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brain dead

Hui-Ling Deng, Yu-Feng Zhang, Ya-Ping Li, Yu Zhang, Yan Xie, Jun Wang, Xiao-Yan Wang, Shuang-Suo Dang
BACKGROUND: Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is sometimes associated with serious complications such as acute heart failure that can cause substantial child mortality. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a sensitive and specific biomarker of congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to use plasma NT-proBNP levels to establish the severity of childhood HFMD. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 128 Chinese patients with severe HFMD and 88 patients with mild HFMD treated between January 2014 and October 2015...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Shadi Shafaghi, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Zahra Ansari Aval, Kambiz Sheikhy, Behrooz Farzanegan, Esmaeil Mortaz, Habib Emami, Clemens Aigner, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
OBJECTIVES: Although the number of lung transplants is limited because of general shortage of organ donors, ex vivo lung perfusion is a novel method with 2 main benefits, including better evaluation of lung potential and recovery of injured lungs. The main aim of this study was to establish and operationalize ex vivo lung perfusion as the first experience in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective operational research study on 5 cases, including 1 pig from Vienna Medical University and 4 patients from Masih Daneshvari Hospital...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a deadly flavivirus that has spread from Africa to Asia and European countries. The virus is associated with other viruses in the same genus or family, transmitted by the same mosquito species with known history of fatality. A sudden increase in the rate of infection from ZIKV has made it a global health concern, which necessitates close symptom monitoring, enhancing treatment options, and vaccine production. This paper reviewed current reports on birth defects associated with ZIKV, mode of transmission, body fluids containing the virus, diagnosis , possible preventive measures or treatments, and vaccine development...
October 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
(no author information available yet)
Pediatric glioblastoma is one of the most common and most deadly brain tumors in childhood. Using an integrative genetic analysis of 53 pediatric glioblastomas and five in vitro model systems, we identified previously unidentified gene fusions involving the MET oncogene in ∼10% of cases. These MET fusions activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and, in cooperation with lesions compromising cell cycle regulation, induced aggressive glial tumors in vivo. MET inhibitors suppressed MET tumor growth in xenograft models...
October 17, 2016: Nature Medicine
Oscar K Serrano, Scott Kerwin, William D Payne, Timothy L Pruett
BACKGROUND: The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act allows for transplantation of organs from Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals (HIV+), provided it is performed under a research protocol. The safety assessment of an organ for transplantation is an essential element of the donation process. The risk for HIV associated opportunistic infections increases as circulating CD4+ lymphocytes decrease to <200 cells/μL; however, the numbers of circulating CD4+ cells in the HIV-negative (HIV-) brain dead donor (BDD) is not known...
September 29, 2016: Transplantation
J H Kang, B H Choi, K M Moon, Y M Park, K H Yang, J H Ryu, C W Chu
It is well known that the quality of organs retrieved from brain-dead donors (DBDs) is better than those retrieved from circulatory death donors. However, in situations of organ retrieval from marginal DBDs, who are unstable despite intensive care, transplantation outcomes are not good. Organ ischemia is the most important determining factor in decreased organ quality in circulatory death donors and in some DBDs. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for management of DBDs can be an emergency countermeasure...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
W M Hajjar, S A Bin Abdulqader, S S Aldayel, A W Alfardan, N I Alzaidy
BACKGROUND: Organ transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ diseases. The demand for organs has exceeded the available supply, which becomes a major obstacle worldwide. Identifying the factors affecting this gap will help in overcoming this obstacle. The purpose of the work was to study the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of organ donation and to determine the knowledge of brain death among social media users. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among social media users living in Saudi Arabia...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
R O'Meeghan, L Pedral
A detailed study of a hospital workplace led to process improvement and efficiency for organ, eye, and tissue donation. Work-flow diagrams were developed as an onsite reference for both the brain-dead donor and donation after circulatory death. The work flows have been circulated for use in other local hospitals and are key to the efficiency of the organ donation process.
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
R O'Meeghan, L Pedral
In the setting of an ever-increasing transplantation need, and a relatively static number of brain dead donors, donation after circulatory death (DCD) has heightened importance as a process to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. This article describes the barriers to the DCD process at a community hospital, what occurred to change the situation, and how data were used to overcome administrative and cultural barriers to create a successful DCD program. The program has become a role model in the local community...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Osamu Muramoto
BACKGROUND: This essay provides an ethical and conceptual argument for the use of informed consent prior to the diagnosis of brain death. It is meant to enable the family to make critical end-of-life decisions, particularly withdrawal of life support system and organ donation, before brain death is diagnosed, as opposed to the current practice of making such decisions after the diagnosis of death. The recent tragic case of a 13-year-old brain-dead patient in California who was maintained on a ventilator for over 2 years illustrates how such a consent would have made a crucial difference...
October 13, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Glauco Adrieno Westphal, Valter Duro Garcia, Rafael Lisboa de Souza, Cristiano Augusto Franke, Kalinca Daberkow Vieira, Viviane Renata Zaclikevis Birckholz, Miriam Cristine Machado, Eliana Régia Barbosa de Almeida, Fernando Osni Machado, Luiz Antônio da Costa Sardinha, Raquel Wanzuita, Carlos Eduardo Soares Silvado, Gerson Costa, Vera Braatz, Milton Caldeira Filho, Rodrigo Furtado, Luana Alves Tannous, André Gustavo Neves de Albuquerque, Edson Abdala
Organ transplantation is the only alternative for many patients with terminal diseases. The increasing disproportion between the high demand for organ transplants and the low rate of transplants actually performed is worrisome. Some of the causes of this disproportion are errors in the identification of potential organ donors and in the determination of contraindications by the attending staff. Therefore, the aim of the present document is to provide guidelines for intensive care multi-professional staffs for the recognition, assessment and acceptance of potential organ donors...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Ruihe Lin, Jingli Cai, Eric W Kostuk, Robert Rosenwasser, Lorraine Iacovitti
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), working via its metabolite monomethylfumarate (MMF), acts as a potent antioxidant and immunomodulator in animal models of neurologic disease and in patients with multiple sclerosis. These properties and their translational potential led us to investigate whether DMF/MMF could also protect at-risk and/or dying neurons in models of ischemic stroke in vitro and in vivo. Although the antioxidant effects have been partially addressed, the benefits of DMF immunomodulation after ischemic stroke still need to be explored...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Marc Pretze, Prama Pallavi, Mareike Roscher, Sarah Klotz, Julio Caballero, Uta Binzen, Wolfgang Greffrath, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Martin C Harmsen, Mathias Hafner, Benito Yard, Carmen Wängler, Björn Wängler
To mitigate pre-transplantation injury in organs of potential donors N-octanoyl dopamine (NOD) treatment might be considered as it does not affect hemodynamic parameters in brain dead (BD) donors. To better assess optimal NOD concentrations for donor treatment, we report on the fast and facile radiofluorination of the NOD-derivative [(18)F]F-NOD [(18)F]5 for in vivo assessment of NOD's elimination kinetics by means of PET imaging. [(18)F]5 was synthesized with reproducible high radiochemical yield and purity (>98%) as well as high specific activities (>20 GBq/µmol)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Glauco A Westphal, Elisabeth Coll, Rafael L de Souza, Silvana Wagner, Artur Montemezzo, Fernanda Carolina Cani de Souza, Gabriel Torres, Stefan Halla, Tiago C Carnin, Míriam C Machado, Eduardo Berbigier, Fernando Busetto, Ivonei Bittencourt, Karine Gerent, Bruno S de Souza, Manoel Tassinari, Joel de Andrade
BACKGROUND: The disproportion between the large organ demand and the low number of transplantations performed represents a serious public health problem worldwide. Reducing the loss of transplantable organs from deceased potential donors as a function of cardiac arrest (CA) may contribute to an increase in organ donations. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that a goal-directed protocol to guide the management of deceased donors may reduce the losses of potential brain-dead donors (PBDDs) due to CA...
October 11, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
A Khodadadi, O Olang, A Makhllough, B Nozary Heshmati, F Azmoudeh Ardalan, S A Tavakoli
BACKGROUND: Looking for an appropriate skin substitute for temporary and permanent coverage of wounds remains one of the main obstacles of medical researchers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of inflammation, symbiosis, and survival of grafted allograft skin from brain-dead donors (BDDs) in rabbits. METHODS: After receiving negative serologic tests of BDDs, we prepared partial thickness skin grafts. They were then used in treating wounds of 5 rabbits in comparison with split-thickness skins taken from cardiac dead donors...
2016: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Yoko Karube, Yoshiyuki Ito, Morimichi Nishihira, Takashi Inoue, Osamu Araki, Sumiko Maeda, Satoshi Kobayashi, Masayuki Chida
A 58-year-old male underwent right lung transplantation from a brain-dead donor, after which acute rejection developed that was resistant to steroid pulse therapy. Rabbit-derived anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) therapy was successful for controlling the rejection. However, following that therapy, the patient was affected by an opportunistic infection and suffered from repeated empyema. It is important to pay attention to immunosuppressive agent levels in blood following treatment, because ATG is a potent immunosuppressive drug and its effects can continue for more than 6 months after administration...
October 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Claudio Sandroni, Sonia D'Arrigo, Clifton W Callaway, Alain Cariou, Irina Dragancea, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Massimo Antonelli
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of brain death in patients with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury after resuscitation from cardiac arrest creates opportunities for organ donation. However, its prevalence is currently unknown. METHODS: Systematic review. MEDLINE via PubMed, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for eligible studies (2002-2016). The prevalence of brain death in adult patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest and the rate of organ donation among brain dead patients were summarised using a random effect model with double-arcsine transformation...
October 3, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Francesco Alessandrini, Davide Ceresa, Irene Appolloni, Daniela Marubbi, Paolo Malatesta
Malignant gliomas are the most common and deadly primary malignant brain tumors. In vivo orthotopic models could doubtless represent an appropriate tool to test novel treatment for gliomas. However, methods commonly used to monitor the growth of glioma inside the mouse brain are time consuming and invasive. We tested the reliability of a minimally invasive procedure, based on a secreted luciferase (Gaussia luciferase), to frequently monitor the changes of glioma size. Gluc activity was evaluated from blood samples collected from the tail tip of mice twice a week, allowing to make a growth curve for the tumors...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Jonathan G Thomas, Ganesh Rao, Yvonne Kew, Sujit S Prabhu
OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly malignant primary brain tumor. Better surgical therapies are needed for newly diagnosed GBMs that are difficult to resect and for GBMs that recur despite standard therapies. The authors reviewed their institutional experience of using laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) for the treatment of newly diagnosed or recurrent GBMs. METHODS This study reports on the pre-LITT characteristics and post-LITT outcomes of 8 patients with newly diagnosed GBMs and 13 patients with recurrent GBM who underwent LITT...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
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