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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236919/evidence-of-progenitor-cells-in-the-adult-human-cochlea-sphere-formation-and-identification-of-abcg2
#1
Milene Massucci-Bissoli, Karina Lezirovitz, Jeanne Oiticica, Ricardo Ferreira Bento
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search for evidence of stem or progenitor cells in the adult human cochlea by testing for sphere formation capacity and the presence of the stem cell marker ABCG2. METHODS: Cochleas removed from patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma resection (n=2) and from brain-dead organ donors (n=4) were dissociated for either flow cytometry analysis for the stem cell marker ABCG2 or a sphere formation assay that is widely used to test the sphere-forming capacity of cells from mouse inner ear tissue...
November 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226765/never-declared-brain-dead-potential-organ-donors-an-additional-source-of-donor-organs
#2
Patricia A Webster, Lori E Markham
CONTEXT: Patients never declared brain dead may represent an additional source of donor organs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of likely brain dead potential donors who are never declared brain dead and to compare them with brain dead and donation after cardiac death potential organ donors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was a retrospective chart review of all catastrophically brain-injured patients referred to a single-organ procurement organization (OPO) over a 4-year period...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221321/living-related-lung-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Hiroshi Date
Living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) was developed to deal with the severe shortage of brain dead door for patients who would not survive the long waiting period. In standard LDLLT, right and left lower lobes removed from two healthy donors are implanted into a recipient after right and left pneumonectomies using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The number of LDLLT has decreased in the USA due to the recent change in allocation system for cadaveric donor lungs. For the past several years, most of the reports on LDLLT have been from Japan, where the average waiting time for a cadaveric lung is exceeding 800 days...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201852/chronic-brain-dead-patients-who-exhibit-lazarus-sign
#4
Ji Won Moon, Dong Keun Hyun
Lazarus sign, a complex reflex movement of the upper limbs after brain death, is a rare occurrence. We report two patients who showed a Lazarus sign following a diagnosis of brain death. It has been accepted that cardiac arrest usually occurs within 1 week after brain death; however, the two patients described herein survived for over 100 days after brain death was diagnosed. This report is intended to examine the relationship between the Lazarus sign and long-term survival after brain death, as well as to share our rare experience...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198657/association-of-brain-dead-donors-terminal-inflammation-with-delayed-graft-function-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#5
D Cucchiari, J Rovira, D Paredes, P Ventura-Aguiar, A Sanchez-Escuredo, M Solé, R Adalia, F Oppenheimer, F Diekmann, I Revuelta
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation affects kidney function in a wide range of diseases. Even in kidney transplant recipients, higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are invariably associated with both worse short- and long-term graft outcomes. However, little is known about systemic inflammation in kidney donors and, notably, brain death causes a strong systemic inflammatory response. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of systemic inflammation of brain-dead donors on short-term kidney graft outcomes (ie, delayed graft function [DGF], defined as the need of dialysis during the first week after transplantation)...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194344/direct-peritoneal-resuscitation-alters-leukocyte-infiltration-in-the-lung-after-acute-brain-death
#6
Jessica L Weaver, Paul J Matheson, Amy Matheson, Cynthia D Downard, R Neal Garrison, Jason W Smith
BACKGROUND: Brain death is associated with significant lung injury and inflammation. This has been associated with worse long-term outcomes for transplanted lungs. Direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) reduces systemic inflammation in brain death and improves lung procurement rate. The effect of DPR on macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lungs is not known. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats had a 4F Fogarty catheter inserted into the skull and the balloon inflated until brain death was achieved...
November 30, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194322/direct-peritoneal-resuscitation-reduces-intestinal-permeability-after-brain-death
#7
Jessica L Weaver, Paul J Matheson, Amy Matheson, Brian G Harbrecht, Cynthia D Downard, R Neal Garrison, Jason W Smith
BACKGROUND: The profound inflammatory response associated with brain death is frequently cited as the reason organs procured from brain dead donors are associated with worse graft function. The intestine releases inflammatory mediators in other types of shock, but its role is brain death has not been well-studied. Direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) improves visceral organ blood flow and reduces inflammation after hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that use of DPR would maintain intestinal integrity and reduce circulating inflammatory mediators after brain death...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192501/all-organic-label-like-copper-ii-ions-fluorescent-film-sensors-with-high-sensitivity-and-stretchability
#8
Mengjer Wu, Hsiu-Hao Hu, Chen-Zih Siao, Yu-Ming Liao, Jyun-Han Chen, Ming-Yang Li, Tai-Yuan Lin, Yang-Fang Chen
Deep learning and analysis of heavy metal concentration are very crucial to our life, for it plays an essential role in both environmental and human health. In this paper, we developed a new Cu (II) ions sensor made by all organic material with bending and stretching properties. The new sensor consists of chlorophyll-a extracted from fresh leaves of Common Garcinia, plant fiber and with the use of PDMS as a substrate. Fluorescence spectra study shows that chlorophyll-a is significantly much more sensitive to Cu (II) ions than any other heavy metal ions and the device sensitivity outperforms all the Cu (II) ions sensors ever reported...
December 1, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166539/an-unusual-cause-of-headache-and-sudden-death-of-a-young-sailor-postmortem-computed-tomography-and-histological-findings-of-a-fatal-retroperitoneal-malignant-mixed-germ-cell-tumor
#9
Belinda Lee, Michelle Chan, Ronald Goh
A 26-year-old Caucasian sailor, with no past medical history aside from headache for the last 1 week, was found dead in his cabin. The body was stored in a refrigerator on board and disembarked for autopsy 3 days later. Autopsy showed a large, nodular, necrotic and hemorrhagic retroperitoneal mass, and smaller hemorrhagic nodules in the brain, lungs, liver, and left kidney, with the brain being markedly edematous. Both testes were descended and normal. Histologically, the retroperitoneal mass showed a malignant mixed germ cell tumor comprising choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, and teratoma components...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166361/the-impact-of-hepatectomy-time-of-the-liver-graft-on-post-transplant-outcome-a-eurotransplant-cohort-study
#10
Ina Jochmans, Steffen Fieuws, Ineke Tieken, Undine Samuel, Jacques Pirenne
OBJECTIVE: Assessing the effect of donor hepatectomy time on outcome after transplantation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: When blood supply in a deceased organ donor stops, ischemic injury starts. Livers are cooled to reduce cellular metabolism and minimize ischemic injury. This cooling is slow and livers are lukewarm during hepatectomy, potentially affecting outcome. METHODS: We used the Eurotransplant Registry to investigate the relationship between donor hepatectomy time and post-transplant outcome in 12,974 recipients of deceased-donor livers (January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2013)...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165393/the-role-of-hypoxia-in-glioblastoma-invasion
#11
REVIEW
Ana Rita Monteiro, Richard Hill, Geoffrey J Pilkington, Patrícia A Madureira
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient's median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI image analysis, followed by radiotherapy and treatment with temozolomide. However, the gradual development of tumor resistance to temozolomide is frequent in GBM patients leading to subsequent tumor regrowth/relapse. For this reason, the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for GBM is of critical importance...
November 22, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158366/therapeutic-anticoagulation-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-or-secondary-brain-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Richard J Lin, David L Green, Gunjan L Shah
Patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors are at increased risk of developing venous thromboses. However, the potential benefit of therapeutic anticoagulation in these patients must be weighed against the deadly complication of intracranial hemorrhage. In this review, we summarize available evidence and recent studies of intracranial bleeding risks in primary and metastatic tumors and the impact of therapeutic anticoagulation. We find that for the majority of primary and treated metastatic brain tumors, the risk of spontaneous bleeding is acceptable and not further increased by careful therapeutic anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin or direct oral anticoagulants, although thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 50,000/μL) and other coagulopathies are relative contraindications...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136505/inhibition-of-trf1-telomere-protein-impairs-tumor-initiation-and-progression-in-glioblastoma-mouse-models-and-patient-derived-xenografts
#13
Leire Bejarano, Alberto J Schuhmacher, Marinela Méndez, Diego Megías, Carmen Blanco-Aparicio, Sonia Martínez, Joaquín Pastor, Massimo Squatrito, Maria A Blasco
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly and common brain tumor. Poor prognosis is linked to high proliferation and cell heterogeneity, including glioma stem cells (GSCs). Telomere genes are frequently mutated. The telomere binding protein TRF1 is essential for telomere protection, and for adult and pluripotent stem cells. Here, we find TRF1 upregulation in mouse and human GBM. Brain-specific Trf1 genetic deletion in GBM mouse models inhibited GBM initiation and progression, increasing survival. Trf1 deletion increased telomeric DNA damage and reduced proliferation and stemness...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135607/targeting-the-perivascular-niche-in-brain-tumors
#14
Giorgio Seano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132540/current-strategies-for-the-delivery-of-therapeutic-proteins-and-enzymes-to-treat-brain-disorders
#15
Jason T Duskey, Daniela Belletti, Francesca Pederzoli, Maria Angela Vandelli, Flavio Forni, Barbara Ruozi, Giovanni Tosi
Brain diseases and injuries are growing to be one of the most deadly and costly medical conditions in the world. Unfortunately, current treatments are incapable of ameliorating the symptoms let alone curing the diseases. Many brain diseases have been linked to a loss of function in a protein or enzyme, increasing research for improving their delivery. This is no easy task due to the delicate nature of proteins and enzymes in biological conditions, as well as the many barriers that exist in the body ranging from those in circulation to the more specific barriers to enter the brain...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129151/false-positive-diagnosis-of-brain-death-following-the-pediatric-guidelines-case-report-and-discussion
#16
D Alan Shewmon
A 2-year-old boy with severe head trauma was diagnosed brain dead according to the 2011 Pediatric Guidelines. Computed tomographic (CT) scan showed massive cerebral edema with herniation. Intracranial pressures were extremely high, with cerebral perfusion pressures around 0 for several hours. An apnea test was initially contraindicated; later, one had to be terminated due to oxygen desaturation when the Pco2 had risen to 57.9 mm Hg. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was probably isoelectric but formally interpreted as equivocal...
December 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129044/anti-sema3a-antibody-a-novel-therapeutic-agent-to-suppress-gbm-tumor-growth
#17
Jaehyun Lee, Yong Jae Shin, Kyoungmin Lee, Hee Jin Cho, Jason K Sa, Sang-Yun Lee, Seok-Hyung Kim, Jeongwu Lee, Yeup Yoon, Do-Hyun Nam
Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM) is classified as one of the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor. Great strides have been made in understanding the genomic and molecular underpinnings of GBM, which translated into development of new therapeutic approaches to combat such deadly disease. However, there are only few therapeutic agents that can effectively inhibit GBM invasion in a clinical framework. In an effort to address such challenges, we have generated anti-SEMA3A monoclonal antibody as a potential therapeutic antibody against GBM progression...
November 10, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128047/use-of-lung-allografts-from-donation-after-cardiac-death-donors-a-single-center-experience
#18
Joseph Costa, Lori Shah, Hilary Robbins, Kashif Raza, Sowmya Sreekandth, Selim Arcasoy, Joshua R Sonett, Frank D'Ovidio
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation remains the only treatment for end-stage lung disease. Availability of suitable lungs does not parallel this growing trend. Centers using donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor lungs report comparable outcomes with those from brain-dead donors. Donor assessment protocols and consistent surgical teams have been advocated when considering using the use of DCD donors. We present our experience using lungs from Maastricht category III DCD donors. METHODS: Starting 2007 to July 2016, 73 DCD donors were assessed, 44 provided suitable lungs that resulted in 46 transplants...
November 8, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128023/evaluation-and-management-of-the-potential-lung-donor
#19
REVIEW
Andrew Courtwright, Edward Cantu
The expansion of the donor lung pool has involved an evidence-driven redefinition of acceptable donors. Proceeding with transplantation with an acceptable rather than ideal donor depends on specific patient-related and organ-related risk factors as well as the severity of recipient illness. Although the physiologic optimization of brain-dead donors has not changed significantly in recent years, the use of donor management protocols has improved procurement rates. Ex vivo lung perfusion is an increasingly viable strategy to recondition lungs that would otherwise fall below the acceptable threshold for transplant...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127725/a-loss-of-function-homozygous-mutation-in-ddx59-implicates-a-conserved-dead-box-rna-helicase-in-nervous-system-development-and-function
#20
Vincenzo Salpietro, Stephanie Efthymiou, Andreea Manole, Bhawana Maurya, Sarah Wiethoff, Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar, Maria Concetta Cutrupi, Valeria Dipasquale, Sara Manti, Juan A Botia, Mina Ryten, Jana Vandrovcova, Oscar D Bello, Conceicao Bettencourt, Kshitij Mankad, Ashim Mukherjee, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Henry Houlden
We report on a homozygous frameshift deletion in DDX59 (c.185del: p.Phe62fs*13) in a family presenting with oro-facio-digital syndrome phenotype associated to a broad neurological involvement characterized by microcephaly, intellectual disability, epilepsy, and white matter signal abnormalities associated with cortical and sub-cortical ischemic events. DDX59 encodes a DEAD-box RNA helicase and its role in brain function and neurological diseases is unclear. We showed a reduction of mutant cDNA and perturbation of SHH signalling from patient-derived cell lines; furthermore, analysis of human brain gene expression provides evidence that DDX59 is enriched in oligodendrocytes and might act within pathways of leukoencephalopathies associated genes...
November 11, 2017: Human Mutation
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