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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078616/physician-power-to-declare-death-by-neurologic-criteria-threatened
#1
Ariane Lewis, Thaddeus Mason Pope
BACKGROUND: Three recent lawsuits that address declaration of brain death (BD) garnered significant media attention and threaten to limit physician power to declare BD. METHODS: We discuss these cases and their consequences including: the right to refuse an apnea test, accepted medical standards for declaration of BD, and the irreversibility of BD. RESULTS: These cases warrant discussion because they threaten to: limit physicians' power to determine death; incite families to seek injunctions to continue organ support after BD; and force hospitals to dispense valuable resources to dead patients in lieu of patients with reparable illnesses or injuries...
January 11, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074434/lessons-learned-from-the-world-s-first-successful-penis-allotransplantation
#2
REVIEW
Andre van der Merwe, Amir Zarrabi, Alexander Zühlke, Nicola Barsdorf, Rafique Moosa
We performed a successful penis allotransplantation on 11 December 2014. Sharing the lessons learned might help more patients in need to be treated this way. We divided the project into manageable segments that was each overseen by an expert. The ethical review and conduct paved the way for a publically acceptable and successful project. Screening for a psychological stable recipient is important. The most difficult part of the project was finding a donor penis. This was successfully negotiated with the family of a brain dead donor by creating a neo-phallus for the donor, thereby maintaining the dignity of the donor...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074227/heavy-metals-in-liver-and-brain-of-waterfowl-from-the-evros-delta-greece
#3
Maria Aloupi, Asimina Karagianni, Savas Kazantzidis, Triantaphyllos Akriotis
The concentrations of six heavy metals (cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], manganese [Mn], lead [Pb], and zinc [Zn]) were determined in liver and brain of nine species of waterfowl from the Evros Delta, one of the most important wetlands in Greece, to assess metal contamination and potential risk to waterfowl. Significant differences among species were found for hepatic Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn; the highest levels of all metals were found in liver of mute swans. Cd increased significantly with age in both organs of wigeon; some differences were also observed between males and females of the same species...
January 10, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072755/strategies-for-an-expanded-use-of-kidneys-from-elderly-donors
#4
María José Pérez-Sáez, Nuria Montero, Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Marta Crespo, Julio Pascual
The old-for-old allocation policy used for kidney transplantation (KT) has confirmed the survival benefit compared to remaining listed on dialysis. Shortage of standard donors has stimulated the development of strategies aimed to expand acceptance criteria, particularly of kidneys from elderly donors. We have systematically reviewed the literature on those different strategies. In addition to the review of outcomes of expanded criteria donor (ECD) or advanced age kidneys, we assessed the value of the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) policy, preimplantation biopsy, dual KT, machine perfusion and special immunosuppressive protocols...
January 9, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070885/barriers-toward-organ-donation-in-a-danish-university-hospital
#5
P Sørensen, S J Kousgaard
BACKGROUND: In Denmark, organ donation-rates are below the average in the western countries. We investigated the donor potential and identified barriers toward organ donation in a Danish university hospital. METHODS: All patients who died in Aalborg University Hospital in 2012 were retrospectively identified. Patients with a CT- or MRI-proven deadly brain-lesion were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients with deadly brain-lesions were included, and of these 47 patients died in the intensive care unit (ICU)...
January 10, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062709/trifluoperazine-a-well-known-antipsychotic-inhibits-glioblastoma-invasion-by-binding-to-calmodulin-and-disinhibiting-calcium-release-channel-ip3r
#6
Seokmin Kang, Jinpyo Hong, Jung Moo Lee, Hyo Eun Moon, Borami Jeon, Jungil Choi, Nal Ae Yoon, Sun Ha Paek, Eun Joo Roh, C Justin Lee, Sang Soo Kang
Calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling is an important signaling process, implicated in cancer cell proliferation and motility of the deadly glioblastomas that aggressively invade neighboring brain tissue. We have previously demonstrated that caffeine blocks glioblastoma invasion and extends survival by inhibiting Ca(2+) release channel inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) subtype 3. Trifluoperazine (TFP) is an FDA-approved antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia. Interestingly, TFP has been recently reported to show a strong anticancer effect on lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and T-cell lymphoma...
January 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062227/interleukin-1%C3%AE-secreted-from-betanodavirus-infected-microglia-caused-the-death-of-neurons-in-giant-grouper-brains
#7
Yu-Hui Chiang, Yu-Chi Wu, Shau-Chi Chi
High interleukin (IL)-1β gene expression was observed in dead giant grouper brains after nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. To investigate the neuronal death caused by NNV infection, primary tissue culture of giant grouper brains (pGB) was performed. In NNV-infected pGB cells, the viral capsid protein was detected in both neurons and microglia; furthermore, microglial proliferation and neuronal death were observed. The culture supernatant (CS) of NNV-infected pGB cells contained IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, which were mainly released from the microglia...
January 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060192/imaging-of-the-lungs-in-organ-donors-and-its-clinical-relevance-a-retrospective-analysis
#8
Gracijela Bozovic, Catharina Adlercreutz, Peter Höglund, Isabella Björkman-Burtscher, Peter Reinstrup, Richard Ingemansson, Cornelia Schaefer-Prokop, Roger Siemund, Mats Geijer
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic imaging that potential lung donors undergo, the reader variability of image interpretation and its relevance for donation, and the potential information gained from imaging studies not primarily intended for lung evaluation but partially including them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bedside chest radiography and computed tomography (CT), completely or incompletely including the lungs, of 110 brain-dead potential organ donors in a single institution during 2007 to 2014 were reviewed from a donation perspective...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056966/pseudorabies-virus-infection-aujeszky-s-disease-in-an-iberian-lynx-lynx-pardinus-in-spain-a-case-report
#9
A Javier Masot, María Gil, David Risco, Olga M Jiménez, José I Núñez, Eloy Redondo
BACKGROUND: The only natural hosts of Pseudorabies virus (PRV) are members of the family Suidae (Sus scrofa scrofa). In species other than suids infection is normally fatal. In these mammals, including carnivores, PRV typically causes serious neurologic disease. The endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a wild feline endemic to south-western Europe (Iberian Peninsula). The Iberian lynx was found to be the world's most endangered felid species in 2002. In wild felines, PRV infection has only been previously reported once in a Florida panther in 1994...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031256/organ-donation-after-medical-assistance-in-dying-or-cessation-of-life-sustaining-treatment-requested-by-conscious-patients-the-canadian-context
#10
Julie Allard, Marie-Chantal Fortin
In June 2016, following the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada to decriminalise assistance in dying, the Canadian government enacted Bill C-14, legalising medical assistance in dying (MAID). In 2014, the province of Quebec had passed end-of-life care legislation making MAID available as of December 2015. The availability of MAID has many implications, including the possibility of combining this practice with organ donation through the controlled donation after cardiac death (cDCD) protocol. cDCD most often occurs in cases where the patient has a severe neurological injury but does not meet all the criteria for brain death...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030647/correction-when-is-the-brain-dead-living-like-electrophysiological-responses-and-photon-emissions-from-applications-of-neurotransmitters-in-fixed-post-mortem-human-brains
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029074/a-rational-approach-to-target-the-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-glioblas
#12
Madan M Kwatra
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly brain cancer, and all attempts to control it have failed so far. However, the future looks bright, as we now know the molecular landscape of GBM through the work of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. GBMs exhibit significant inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity, and to control this type of tumor, a personalized approach is required. One target, whose gene is amplified and mutated in a large number of GBMs, is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). But all attempts to target it have been unsuccessful...
December 26, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028802/fatal-intoxication-with-%C3%AE-pvp-a-synthetic-cathinone-derivative
#13
Barbara Potocka-Banaś, Tomasz Janus, Sławomir Majdanik, Tomasz Banaś, Teresa Dembińska, Krzysztof Borowiak
This study presents the fatal case of a young man who was admitted to the ICAU due to sudden cardiac arrest. An interview revealed that the patient had taken some unspecified crystals. From the moment of admission, his condition deteriorated dramatically as a result of increasing circulatory insufficiency. After a few hours, sudden cardiac arrest occurred again and the patient was pronounced dead. In the course of a medicolegal autopsy, samples of biological material were preserved for toxicology tests and histopathological examination...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026196/unresolved-loss-a-risk-factor-for-offspring-predicts-event-related-potential-responses-to-death-related-imagery
#14
Naomi I Gribneau Bahm, Emiliana R Simon-Thomas, Mary Main, Erik Hesse
This study investigates whether individual differences in attachment status can be detected by electrophysiological responses to loss-themed pictures. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was used to identify discourse/reasoning lapses during the discussion of loss experiences via death that place speakers in the Unresolved/disorganized AAI category. In parents, Unresolved AAI status has been associated with Disorganized infant Strange Situation response, a known risk factor for psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing/dissociation)...
January 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019000/avian-and-simian-malaria-do-they-have-a-cancer-connection
#15
REVIEW
Martin Ward, Giovanni Benelli
It has been claimed that infectious agents transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) may have a greater connection to cancer then hitherto supposed and that the immune system struggles to recognize and fight some of these infectious agents. One of the claims made is that there is a connection between human malaria and brain cancers in the USA. However, the USA declared itself free of human malaria in the last century, yet cancer incidences remain high, suggesting any overall cancer connection is slight...
December 26, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008980/antiretroviral-treatment-with-efavirenz-disrupts-the-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-stroke-severity
#16
Luc Bertrand, Levi Dygert, Michal Toborek
The introduction of antiretroviral drugs (ARVd) changed the prognosis of HIV infection from a deadly disease to a chronic disease. However, even with undetectable viral loads, patients still develop a wide range of pathologies, including cerebrovascular complications and stroke. It is hypothesized that toxic side effects of ARVd may contribute to these effects. To address this notion, we evaluated the impact of several non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI; Efavirenz, Etravirine, Rilpivirine and Nevirapine) on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and their impact on severity of stroke...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004822/mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-biomarker-lipids-for-phagocytosis-and-signalling-during-focal-cerebral-ischaemia
#17
Mette M B Nielsen, Kate L Lambertsen, Bettina H Clausen, Morten Meyer, Dhaka R Bhandari, Søren T Larsen, Steen S Poulsen, Bernhard Spengler, Christian Janfelt, Harald S Hansen
Focal cerebral ischaemia has an initial phase of inflammation and tissue injury followed by a later phase of resolution and repair. Mass spectrometry imaging (desorption electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) was applied on brain sections from mice 2 h, 24 h, 5d, 7d, and 20d after permanent focal cerebral ischaemia. Within 24 h, N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines, lysophosphatidylcholine, and ceramide accumulated, while sphingomyelin disappeared. At the later resolution stages, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP(22:6/22:6)), 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, ceramide-phosphate, sphingosine-1-phosphate, lysophosphatidylserine, and cholesteryl ester appeared...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002793/next-generation-sequencing-of-vitreoretinal-lymphomas-from-small-volume-intraocular-liquid-biopsies-new-routes-to-targeted-therapies
#18
Andi K Cani, Daniel H Hovelson, Hakan Demirci, Mark W Johnson, Scott A Tomlins, Rajesh C Rao
BACKGROUND: Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL), the most common lymphoma of the eye, is a rare form of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Most frequently a high-grade diffuse large B cell lymphoma, VRL can cause vision loss and its prognosis remains dismal: the overall survival time is 3 years after diagnosis. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used but remain frequently ineffective, and no standardized treatment regimen exists. Furthermore, no biologically targeted treatments, based on the genetic profile of the tumor, are available, as VRL has hitherto not comprehensively been profiled...
December 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989433/complement-mediated-inflammation-and-injury-in-brain-dead-organ-donors
#19
Felix Poppelaars, Marc A Seelen
The importance of the complement system in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute rejection is widely recognized, however its contribution to the pathogenesis of tissue damage in the donor remains underexposed. Brain-dead (BD) organ donors are still the primary source of organs for transplantation. Brain death is characterized by hemodynamic changes, hormonal dysregulation, and immunological activation. Recently, the complement system has been shown to be involved. In BD organ donors, complement is activated systemically and locally and is an important mediator of inflammation and graft injury...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984215/psychosocial-evaluation-for-first-hand-allotransplantation-in-taiwan
#20
Nien-Mu Chiu, Yur-Ren Kuo, Yu Lee, Chien-Chang Chen
Hand transplantation has raised ethical and psychological concerns. Few studies have focused on reasons for not selecting candidates on waiting lists. To describe the psychosocial evaluation of referred prospective hand transplant candidates, we investigated candidate suitability by using 22-month follow-up data regarding the first hand transplant recipient in Taiwan. Pretransplant psychosocial assessments comprised an interview with 2 psychiatrists, a social worker, and a psychologist, followed by intelligence quotient scoring with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire...
December 14, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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