We recently showed that LDs are prevalent in glioblastoma (GBM), the most deadly brain tumor, but are not detectable in low-grade gliomas and normal brain tissues, suggesting that LDs may serve as a novel diagnostic biomarker for GBM...
May 2017: Internal Medicine Review (Washington, D.C.: Online)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027859/quantitative-cerebral-blood-flow-using-xenon-enhanced-ct-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Aditya Vedantam, Claudia S Robertson, Shankar P Gopinath
OBJECTIVE Few studies have reported on changes in quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) after decompressive craniectomy and the impact of these measures on clinical outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate global and regional CBF patterns in relation to cerebral hemodynamic parameters in patients after decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS The authors studied clinical and imaging data of patients who underwent xenon-enhanced CT (XeCT) CBF studies after decompressive craniectomy for evacuation of a mass lesion and/or to relieve intractable intracranial hypertension...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026666/bedside-twist-drill-aspiration-of-cerebral-abscess-less-than-2-5-cm-in-size-a-case-series-and-discussion
#3
Tyler Carson, Dan Miulli
BACKGROUND: Intracranial abscess remains a potentially deadly condition despite development of newer antibiotics and improved surgical methods. Many studies have evaluated the surgical indications for abscess drainage, and it has been generally accepted that intracranial abscesses greater than 2.5 cm may best be treated with surgical intervention followed by antibiotic therapy. More recently, studies have shown good results with stereotactic aspiration of abscesses to 1 cm in size. Furthermore, a recent case series in 2014 of 103 cases of bedside twist drill aspiration of cerebral abscess >2...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994788/evaluating-primary-blast-effects-in-vitro
#4
Niall J Logan, Hari Arora, Claire A Higgins
Exposure to blast events can cause severe trauma to vital organs such as the lungs, ears, and brain. Understanding the mechanisms behind such blast-induced injuries is of great importance considering the recent trend towards the use of explosives in modern warfare and terrorist-related incidents. To fully understand blast-induced injury, we must first be able to replicate such blast events in a controlled environment using a reproducible method. In this technique using shock tube equipment, shock waves at a range of pressures can be propagated over live cells grown in 2D, and markers of cell viability can be immediately analyzed using a redox indicator assay and the fluorescent imaging of live and dead cells...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987174/raised-intracranial-pressure-and-brain-edema
#5
Ville Leinonen, Ritva Vanninen, Tuomas Rauramaa
Acutely increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a life-threatening neurosurgical emergency. Optimal management strategy is selected according to the causative process. Typical causes are intracranial bleeds like traumatic subdural, epidural, or intracerebral hematoma (ICH); spontaneous ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. When occurring without significant brain injury and treated effectively before herniation, a full recovery can be expected. In intraparenchymal injuries a full recovery is unlikely since dead cells in the central nervous system leave an "empty hole," to be replaced by cerebrospinal fluid...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982695/use-and-outcomes-of-kidneys-from-donation-after-circulatory-death-donors-in-the-united-states
#6
John Gill, Caren Rose, Julie Lesage, Yayuk Joffres, Jagbir Gill, Kevin O'Connor
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are an important source of kidneys for transplantation, but DCD donor transplantation is less common in the United States than in other countries. In this study of national data obtained between 2008 and 2015, recovery of DCD kidneys varied substantially among the country's 58 donor service areas, and 25% of DCD kidneys were recovered in only four donor service areas. Overall, 20% of recovered DCD kidneys were discarded, varying from 3% to 33% among donor service areas...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980391/the-duration-of-asystolic-ischemia-time-determines-the-risk-of-graft-failure-after-circulatory-dead-donor-kidney-transplantation-a-eurotransplant-cohort-study
#7
L Heylen, I Jochmans, U Samuel, I Tieken, M Naesens, J Pirenne, B Sprangers
Circulatory death donor (DCD) kidney transplantations are steadily increasing. Consensus reports recommend to limit donor warm ischemia time (DWIT) in DCD donation, although an independent effect on graft outcome has not been demonstrated. We investigated death-censored graft survival in 18,065 recipients of deceased-donor kidney transplants in the Eurotransplant region: 1,059 DCD and 17,006 brain-dead donor (DBD) kidney recipients. DWIT was defined as time from circulatory arrest until cold flush. DCD donation was an independent risk factor for graft failure (adjusted HR 1...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973155/high-throughput-screening-uncovers-mirnas-enhancing-glioblastoma-cell-susceptibility-to-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#8
Pedro P Cunha, Pedro M Costa, Catarina M Morais, Inês R Lopes, Ana M Cardoso, Ana L Cardoso, Miguel Mano, Amália S Jurado, Maria C Pedroso de Lima
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly and therapy resistant malignant brain tumour, characterized by an aggressive and diffuse growth pattern, which prevents complete surgical resection. Despite advances in the identification of genomic and molecular alterations that fuel the tumour, average patient survival post-diagnosis remains very low (∼14.6-months). In addition to being highly heterogeneous, GBM tumour cells exhibit high adaptive capacity to targeted molecular therapies owing to an established network of signalling cascades with functional redundancy, which provides them with robust compensatory survival mechanisms...
August 16, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964406/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pericallosal-artery-aneurysms
#9
Guo-Qing Sun, Shi-Gang Jin, Ting-Kai Fu, Xiang-Tao Chen, Zhen Xu
OBJECTIVE: Pericallosal artery aneurysms are not common clinically. The microsurgery and endovascular therapy are surgically challenging operations. The objective of the study is to summarize their clinical symptoms and optimal treatment strategies of pericallosal artery aneurysms. METHODS: Nine cases of pericallosal artery aneurysms detected by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were reviewed. The clinical manifestation, brain imaging characteristics, and optimal treatment methods were summarized...
September 22, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958705/twenty-years-of-lung-transplantation-in-taiwan-effects-of-cumulative-institutional-experience-on-early-outcomes
#10
Shun-Mao Yang, Shu-Chien Huang, Shuenn-Wen Kuo, Pei-Ming Huang, Po-Ni Hsiao, Ke-Cheng Chen, Mong-Wei Lin, Sung-Ching Pan, Jui-Hsiang Lin, Ya-Jung Cheng, Jang-Ming Lee, Hsao-Hsun Hsu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Lung transplantation in Taiwan began in 1991, but the experience was limited and diverse in the early years. We examined the cumulative institutional experience of the largest lung transplant cohort in Taiwan. METHODS: A retrospective review of lung transplantations performed at a single institution from December 1995 through August 2016 was conducted. For comparative purposes, the cohort was divided into halves, with an early group (undergoing lung transplantation in the first decade) vs a late group (undergoing lung transplantation in the second decade)...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957014/clinical-and-pathologic-characterization-of-an-outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h7n8-in-commercial-turkeys-in-southern-indiana
#11
Grant N Burcham, José A Ramos-Vara, Duane A Murphy
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a systemic lethal disease of poultry caused by several subtypes of influenza A virus and classified on the basis of serologic reactions to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins. In January 2016, a novel subtype of HPAI-H7N8-was diagnosed in a commercial turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) flock in southern Indiana. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, dyspnea, head tremors, recumbency, and somnolent or unaware birds. Postmortem examination of six recently dead birds showed red-tinged mucous in the choana and trachea and marked pulmonary edema...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954604/untapped-potential-in-australian-hospitals-for-organ-donation-after-circulatory-death
#12
Sandeep S Rakhra, Helen I Opdam, Laura Gladkis, Byron Arcia, Michael A Fink, John Kanellis, Peter S Macdonald, Gregory I Snell, David V Pilcher
OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential for organ donation after circulatory death (DCD) in Australia by applying ideal and expanded organ suitability criteria, and to compare this potential with actual DCD rates. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Setting, methods: We analysed DonateLife audit data for patients aged 28 days to 80 years who died between July 2012 and December 2014 in an intensive care unit or emergency department, or who died within 24 hours of discharge from either, in the 75 Australian hospitals contributing data to DonateLife...
September 2, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945476/assessment-of-lungs-for-transplant-recovered-from-uncontrolled-donation-after-circulatory-determination-of-death-donors
#13
Thomas Egan, John Blackwell, Katherine Birchard, Benjamin Haithcock, Jason Long, Stephen Gazda, Nissa Casey, Caitlin Thys
RATIONALE: To address the lung donor shortage, we obtained institutional review board and US Food and Drug Administration approval to transplant lungs recovered from uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death donors (uDCDDs). OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes of recipients of lungs recovered from uDCDDs vs. brain-dead donors. METHODS: After consent and screening, lungs recovered from uDCDDs were assessed by 4 hours ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) and computed tomography (CT) scan...
September 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941173/the-influence-of-hyaluronic-acid-and-glioblastoma-cell-coculture-on-the-formation-of-endothelial-cell-networks-in-gelatin-hydrogels
#14
Mai T Ngo, Brendan A Harley
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly form of brain cancer. Interactions between GBM cells and vasculature in vivo contribute to poor clinical outcomes, with GBM-induced vessel co-option, regression, and subsequent angiogenesis strongly influencing GBM invasion. Here, elements of the GBM perivascular niche are incorporated into a methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin hydrogel as a means to examine GBM-vessel interactions. The complexity of 3D endothelial cell networks formed from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and normal human lung fibroblasts as a function of hydrogel properties and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) presentation is presented...
September 22, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932926/donor-indocyanine-green-clearance-test-predicts-graft-quality-and-early-graft-prognosis-after-liver-transplantation
#15
Yunhua Tang, Ming Han, Maogen Chen, Xiaoping Wang, Fei Ji, Qiang Zhao, Zhiheng Zhang, Weiqiang Ju, Dongping Wang, Zhiyong Guo, Xiaoshun He
BACKGROUND: Transplantation centers have given much attention to donor availability. However, no reliable quantitative methods have been employed to accurately assess graft quality before transplantation. Here, we report that the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test is a valuable index for liver grafts. METHODS: We performed the ICG clearance test on 90 brain-dead donors within 6 h before organ procurement between March 2015 and November 2016. We also analyzed the relationship between graft liver function and early graft survival after liver transplantation (LT)...
September 20, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930865/presence-of-human-herpesvirus-6b-in-the-pancreas-of-subjects-with-and-without-type-1-diabetes
#16
Maja Ericsson, Oskar Skog
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) A and B in human pancreata and to search for signs of active infection in this organ of subjects with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Pancreata from brain-dead organ donors with and without T1D were examined for the presence of HHV6 genomic sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcripts by reverse transcriptase-PCR, and protein by immunohistochemistry...
September 19, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924465/brain-dead-donation-rate-in-month-of-ramadan-and-the-other-months-2005-2014
#17
M Aghighi, M Mahdavi-Mazdeh, M Saberi Isfeedvajani, S A Tavakoli, N Tirgar, A Heidary Rouchi
Regardless of the level of development, religion and beliefs have crucial impact on people's attitude towards organ donation. Although organ donation in Islam is obviously appraised, mainly due to lack of an appropriate infrastructure, post-mortem donation rate in Islamic countries is not comparable to successful settings. We conducted this study to assess the extent of contribution of factors that reduce the level of effectiveness, and also to determine the impact of altruistic feelings in the month of Ramadan on family refusal as the leading modifiable contributor to organ donation rate...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923612/deceased-organ-donation-from-pediatric-donors-does-the-literature-really-help-us-implication-for-more-powerful-guidelines
#18
M Mojtabaee, F Sadegh Beigee, F Ghorbani
BACKGROUND: Brain-dead pediatric donors have always been the focus of attention because of the higher quality, utility, and possibility of their organ donation. However, donors under the age of 5 years always necessitate making more challenging management efforts, which are not clearly implied in most parts of the guidelines. METHODS: The data obtained from 79 brain-dead pediatric donors of the Organ Procurement Unit of Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were assessed...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923611/cerebral-oximetry-as-an-auxiliary-diagnostic-tool-in-the-diagnosis-of-brain-death
#19
O Tatli, O Bekar, M Imamoglu, O Gonenc Cekic, A Aygun, U Eryigit, Y Karaca, A Sahin, S Turkmen, S Turedi
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of cerebral oximetry (CO) as an auxiliary diagnostic tool in brain death (BD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational case-control study was performed on patients with suspected BD. Patients with diagnosis of BD confirmed by the brain death committee were enrolled as the BD group and other patients as the non-BD group. CO monitoring was performed at least 6 h, and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (ScO2) parameters were compared...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919161/magnetic-resonance-elastography-of-the-brain-a-comparison-between-pigs-and-humans
#20
Johannes Weickenmeier, Mehmet Kurt, Efe Ozkaya, Max Wintermark, Kim Butts Pauly, Ellen Kuhl
Magnetic resonance elastography holds promise as a non-invasive, easy-to-use, in vivo biomarker for neurodegenerative diseases. Throughout the past decade, pigs have gained increased popularity as large animal models for human neurodegeneration. However, the volume of a pig brain is an order of magnitude smaller than the human brain, its skull is 40% thicker, and its head is about twice as big. This raises the question to which extent established vibration devices, actuation frequencies, and analysis tools for humans translate to large animal studies in pigs...
August 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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