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Primary cilia and autophagy

Junguee Lee, Shinae Yi, Yea Eun Kang, Joon Young Chang, Jung Tae Kim, Hae Joung Sul, Jong Ok Kim, Jin Man Kim, Joon Kim, Anna Maria Porcelli, Koon Soon Kim, Minho Shong
Primary cilia are found in the apical membrane of thyrocytes, where they may play a role in the maintenance of follicular homeostasis. In this study, we examined the distribution of primary cilia in the human thyroid cancer to address the involvement of abnormal ciliogenesis in different thyroid cancers. We examined 92 human thyroid tissues, including nodular hyperplasia, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, follicular tumor, Hürthle cell tumor, and papillary carcinoma to observe the distribution of primary cilia. The distribution and length of primary cilia facing the follicular lumen were uniform across variable-sized follicles in the normal thyroid gland...
October 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Birgit Hegner Satir, Olatz Pampliega
Autophagy is a catabolic pathway for the degradation and recycling of intracellular components, contributing to maintain cell homeostasis. Changes in autophagy activity can be monitored by a variety of biochemical and functional assays that should be used in combination. Recently, it has been described that signaling from the primary cilium modulates autophagy. This novel and reciprocal interaction will impact diverse aspects of the cell biology in healthy and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we describe methods to monitor autophagy activity in cilia mutants, as well as the use of autophagy mutants to monitor ciliogenesis...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qian Xu, Wei Liu, Xiaoling Liu, Weiwei Liu, Hongju Wang, Guodong Yao, Linghe Zang, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
Primary cilium is a cellular antenna, signalling as a sensory organelle. Numerous pathological manifestation is associated with change of its length. Although the interaction between autophagy and primary cilia has been suggested, the role of autophagy in primary cilia length is largely unknown. In this study the primary cilia were immunostained and observed by using confocal fluorescence microscopy, and we found that silibinin, a natural flavonoid, shortened the length of primary cilia, meanwhile it also induced autophagy in 3T3-L1 cells...
September 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Zsuzsanna Takacs, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne
The primary cilium and the process of autophagy are thought to be in a functionally reciprocal relationship. In further support of this link, fluid flow sensing by the primary cilium is now shown to induce autophagy, which in turn regulates the volume of kidney epithelial cells.
May 27, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
M Kaliszewski, A B Knott, E Bossy-Wetzel
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder caused by a single-gene mutation: a CAG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene that results in production of a mutated protein, mutant HTT, with a polyglutamine tail (polyQ-HTT). Although the molecular pathways of polyQ-HTT toxicity are not fully understood, because protein misfolding and aggregation are central features of HD, it has long been suspected that cellular housekeeping processes such as autophagy might be important to disease pathology...
September 2015: Cell Death and Differentiation
Ji Hyun Shin, Dong-Jun Bae, Eun Sung Kim, Han Byeol Kim, So Jung Park, Yoon Kyung Jo, Doo Sin Jo, Dong-Gyu Jo, Sang-Yeob Kim, Dong-Hyung Cho
Primary cilia have critical roles in coordinating multiple cellular signaling pathways. Dysregulation of primary cilia is implicated in various ciliopathies. To identify specific regulators of autophagy, we screened chemical libraries and identified mefloquine, an anti-malaria medicine, as a potent regulator of primary cilia in human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. Not only ciliated cells but also primary cilium length was increased in mefloquine-treated RPE cells. Treatment with mefloquine strongly induced the elongation of primary cilia by blocking disassembly of primary cilium...
July 2015: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Shixuan Wang, Man J Livingston, Yunchao Su, Zheng Dong
Primary cilium is an organelle that plays significant roles in a number of cellular functions ranging from cell mechanosensation, proliferation, and differentiation to apoptosis. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular function in biology and indispensable for cellular homeostasis. Both cilia and autophagy have been linked to different types of genetic and acquired human diseases. Their interaction has been suggested very recently, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. We examined autophagy in cells with suppressed cilia and measured cilium length in autophagy-activated or -suppressed cells...
April 3, 2015: Autophagy
Ji Hyun Shin, Pan Soo Kim, Eun Sung Kim, So Jung Park, Yoon Kyung Jo, Jung Jin Hwang, Tae Joo Park, Jong Wook Chang, Jin-Ho Seo, Dong-Hyung Cho
Previously, we showed that BIX-01294 treatment strongly activates autophagy. Although, the interplay between autophagy and ciliogenesis has been suggested, the role of autophagy in ciliogenesis is controversial and largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of autophagy induced by BIX-01294 on the formation of primary cilia in human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. Treatment of RPE cells with BIX-01294 caused strong elongation of the primary cilium and increased the number of ciliated cells, as well as autophagy activation...
May 1, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eun Sung Kim, Ji Hyun Shin, So Jung Park, Yoon Kyung Jo, Jae-Sung Kim, Il-Hwan Kang, Jung-Bum Nam, Doo-Young Chung, Yoonchul Cho, EunJoo H Lee, Jong Wook Chang, Dong-Hyung Cho
Primary cilia are conserved cellular organelles that regulate diverse signaling pathways. Autophagy is a complex process of cellular degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles, and plays an important role in cellular homeostasis. Despite its potential importance, the role of autophagy in ciliogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we identified sertraline as a regulator of autophagy and ciliogenesis. Sertraline, a known antidepressant, induced the growth of cilia and blocked the disassembly of cilia in htRPE cells...
2015: PloS One
I Orhon, N Dupont, O Pampliega, A M Cuervo, P Codogno
Motile and primary cilia (PC) are microtubule-based structures located at the cell surface of many cell types. Cilia govern cellular functions ranging from motility to integration of mechanical and chemical signaling from the environment. Recent studies highlight the interplay between cilia and autophagy, a conserved cellular process responsible for intracellular degradation. Signaling from the PC recruits the autophagic machinery to trigger autophagosome formation. Conversely, autophagy regulates ciliogenesis by controlling the levels of ciliary proteins...
March 2015: Cell Death and Differentiation
Peter Satir
This essay records a voyage of discovery from the "cradle of cell biology" to the present, focused on the biology of the oldest known cell organelle, the cilium. In the "romper room" of cilia and microtubule (MT) biology, the sliding MT hypothesis of ciliary motility was born. From the "summer of love," students and colleagues joined the journey to test switch-point mechanisms of motility. In the new century, interest in nonmotile (primary) cilia, never lost from the cradle, was rekindled, leading to discoveries relating ciliogenesis to autophagy and hypotheses of how molecules cross ciliary necklace barriers for cell signaling...
November 1, 2014: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Zaiming Tang, Muyuan Zhu, Qing Zhong
Autophagy delivers many proteins and cellular components to the lysosome for degradation via selective or nonselective mechanisms. By controlling the stability of defined protein factors, autophagy might regulate cellular processes in a precise and finely-tuned manner. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy positively regulates the biogenesis of the primary cilium, an antenna-like organelle that senses the environment and transduces signals. Defects in the function or structure of cilia cause a number of human diseases called "ciliopathies...
February 2014: Autophagy
Nathan W Pierce, Maxence V Nachury
Autophagy and primary cilium assembly have long been known to be induced by the same conditions in cultured cells. Two recent studies in Nature-Tang et al. (2013) and Pampliega et al. (2013)-link the two processes, suggesting that a specialized autophagy pathway near the basal body regulates cilium assembly.
October 28, 2013: Developmental Cell
Olatz Pampliega, Idil Orhon, Bindi Patel, Sunandini Sridhar, Antonio Díaz-Carretero, Isabelle Beau, Patrice Codogno, Birgit H Satir, Peter Satir, Ana Maria Cuervo
Nutrient deprivation is a stimulus shared by both autophagy and the formation of primary cilia. The recently discovered role of primary cilia in nutrient sensing and signalling motivated us to explore the possible functional interactions between this signalling hub and autophagy. Here we show that part of the molecular machinery involved in ciliogenesis also participates in the early steps of the autophagic process. Signalling from the cilia, such as that from the Hedgehog pathway, induces autophagy by acting directly on essential autophagy-related proteins strategically located in the base of the cilium by ciliary trafficking proteins...
October 10, 2013: Nature
Zaiming Tang, Mary Grace Lin, Timothy Richard Stowe, She Chen, Muyuan Zhu, Tim Stearns, Brunella Franco, Qing Zhong
The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle that functions in sensory and signalling pathways. Defects in ciliogenesis can lead to a group of genetic syndromes known as ciliopathies. However, the regulatory mechanisms of primary ciliogenesis in normal and cancer cells are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that autophagic degradation of a ciliopathy protein, OFD1 (oral-facial-digital syndrome 1), at centriolar satellites promotes primary cilium biogenesis. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway in which cytosol, damaged organelles and protein aggregates are engulfed in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for destruction...
October 10, 2013: Nature
Tobias B Huber, Gerd Walz, E Wolfgang Kuehn
The immunosuppressive drug rapamycin has helped to identify a large signaling network around the target of rapamycin (TOR) protein that integrates information on nutrient availability and growth factors to control protein synthesis and cell size. Studies using rapamycin in animal models of kidney disease indicate that mTOR deregulation has a role in glomerular disease, polycystic kidney disease, and renal cancer. The role of mTOR activation in podocytes is context dependent, and indirect evidence suggests that mTOR may have a role in chronic podocyte loss...
March 2011: Kidney International
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