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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346700/vitamin-d-status-in-wild-toque-macaques-macaca-sinica-in-sri-lanka
#1
Michael L Power, Wolfgang P J Dittus
The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345763/the-role-of-runx2-in-facilitating-autophagy-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Manish Tandon, Ahmad H Othman, Vivek Ashok, Gary S Stein, Jitesh Pratap
Breast cancer metastases cause significant patient mortality. During metastases, cancer cells use autophagy, a catabolic process to recycle nutrients via lysosomal degradation, to overcome nutritional stress for their survival. The Runt-related transcription factor, Runx2, promotes cell survival under metabolic stress and regulates breast cancer progression and bone metastases. Here, we identify that Runx2 enhances autophagy in metastatic breast cancer cells. We defined Runx2 function in cellular autophagy by monitoring microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3B-II) levels, an autophagy-specific marker...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345552/relationship-between-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-iron-overload
#3
REVIEW
Dong-Mei Zou, Wan-Ling Sun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize the interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron overload, and to understand the mechanisms of iron overload in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and the role iron plays in HCV life cycle. DATA SOURCES: This review was based on data in articles published in the PubMed databases up to January 28, 2017, with the keywords "hepatitis C virus", "iron overload", "iron metabolism", "hepcidin", "translation", and "replication"...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344668/diabetes-and-bone-health-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Vikram Sundararaghavan, Matthew M Mazur, Brad Evans, Jiayong Liu, Nabil A Ebraheim
As the prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, research on some of the lesser-known effects, including impaired bone health, are gaining a lot of attention. The two most common forms of diabetes are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These two differ in their physiology, with T1DM stemming from an inability to produce insulin, and T2DM involving an insufficient response to the insulin that is produced. This review aims to highlight the most current information regarding diabetes as it relates to bone health...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343338/expression-of-typical-osteoclast-markers-by-pbmcs-after-peg-induced-fusion-as-a-model-for-studying-osteoclast-differentiation
#5
Luz M Castillo, Carlos A Guerrero, Orlando Acosta
Bone is a metabolically active organ subjected to continuous remodeling process that involves resorption by osteoclast and subsequent formation by osteoblasts. Osteoclast involvement in this physiological event is regulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Fusion of mono-nuclear pre-osteoclasts is a critical event for osteoclast differentiation and for bone resorption. Here we show that PBMCs can be successfully fused with polyethylenglicol (PEG) in order to generated viable osteoclast-like cells that exhibit tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and bone resorptive activities...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343298/thiazide-increases-serum-calcium-in-anuric-patients-the-role-of-parathyroid-hormone
#6
Raquel F V Vasco, Eduardo T Reis, Rosa M A Moyses, Rosilene M Elias
We evaluated the effect of hydrochlorothiazide in a sample of anuric patients on hemodialysis and found an increase in serum calcium, which occurred only in those with parathyroid hormone >300 pg/ml. This finding highlights the extra-renal effect of this diuretic and a possible role of parathyroid hormone in the mechanism. PURPOSE: Thiazide diuretics are commonly used in patients with chronic kidney disease to treat hypertension. Their effects on calcium and bone metabolism are not well established, once calciuria may not fully explain levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in this population...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343085/guava-fruit-extract-and-its-triterpene-constituents-have-osteoanabolic-effect-stimulation-of-osteoblast-differentiation-by-activation-of-mitochondrial-respiration-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#7
Konica Porwal, Subhashis Pal, Kapil Dev, Shyamsundar Pal China, Yogesh Kumar, Chandan Singh, Tarun Barbhuyan, Neeraj Sinha, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Arun Kumar Trivedi, Rakesh Maurya, Naibedya Chattopadhyay
The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal effect of guava triterpene-enriched extract (GE) in rats and identify osteogenic compounds thereof, and determine their modes of action. In growing female rats, GE at 250 mg/kg dose increased parameters of peak bone mass including femur length, bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical strength, suggesting that GE promoted modeling-directed bone growth. GE also stimulated bone regeneration at the site of bone injury. In adult osteopenic rats (osteopenia induced by ovariectomy, OVX) GE completely restored the lost bones at both axial and appendicular sites, suggesting a strong osteoanabolic effect...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342973/effects-of-a-sustained-release-formulation-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-glycosides-for-milk-fever-prevention-on-serum-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-calcium-and-phosphorus-in-dairy-cows
#8
Heinrich Bachmann, Michael Lanz, Susanne Kehrle, Wolfgang Bittner, Annick Toggenburger, Georg A Mathis, Walter Rambeck
Milk fever (MF) is a metabolic disease in dairy cows around parturition. The clinical lead sign is muscular paresis leading in severe cases to paralysis of the affected animal. Multiparturient animals of high performing dairy breeds are most likely to be affected and have a high probability of recurrence. An acute drop in blood calcium levels causes the disease when the demand for calcium at the onset of lactation exceeds the ability to replete blood calcium levels through mobilization from bone and intestinal uptake...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341762/a-prospective-observational-study-on-effect-of-short-term-periodic-steroid-premedication-on-bone-metabolism-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-espresso-01
#9
Michio Nakamura, Atsushi Ishiguro, Tetsuhito Muranaka, Hiraku Fukushima, Satoshi Yuki, Kota Ono, Taichi Murai, Chika Matsuda, Ayane Oba, Kazufumi Itaya, Takayuki Sone, Masataka Yagisawa, Yuta Koike, Ayana Endo, Yoko Tsukuda, Yuji Ono, Takahiko Kudo, Atsushi Nagasaka, Shuji Nishikawa, Yoshito Komatsu
BACKGROUND: A multicenter prospective observational study evaluated the effect of gastrointestinal cancer chemotherapy with short-term periodic steroid premedication on bone metabolism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-four patients undergoing chemotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer were studied. The primary endpoints were changes in bone mineral densities (BMDs) and metabolic bone turnover 16 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. BMDs, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (sNTX), and bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP) were assessed for evaluation of bone resorption and formation, respectively...
March 24, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341446/pkr-induces-the-expression-of-nlrp3-by-regulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infected-osteoblasts
#10
Kaya Yoshida, Hirohiko Okamura, Yuka Hiroshima, Kaori Abe, Jun-Ichi Kido, Yasuo Shinohara, Kazumi Ozaki
The double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase (PKR), which is activated by double stranded RNA, induces inflammation by regulating NF-κB signaling. The NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome also modulates inflammation in response to infection. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) is an oral bacterium which is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. We previously reported that PKR is a key modulator of bone metabolism and inflammation in the periodontal tissue. PKR was also reported to induce inflammation in response to microbes by regulating the NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that PKR could affect inflammation along with NLRP3 in periodontal diseases...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339949/bone-biopsy-practice-patterns-across-europe-the-european-renal-osteodystrophy-initiative-a-position-paper
#11
Pieter Evenepoel, Patrick D'Haese, Justine Bacchetta, Jorge Cannata-Andia, Anibal Ferreira, Mathias Haarhaus, Sandro Mazzaferro, Marie-Helene Lafage Proust, Syazrah Salam, Goce Spasovski, Mario Cozzolino
Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is a heterogeneous group of metabolic bone diseases complicating progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Bone biomarkers and bone imaging techniques may help to assess bone health and predict fractures in CKD but do have important inherent limitations. By informing on bone turnover and mineralization, a bone biopsy may help to guide prevention and treatment of ROD and its consequences. According to a recent survey conducted among European nephrologists, bone biopsies are performed rather exceptionally, both for clinical and research purposes...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339664/adult-paget-s-disease-of-bone-a-review
#12
Stephen Paul Tuck, Robert Layfield, Julie Walker, Babitha Mekkayil, Roger Francis
Adult PD of bone is the second commonest metabolic bone condition after osteoporosis. The condition is characterized by increased bone cell activity, with bone-resorbing osteoclasts often larger and containing more nuclei than normal, and osteoblasts producing increased amounts of disorganized bone. This leads to expanded bone of poor quality possessing both sclerotic and lytic areas. PD of bone has a strong genetic element, with a family history being noted in 10-20% of cases. A number of genetic defects have been found to be associated with the condition...
February 17, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339498/enhancement-of-osteogenic-differentiation-of-rat-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-zinc-sulphate-under-electromagnetic-field-via-the-pka-erk1-2-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways
#13
Ezzatollah Fathi, Raheleh Farahzadi
Zinc ion as an essential trace element and electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in the presence of EMF as a strategy in osteoporosis therapy. Alkaline phophatase (ALP) activity measurement, calcium assay and expression of several osteoblastic marker genes were examined to assess the effect of ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under EMF...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337956/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#14
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and associated with poor prognosis. Generally kidneys are assumed to be no direct target of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to two different intensity protocols...
March 23, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337794/muramyl-dipeptide-a-shared-structural-motif-of-peptidoglycans-is-a-novel-inducer-of-bone-formation-through-induction-of-runx2
#15
Ok-Jin Park, Jiseon Kim, Jihyun Yang, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Peptidoglycan fragments released from gut microbiota can be delivered to the bone marrow and affect bone metabolism. Here, we investigated the regulation of bone metabolism by muramyl dipeptide (MDP), which is a shared structural unit of peptidoglycans. Increased bone and mineral density by enhanced bone formation were observed in mice administered with MDP. Remarkably, pre-treatment or post-treatment with MDP alleviated bone loss in RANKL-induced osteoporosis mouse models. MDP directly augmented osteoblast differentiation and bone-forming gene expression by Runx2 activation...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336518/bmp-9-interferes-with-liver-regeneration-and-promotes-liver-fibrosis
#16
Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Christoph Meyer, Courtney König, Haristi Gaitantzi, Annalisa Addante, Maria Thomas, Eliza Wiercinska, Chen Cai, Qi Li, Fengqi Wan, Claus Hellerbrand, Nektarios A Valous, Maximilian Hahnel, Christian Ehlting, Johannes G Bode, Stephanie Müller-Bohl, Ursula Klingmüller, Jutta Altenöder, Iryna Ilkavets, Marie-José Goumans, Lukas J A C Hawinkels, Se-Jin Lee, Matthias Wieland, Carolin Mogler, Matthias P Ebert, Blanca Herrera, Hellmut Augustin, Aránzazu Sánchez, Steven Dooley, Peter Ten Dijke
OBJECTIVE: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9, a member of the transforming growth factor-β family of cytokines, is constitutively produced in the liver. Systemic levels act on many organs and tissues including bone and endothelium, but little is known about its hepatic functions in health and disease. DESIGN: Levels of BMP-9 and its receptors were analysed in primary liver cells. Direct effects of BMP-9 on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatocytes were studied in vitro, and the role of BMP-9 was examined in acute and chronic liver injury models in mice...
March 23, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334220/effect-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-developed-countries
#17
Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Martin Hewison, Neil J Gittoes
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide with adverse effects on skeletal health. In recent years, there has been great interest in non-classical actions of vitamin D. Basic research has uncovered actions in a range of non-skeletal tissues, and observational studies have identified inverse relationships with risk of a number of disease states including sarcopenia, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Sources of data: PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Systematic Reviews...
March 9, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333263/loss-of-luteotropic-prostaglandin-e-plays-an-important-role-in-the-regulation-of-luteolysis-in-women
#18
Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Masataka Kudo, Noriaki Sakuragi, Toshihiko Iwanaga, W Colin Duncan
STUDY QUESTION: Do intraluteal prostaglandins (PG) contribute to luteal regulation in women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Prostaglandin E (PGE), which is produced in human granulosa-lutein cells stimulated with luteotropic hCG, exerts similar luteotropic effects to hCG, and the expression of PG synthetic and metabolic enzymes in the human CL is driven toward less PGE but more prostaglandin F (PGF) during luteolysis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Uterine PGF is a major luteolysin in many non-primate species but not in women...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332217/imaging-for-vascular-calcification
#19
Paolo Raggi, W Charles O'Neill
Chronic decline in renal function is accompanied by deterioration of bone structure and function and progressive calcification of the vascular system. Both disease states have been linked with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease. The severe alterations of mineral metabolism inherent with loss of renal function have an impact on vascular calcification development and progression, and several investigators have focused on ways to reduce their impact on vascular health. Imaging has contributed an important role in the assessment of vascular calcification, and the impact of various interventions aimed at curbing their progression...
March 22, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331812/the-plasma-lipidome-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-at-diagnosis-in-relation-to-clinical-disease-features
#20
Thomas Pabst, Linda Kortz, Georg M Fiedler, Uta Ceglarek, Jeffrey R Idle, Diren Beyoğlu
BACKGROUND: Early studies established that certain lipids were lower in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells than normal leukocytes. Because lipids are now known to play an important role in cell signaling and regulation of homeostasis, and are often perturbed in malignancies, we undertook a comprehensive lipidomic survey of plasma from AML patients at time of diagnosis and also healthy blood donors. METHODS: Plasma lipid profiles were measured using three mass spectrometry platforms in 20 AML patients and 20 healthy blood donors...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
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