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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648638/polymeric-pollutant-biodegradation-through-microbial-oxidoreductase-a-better-strategy-to-safe-environment
#1
REVIEW
Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali, Nazia Khatoon, Asif Jamal
The detoxification of xenobiotic organic compounds by various microorganisms through oxidative coupling is facilitated with oxidoreductases. With the help of energy yielding biochemical reactions, these microbes extract energy for their metabolic pathway. They promote the transfer of electrons from a reduced organic substrate to another chemical compound. During such oxidation-reduction reactions, the toxic polymeric substance is finally oxidized into harmless compounds. Enzymatic bioremediation of toxic organic pollutant is a very effective strategy in complex environmental conditions...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647840/interaction-of-ferulic-acid-with-glutathione-s-transferase-and-carboxylesterase-genes-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#2
Jun Yang, Xiao-Qin Sun, Shu-Ying Yan, Wen-Jun Pan, Mao-Xin Zhang, Qing-Nian Cai
Plant phenolics are crucial defense phytochemicals against herbivores and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CarE) in herbivorous insects are well-known detoxification enzymes for such xenobiotics. To understand relationship between a plant phenolic and herbivore GST or CarE genes, we evaluated the relationship between a rice phenolic ferulic acid and resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens), and investigated the interaction of ferulic acid with GST or CarE genes in BPH. The results indicate that ferulic acid content in tested rice varieties was highly associated with resistance to BPH...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644715/biological-responses-of-the-american-coot-fulica-americana-in-wetlands-with-contrasting-environmental-conditions-basin-of-m%C3%A3-xico
#3
María Eugenia López-Islas, Itzel Ibarra-Meza, Esperanza Ortiz-Ordóñez, Liliana Favari, J Elías Sedeño-Díaz, Eugenia López-López
Wetland ecosystems are subject to severe impacts (physical and chemical) and to the input of various xenobiotics that provoke toxicological consequences. Waterbirds are potential sentinel species of these environments. To analyze how habitat conditions affect the health of Fulica americana, early-warning biomarkers, histopathology, somatic indices, and water quality were examined in two wetlands of the Basin of Mexico: Xochimilco, an urban wetland highly eutrophic with a mixture of pollutants, and Tecocomulco (the reference site), a rural wetland with hunting migratory birds in winter, and with some agricultural contaminants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643772/cryptic-indole-hydroxylation-by-a-non-canonical-terpenoid-cyclase-parallels-bacterial-xenobiotic-detoxification
#4
Susann Kugel, Martin Baunach, Philipp Baer, Mie Ishida-Ito, Srividhya Sundaram, Zhongli Xu, Michael Groll, Christian Hertweck
Terpenoid natural products comprise a wide range of molecular architectures that typically result from C-C bond formations catalysed by classical type I/II terpene cyclases. However, the molecular diversity of biologically active terpenoids is substantially increased by fully unrelated, non-canonical terpenoid cyclases. Their evolutionary origin has remained enigmatic. Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of an unusual flavin-dependent bacterial indoloterpenoid cyclase, XiaF, together with a designated flavoenzyme-reductase (XiaP) that mediates a key step in xiamycin biosynthesis...
June 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642744/unexpected-dominance-of-elusive-acidobacteria-in-early-industrial-soft-coal-slags
#5
Carl-Eric Wegner, Werner Liesack
Acid mine drainage (AMD) and mine tailing environments are well-characterized ecosystems known to be dominated by organisms involved in iron- and sulfur-cycling. Here we examined the microbiology of industrial soft coal slags that originate from alum leaching, an ecosystem distantly related to AMD environments. Our study involved geochemical analyses, bacterial community profiling, and shotgun metagenomics. The slags still contained high amounts of alum constituents (aluminum, sulfur), which mediated direct and indirect effects on bacterial community structure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642381/chemical-transformation-of-xenobiotics-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#6
REVIEW
Nitzan Koppel, Vayu Maini Rekdal, Emily P Balskus
The human gut microbiota makes key contributions to the metabolism of ingested compounds (xenobiotics), transforming hundreds of dietary components, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals into metabolites with altered activities, toxicities, and lifetimes within the body. The chemistry of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism is often distinct from that of host enzymes. Despite their important consequences for human biology, the gut microbes, genes, and enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641544/post-mortem-redistribution-of-drugs-current-state-of-knowledge
#7
Caroline Sastre, Christophe Bartoli, Valerie Baillif-Couniou, Georges Leonetti, Anne-Laure Pelissier-Alicot
BACKGROUND: Drug concentrations obtained from post mortem samples do not necessarily reflect the concentrations at the time of death, and variations of concentration may be observed between different sites and/or different sampling times. These phenomena, collectively termed post mortem redistribution, concern numerous molecules (medications, drugs of abuse, gases, etc.) and can complicate the interpretation of toxicological analyses. METHODS: Literature review...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641195/biotransformation-in-the-zebrafish-embryo-temporal-gene-transcription-changes-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-and-internal-exposure-dynamics-of-the-ahr-binding-xenobiotic-benz-a-anthracene
#8
Agnes Kühnert, Carolina Vogs, Bettina Seiwert, Silke Aulhorn, Rolf Altenburger, Henner Hollert, Eberhard Küster, Wibke Busch
Not much is known about the biotransformation capability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. For understanding possible toxicity differences to adult fish, it might be crucial to understand the biotransformation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos i.e. as part of toxicokinetics. The biotransformation capabilities were analysed for two different stages of zebrafish embryos in conjunction with the internal concentrations of a xenobiotic. Zebrafish embryos of the late cleavage/early blastula period (2-26 hpf) and the early pharyngula period (26-50 hpf) were exposed for 24 h to the AhR binding compound benz[a]anthracene (BaA)...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640934/substrate-specificity-and-safener-inducibility-of-the-plant-udp-glucose-dependent-family-1-glycosyltransferases-super-family
#9
Melissa Brazier-Hicks, Markus Gershater, David Dixon, Robert Edwards
Plants contain large numbers of family 1 UDP-glucose dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), including members that conjugate xenobiotics. Arabidopsis contains 107 UGT genes with 99 family members successfully expressed as glutathione transferase (GST)-fusion proteins in E.coli. A high-throughput catalytic screen was developed based on quantification of the fusion by measuring GST activity. UGT activity using UDP-glucose as donor was then determined using 11 synthetic acceptors bearing hydroxyl, amino and thiol groups that had been shown to undergo conjugation in plant extracts...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639323/molecular-interactions-of-dioxins-and-dlcs-with-the-xenosensors-pxr-and-car-an-in-silico-risk-assessment-approach
#10
Garima Verma, Mohemmed Faraz Khan, Mohammad Shaquiquzzaman, Wasim Akhtar, Mymoona Akhter, Syed Misbahul Hasan, Mohammad Mumtaz Alam
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are known to cause endocrine disruption in humans and animals. Being lipophilic xenobiotic chemicals, they can be easily absorbed into the biological system from the surrounding environments, thereby causing various health dysfunctions. In the present study, a total of 100 dioxins and DLCs were taken, and their binding pattern was assessed with the xenosensors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in comparison with the corresponding known inhibitors and a well-studied endocrine disrupting xenobiotic, bisphenol A (BPA)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638398/discovery-of-putative-herbicide-resistance-genes-and-its-regulatory-network-in-chickpea-using-transcriptome-sequencing
#11
Mir A Iquebal, Khela R Soren, Priyanka Gangwar, P S Shanmugavadivel, K Aravind, Deepak Singla, Sarika Jaiswal, Rahul S Jasrotia, Sushil K Chaturvedi, Narendra P Singh, Rajeev K Varshney, Anil Rai, Dinesh Kumar
Background: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) contributes 75% of total pulse production. Being cheaper than animal protein, makes it important in dietary requirement of developing countries. Weed not only competes with chickpea resulting into drastic yield reduction but also creates problem of harboring fungi, bacterial diseases and insect pests. Chemical approach having new herbicide discovery has constraint of limited lead molecule options, statutory regulations and environmental clearance. Through genetic approach, transgenic herbicide tolerant crop has given successful result but led to serious concern over ecological safety thus non-transgenic approach like marker assisted selection is desirable...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634910/the-complex-biology-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-its-role-in-the-pituitary-gland
#12
REVIEW
Robert Formosa, Josanne Vassallo
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor best known for its ability to mediate the effects of environmental toxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through the initiation of transcription of a number of metabolically active enzymes. Therefore, the AHR has been studied mostly in the context of xenobiotic signaling. However, several studies have shown that the AHR is constitutively active and plays an important role in general cell physiology, independently of its activity as a xenobiotic receptor and in the absence of exogenous ligands...
June 20, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634058/apoptotic-gene-expression-profiles-and-dna-damage-levels-in-rat-liver-treated-with-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-and-protective-role-of-curcumin
#13
Dilek Eke, Ayla Çelik, Mehmet Bertan Yilmaz, Nurcan Aras, Sabriye Kocatürk Sel, Davut Alptekin
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS and PFOA, are xenobiotics that can be detected worldwide in the environment and humans. PFOS (C8F17SO3(-)) is a fluorinated organic compound has been used for decades in industrial and commercial products. We investigated the genotoxic and apoptotic impact of PFOS in rat liver using comet assay, micronucleus test and apoptotic gene expression methods for caspase 3, caspase 8 and the protective role of curcumin on the PFOS- induced damage under chronic exposure. In this study, rats were treated either with three different PFOS doses only (0...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633424/three-dimensional-3d-heparg-spheroid-model-with-physiologically-relevant-xenobiotic-metabolism-competence-and-hepatocyte-functionality-for-liver-toxicity-screening
#14
Sreenivasa C Ramaiahgari, Suramya Waidyanatha, Darlene Dixon, Michael J DeVito, Richard S Paules, Stephen S Ferguson
Effective prediction of human responses to chemical and drug exposure is of critical importance in environmental toxicology research and drug development. While significant progress has been made to address this challenge using in vitro liver models, these approaches often fail due to inadequate tissue model functionality. Herein, we describe the development, optimization, and characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model using differentiated HepaRG cells that achieve and maintain physiologically-relevant levels of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4/5)...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631923/influence-of-ingesting-a-flavonoid-rich-supplement-on-the-metabolome-and-concentration-of-urine-phenolics-in-overweight-obese-women
#15
David C Nieman, Sivapriya Ramamoorthy, Colin D Kay, Courtney L Goodman, Christopher R Capps, Zach L Shue, Nicole Heyl, Mary H Grace
This study evaluated the effect of ingesting a flavonoid-rich supplement (329 mg/d) on total urine phenolics and shifts in plasma metabolites in overweight/obese female adults using untargeted metabolomics procedures. Participants (N=103, 18-65 y, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) were randomized to flavonoid (F) or placebo (P) groups for 12 weeks, with blood and 24-h urine samples collected pre-study, 4- and 12-weeks in a parallel design. Supplements were prepared as chewable tablets, and included vitamin C, wild bilberry fruit extract, green tea leaf extract, quercetin, caffeine, and omega 3 fatty acids...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630679/molecular-interactions-of-amyloid-nanofibrils-with-biological-aggregation-modifiers-implications-for-cytotoxicity-mechanisms-and-biomaterial-design
#16
REVIEW
Durga Dharmadana, Nicholas P Reynolds, Charlotte E Conn, Céline Valéry
Amyloid nanofibrils are ubiquitous biological protein fibrous aggregates, with a wide range of either toxic or beneficial activities that are relevant to human disease and normal biology. Protein amyloid fibrillization occurs via nucleated polymerization, through non-covalent interactions. As such, protein nanofibril formation is based on a complex interplay between kinetic and thermodynamic factors. The process entails metastable oligomeric species and a highly thermodynamically favoured end state. The kinetics, and the reaction pathway itself, can be influenced by third party moieties, either molecules or surfaces...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630412/the-challenges-of-predicting-pesticide-exposure-of-honey-bees-at-landscape-level
#17
Noa Simon-Delso, Gilles San Martin, Etienne Bruneau, Christine Delcourt, Louis Hautier
To evaluate the risks of pesticides for pollinators, we must not only evaluate their toxicity but also understand how pollinators are exposed to these xenobiotics in the field. We focused on this last point and modeled honey bee exposure to pesticides at the landscape level. Pollen pellet samples (n = 60) from 40 Belgian apiaries were collected from late July to October 2011 and underwent palynological and pesticide residue analyses. Areas of various crops around each apiary were measured at 4 spatial scales...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629983/self-assembly-nanostructure-controlled-sustained-release-activity-and-stability-of-peptide-drugs
#18
Xi-Rui Zhou, Yimeng Cao, Qiang Zhang, Xi-Bo Tian, He Dong, Long Chen, Shi-Zhong Luo
Peptides are considered as a new generation of drugs due to their high structural and functional diversity. However, the development of peptide drugs is always limited by their poor stability and short circulation time. Carriers are applied for peptide drug delivery, but there may be problems like poor loading efficiency and undesired xenobiotic toxicity. Peptide self-assembly is an effective approach to improve the stability and control the release of peptide drugs. In this study, two self-assembling anticancer peptides are designed by appending a pair of glutamic acid and asparagine to either the N-terminus or the C-terminus of a lytic peptide...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629367/african-american-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-expression-profile-reveals-dysregulation-of-stress-response-and-detox-networks
#19
Hayriye Verda Erkizan, Kory Johnson, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Deepa Karkera, Gregory Trachiotis, Houtan Adib, Eric P Hoffman, Robert G Wadleigh
BACKGROUND: Esophageal carcinoma is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy worldwide and is largely unresponsive to therapy. African-Americans have an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the subtype that shows marked variation in geographic frequency. The molecular architecture of African-American ESCC is still poorly understood. It is unclear why African-American ESCC is more aggressive and the survival rate in these patients is worse than those of other ethnic groups...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629263/mass-spectrometry-based-analysis-of-murine-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-following-respiratory-exposure-to-4-4-methylene-diphenyl-diisocyanate-aerosol
#20
Justin M Hettick, Brandon F Law, Chen-Chung Lin, Adam V Wisnewski, Paul D Siegel
Diisocyanates are highly reactive electrophiles utilized in the manufacture of a wide range of polyurethane products, and have been identified as causative agents of occupational allergic respiratory disease. However, in spite of the significant occupational health burden associated with diisocyanate-induced asthma, the mechanism of disease pathogenesis remains largely unknown. To better understand the fate of inhaled diisocyanates, a nose-only aerosol exposure system was constructed and utilized to expose a BALB/c mouse model to aerosol generated from 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)...
June 20, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
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