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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916834/letter-can-islamic-jurisprudence-justify-procurement-of-transplantable-vital-organs-in-brain-death
#1
Mohamed Y Rady
In their article, "An International Legal Review of the Relationship between Brain Death and Organ Transplantation," in The Journal of Clinical Ethics 29, no. 1, Aramesh, Arima, Gardiner, and Shah reported on diverse international legislative approaches for justifying procurement of transplantable vital organs in brain death. They stated, "In Islamic traditions in particular, the notion of unstable life is a way to justify organ donation from brain-dead patients that we believe has not been fully described previously in the literature...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911961/liver-donation-after-brain-death-following-intentional-ingestion-of-99-e-cigarette-liquid-nicotine-10-ml
#2
Jinwoong Lee, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Jin Hong Min, Insool Yoo, Wonjoon Jeong, Yongchul Cho, Seung Ryu, Seungwhan Kim, Sung Uk Cho, Se Kwang Oh, Junwan Lee, Hong Joon Ahn, Sang Min Jung
Incidences of brain death due to nicotine overdose by e-cigarettes have been increasing. In such cases, liver donation has been not reported because of the secondary damage to the liver due to metabolism of large amounts of nicotine. However, kidneys have been considered acceptable for transplant. Here, we present a successful case of liver transplant from a brain-dead donor due to intentional nicotine ingestion who did not have extensive steatosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a case...
June 18, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905460/identification-of-compounds-that-decrease-glioblastoma-growth-and-glucose-uptake-in-vitro
#3
Catherine J Libby, Sixue Zhang, Gloria A Benavides, Sarah E Scott, Yanjie Li, Matthew Redmann, Anh Nhat Tran, Arphaxad Otamias, Victor Darley-Usmar, Marek Napierala, Jianhua Zhang, Corinne Elizabeth Augelli-Szafran, Wei Zhang, Anita B Hjelmeland
Tumor heterogeneity has hampered the development of novel effective therapeutic options for aggressive cancers, including the deadly primary adult brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM). Intratumoral heterogeneity is partially attributed to the tumor initiating cell (TIC) subset that contains highly tumorigenic, stem-like cells. TICs display metabolic plasticity but can have a reliance on aerobic glycolysis. Elevated expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 is present in many cancer types, with GLUT3 being preferentially expressed in brain TICs (BTICs) to increase survival in low nutrient tumor microenvironments, leading to tumor maintenance...
June 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903577/increased-reduction-in-exsanguination-rates-leaves-brain-injury-as-the-only-major-cause-of-death-in-blunt-trauma
#4
D Jochems, L P H Leenen, F Hietbrink, R M Houwert, K J P van Wessem
INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system (CNS) related injuries and exsanguination have been the most common causes of death in trauma for decades. Despite improvements in haemorrhage control in recent years exsanguination is still a major cause of death. We conducted a prospective database study to investigate the current incidence of haemorrhage related mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective database study of all trauma patients admitted to an urban major trauma centre between January 2007 and December 2016 was conducted...
May 23, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888158/pseudohypoxic-brain-swelling-after-elective-lumbar-spinal-surgery-case-report
#5
John Dickinson, Derek Kroll, Josh Bentley, Aaron J Gustin
Pseudohypoxic brain swelling (or the more recent term, postoperative intracranial hypotension-associated venous congestion) is a rare and potentially deadly complication that can occur after routine spine or brain surgery. The mechanism of this injury has been described as a rapid cerebral spinal fluid drainage leading to venous cerebral congestion. The clinical and radiographic findings mimic those found in a patient who has suffered an anoxic brain injury. We present the third reported case of postoperative intracranial hypotension-associated venous congestion following spinal surgery...
April 9, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884138/the-complex-treatment-including-rituximab-in-the-management-of-catastrophic-antiphospholid-syndrome-with-renal-involvement
#6
Aleksandra Rymarz, Stanisław Niemczyk
BACKGROUND: Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a rare, life-threatening form of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) involving many organs and leading to their insufficiency. The pathogenesis of CAPS is associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Typical therapy includes anticoagulation, glucocorticoids, therapeutic plasma exchanges and/or intravenous immunoglobulin. Despite this aggressive treatment, the mortality rate of 37% is still high. Novel therapeutic agents are required...
June 8, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876971/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-intrasulcal-hematoma-due-to-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-in-a-brain-dead-patient
#7
Shigeki Takeda, Kiyoshi Onda, Yuichi Yoshida
Neuropathological examinations of the brain in cases of brain death are usually insufficient because of autolysis. We examined a case of sporadic-type cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related hemorrhage (sCAA-H) in a 74-year-old Japanese woman who had been clinically established as brain dead 7 days before cardiac arrest. The brain was macerated, and a huge hematoma was evident in the right parieto-occipital region. Ordinary neuropathological examination was unable to clarify where the hematoma was located in the brain parenchyma or the subarachnoid space (SAS)...
June 6, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873170/solving-the-mystery-hyalinized-cyst-wall-containing-organism-like-structures-in-a-lung-transplant-donor
#8
Julia Bini Viotti, Matthias Loebe, Nicolas Brozzi, Andre Pinto, Jacques Simkins, Christina M Cloke, Jose F Camargo, Sam Salama, Lilian M Abbo
A 59-year-old man with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy underwent orthotopic heart transplantation. The donor, a 31-year-old male declared brain dead after a gunshot wound to the head, was considered high risk due to history of incarceration, illicit drug use and sex with a HIV positive partner. At organ procurement, the heart, kidneys, pancreas and liver looked grossly normal. A small right lower lobe nodule was noticed, and lung biopsy was performed. Bronchoscopy showed purulent secretions in the right lower lobe...
June 5, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868161/large-penile-plexiform-neurofibroma-in-an-11-year-old-boy
#9
Nwokoro Chingbundu Collins, Emmanuel Ezekiel Ayodeji, Fatungase Oluwabunmi Motunrayo, Salami Babatunde Abayomi, Ogundele Ibukunolu Olufemi, Amosu Lukmon Olusesan
Background: Neurofibromatosis is a genetically inherited disorder of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord) which mainly affects the development of nerve (neural) cell tissues, causing tumors (neurofibromas) to develop on nerves. It is the most common single gene disorder of the nervous system and inheritance is through autosomal dominance. They are usually classified into types 1 and 2, the type 1 is the commoner type and also known as superficial neurofibroma. Plexiform neurofibromas are the next most common type of tumor in individuals with type 1 neurofibroma...
March 2018: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850119/extended-donor-criteria-in-heart-transplantation-a-retrospective-study-from-a-single-chinese-institution
#10
Yixuan Wang, Jie Cai, Yongfeng Sun, Jing Zhang, Fei Xie, Mahmoud H Alshirbini, Jiawei Shi, Nianguo Dong
Background: Heart donor selection criteria have been progressively widened due to increasing donor recipient mismatch. This study evaluates the outcomes of the use marginal donor hearts for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) based on a single center experience in China. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of patients undergoing OHT in our hospital between September 2008 and December 2015. All the donor hearts were from voluntary donation of brain-dead patients...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848697/ampakines-attenuate-staurosporine-induced-cell-death-in-primary-cortical-neurons-implications-in-the-chemo-brain-phenomenon
#11
Daniel P Radin, Gary A Rogers, Kimberley E Hewitt, Richard Purcell, Arnold Lippa
BACKGROUND/AIM: Mounting evidence suggests that trophic cell signaling can be mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) activation. It has been demonstrated that exogenous application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly neuroprotective in vitro against neurotoxic insults such as standard chemotherapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Because positive allosteric modulation of AMPARs with ampakines can increase both BDNF mRNA and protein in vitro and in vivo, we examined whether application of the ampakines CX614 and CX729 promoted neuroprotection against staurosporine-induced cell death in rat primary cortical neurons using propidium iodide to stain for dead cells...
June 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848277/malignant-intracranial-high-grade-glioma-and-current-treatment-strategy
#12
Xiang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Xing-Gang Mao, Wei-Dong Cao, Hai-Ning Zhen, Shi-Jie Hu
Malignant high grade glioma (HGG) is the most common and extremely fatal type of primary intracranial tumor. These tumors recurred within 2 to 3 cm of the primary region of tumor resection in the majority of cases. Furthermore, the blood-brain barrier significantly limited the access of many systemically administered chemotherapeutics to the tumor, pointing towards a stringent need for new therapeutic patterns. Therefore, targeting therapy using local drug delivery for HGG becomes a priority for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
May 29, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845916/determination-of-death-in-execution-by-lethal-injection-in-china
#13
Norbert W Paul, Arthur Caplan, Michael E Shapiro, Charl Els, Kirk C Allison, Huige Li
Since 1997, execution in China has been increasingly performed by lethal injection. The current criteria for determination of death for execution by lethal injection (cessation of heartbeat, cessation of respiration, and dilated pupils) neither conform to current medical science nor to any standard of medical ethics. In practice, death is pronounced in China within tens of seconds after starting the lethal injection. At this stage, however, neither the common criteria for cardiopulmonary death (irreversible cessation of heartbeat and breathing) nor that of brain death (irreversible cessation of brain functions) have been met...
July 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809183/main-factors-affecting-the-loss-of-multi-organ-potential-donors-for-transplantation
#14
Aldo García-Covarrubias, Luis García-Covarrubias, Dulce A Alcántara-López, Héctor Hinojosa-Heredia, Paola Prieto-Olivares, Arturo Reding-Bernal
Antecedents: In the field of organ donation and procurement, a possible donor is a patient with severe neurological damage and appropriate medical criteria for donation, and a potential donor is a patient suspected of being brain dead. Objective: The aim of this study is to identify specific factors that cause the loss of possible multiorgan donors in an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A review of cross-sectional charts of possible liver and kidney donors was done with patients admitted to the ICU with full respiratory support and Glasgow score < 8...
2018: Cirugia y Cirujanos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805151/-i-sleep-but-my-heart-is-awake-i-negotiating-marginal-states-in-life-and-death-i
#15
Margaret C Hayden, Stephen D Brown
This article compares a six-week fetus to a brain-dead boy to illustrate multiple inconsistencies and flaws in various prominent frameworks for determination of death by neurological criteria ("brain death"). The authors critically examine the biological and normative assumptions that distinguish these ethically ambiguous "marginal states" at the beginning and end of life and find no consistent biological or ethical criteria that coherently define the fetus as alive and the boy as dead. The authors note important contradictions in how medicine, bioethics, and society treat these marginal states, despite their striking biological and philosophical similarities, and conclude that these contradictions are ultimately untenable...
2018: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801996/whale-and-dolphin-behavioural-responses-to-dead-conspecifics
#16
REVIEW
Giovanni Bearzi, Dan Kerem, Nathan B Furey, Robert L Pitman, Luke Rendell, Randall R Reeves
The scientific study of death across animal taxa-comparative thanatology-investigates how animals respond behaviourally, physiologically and psychologically to dead conspecifics, and the processes behind such responses. Several species of cetaceans have been long known to care for, attend to, be aroused by, or show interest in dead or dying individuals. We investigated patterns and variation in cetacean responses to dead conspecifics across cetacean taxa based on a comprehensive literature review. We analysed 78 records reported between 1970 and 2016, involving 20 of the 88 extant cetacean species...
May 9, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792708/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-is-associated-with-decreased-cyp3a4-protein-expression-and-activity-in-human-liver
#17
Rohitash Jamwal, Suzanne M de la Monte, Ken Ogasawara, Sravani Adusumalli, Benjamin B Barlock, Fatemeh Akhlaghi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease in Western population. We investigated the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus on CYP3A4 activity in human liver tissue from brain dead donors (N=74). Histopathologically graded livers were grouped into normal (n=24), nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, n=26) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n=24) categories. The rate of conversion of midazolam to its 1-hydroxy metabolite was used to assess in vitro CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLM)...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790212/dopamine-in-transplantation-written-off-or-comeback-with-novel-indication
#18
REVIEW
Peter Schnuelle, Urs Benck, Benito A Yard
Renal-dose dopamine has fallen out of favor in the intensive care unit (ICU) during past years due to its ineffectiveness to prevent impending or to ameliorate overt renal failure in the critically ill. By contrast, growing evidence indicates that low-dose dopamine administered to the stable organ donor after brain death confirmation improves the clinical course of transplanted organs after kidney and heart transplantation. Ensuring a thorough monitoring for potential circulatory side effects, employment of dopamine at a dose of 4 μg/kg per minute is safe in the deceased donor...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785469/early-detection-of-cerebral-infarction-after-focal-ischemia-using-a-new-mri-indicator
#19
Yukako Nakajo, Qiang Zhao, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Hidehiro Iida, Jun C Takahashi, Hiroharu Kataoka, Keiko Yamato, Hiroji Yanamoto
Prolongation of the T2 relaxation time, an increase in T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-SI), and a decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated from diffusion-weighted images (DWI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are conventional indicators of the vasogenic (interstitial) or cytotoxic (cellular) cerebral edema that develops after ischemic stroke. However, these parameters obtained on stroke imaging have not given us a precise threshold at which we can determine the viability or vulnerability of the tissue, allowing us to decide on an intervention that will help reversible tissue in the acute phase...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784996/dual-function-injectable-angiogenic-biomaterial-for-the-repair-of-brain-tissue-following-stroke
#20
Lina R Nih, Shiva Gojgini, S Thomas Carmichael, Tatiana Segura
Stroke is the primary cause of disability due to the brain's limited ability to regenerate damaged tissue. After stroke, an increased inflammatory and immune response coupled with severely limited angiogenesis and neuronal growth results in a stroke cavity devoid of normal brain tissue. In the adult, therapeutic angiogenic materials have been used to repair ischaemic tissues through the formation of vascular networks. However, whether a therapeutic angiogenic material can regenerate brain tissue and promote neural repair is poorly understood...
May 21, 2018: Nature Materials
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