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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088028/role-of-small-rnas-in-epigenetic-reprogramming-during-plant-sexual-reproduction
#1
REVIEW
German Martinez, Claudia Köhler
Sexual reproduction, the formation of a new individual from specialized reproductive cells after fertilization, involves the precise orchestration of different developmental and genomic processes. These processes are to a large extent governed by small RNAs (sRNAs) that either belong to the class of micro RNAs (miRNAs) or small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The latter are derived from transposable elements (TEs) and involved in genome defense and transgenerational inheritance of heterochromatin identity, ensuring genome stability...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087460/identification-of-the-doublesex-protein-binding-sites-that-activate-expression-of-lozenge-in-the-female-genital-disc-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Shunsuke Wagamitsu, Dan Takase, Fugaku Aoki, Masataka G Suzuki
Normal sexual differentiation in the genital organs is essential for the animal species that use sexual reproduction. Although it is known that doublesex (dsx) is required for the sexual development of the genitalia in various insect species, the direct target genes responsible for the sexual differentiation of the genitalia have not been identified. The lozenge (lz) gene is expressed in the female genital disc and is essential for developments of spermathecae and accessory glands in Drosophila melanogaster...
January 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087386/androgens-and-androgen-receptor-signaling-contribute-to-ovarian-development-in-the-chicken-embryo
#3
Ryoma Tanaka, Hiroe Izumi, Asato Kuroiwa
Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling play important roles throughout development. In the chicken, AR signaling is involved in reproduction; however, its specific role is unclear. We show that AR signaling is involved in the normal development of the female embryonic gonads. The AR mRNA level was detected in male and female embryonic gonads by quantitative RT-PCR, and its expression was higher in females than in males at all developmental stages examined. In female embryos, the AR localized to nuclei of cells in the left gonad...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087301/molecular-characterization-and-quantification-of-estrogen-receptors-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#4
Peng Hu, Zheng Meng, Yudong Jia
Estrogens regulate various reproductive processes via estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling pathway in vertebrates. In this study, full-length sequences coding for ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2 were isolated from female turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by homology cloning and a strategy based on rapid amplification of cDNA end-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of turbot ERs showed high homologies with the corresponding sequences of other fish species and significant homology with the Japaenese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)...
January 10, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086915/comparative-study-in-infertile-couples-with-and-without-chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infection
#5
Yuanchang Zhu, Biao Yin, Tonghua Wu, Lijun Ye, Chunmei Chen, Yong Zeng, Yaou Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis(C. trachomatis), is the most common sexually transmitted disease. The incidence is not clear due to the asymptomatic nature of early stage of infections. The incidence of Chlamydia has not been fully investigated in the Chinese Han population. Since chronic infection with can C. trachomatis can lead to infertility in males and females, it is important to determine the impact of infection on clinical outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore the epidemiology of C...
January 13, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081337/do-anxiety-and-depression-statuses-differ-in-differentpolycystic-ovary-syndrome-phenotypes
#6
Derya Akdağ Cirik, Berna Dilbaz, Sezin Aksakal, Zeynep Kotan, Runa Özelçi, Funda Akpınar, Leyla Mollamahmutoğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate psychological parameters and health quality profiles in women with reproductive polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes and age matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study groups included 101 women with PCOS (54 with the National Institutes of Health [NIH] phenotype and 47 with the non-NIH phenotype) and 49 healthy female controls. The participants completed anxiety and depression scales and four quality of life domains. RESULTS: We identified the women with PCOS as having a 3...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081045/changes-in-the-distribution-of-sex-partners-in-the-united-states-2002-to-2011-2013
#7
Christopher R Harper, Patricia J Dittus, Jami S Leichliter, Sevgi O Aral
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current analysis is to examine subgroup differences in the distribution of opposite-sex sex partners in the United States across an approximate 10-year period to identify patterns that may inform sexually transmitted infection research and prevention. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 2002 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, a US probability-based household survey focusing on sexual and reproductive health. The measures included in this analysis were lifetime opposite-sex sex partners and opposite-sex sex partners in the past year...
February 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079780/subspecialty-influence-on-scientific-peer-review-for-an-obstetrics-and-gynecology-journal-with-a-high-impact-factor
#8
Laura I Parikh, Rebecca S Benner, Thomas W Riggs, Nicholas Hazen, Nancy C Chescheir
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether quality of peer review and reviewer recommendation differ based on reviewer subspecialty in obstetrics and gynecology and to determine the role of experience on reviewer recommendation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of reviews submitted to Obstetrics & Gynecology between January 2010 and December 2014. Subspecialties were determined based on classification terms selected by each reviewer and included all major obstetrics and gynecology subspecialties, general obstetrics and gynecology, and nonobstetrics and gynecology categories...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077776/odour-based-discrimination-of-similarity-at-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-in-birds
#9
Sarah Leclaire, Maria Strandh, Jérôme Mardon, Helena Westerdahl, Francesco Bonadonna
Many animals are known to preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in order to maximize the antigen binding repertoire (or disease resistance) in their offspring. Although several mammals, fish or lizards use odour cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners, the ability of birds to assess MHC similarity using olfactory cues has not yet been explored. Here we used a behavioural binary choice test and high-throughput-sequencing of MHC class IIB to determine whether blue petrels can discriminate MHC similarity based on odour cues alone...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077685/working-with-what-you-ve-got-unattractive-males-show-greater-mate-guarding-effort-in-a-duetting-songbird
#10
Jenélle Dowling, Michael S Webster
When mates are limited, individuals should allocate resources to mating tactics that maximize fitness. In species with extra-pair paternity (EPP), males can invest in mate guarding, or, alternatively, in seeking EPP. Males should optimize fitness by adjusting investment according to their attractiveness to females, such that attractive males seek EPP, and unattractive males guard mates. This theory has received little empirical testing, leaving our understanding of the evolution of mating tactics incomplete; it is unclear how a male's relative attractiveness influences his tactics...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077332/molecular-identification-of-star-and-3%C3%AE-hsd1-and-characterization-in-response-to-gnih-stimulation-in-protogynous-hermaphroditic-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#11
Qingqing Wang, Xin Qi, Haipei Tang, Yin Guo, Shuisheng Li, Gaofei Li, Xiaoli Yang, Haifa Zhang, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin
Gonadal steroids are critical factors in reproduction and sex reverse process. StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), transferring the cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner membrane, is the rate-limiting factor of steroidogenesis. 3βHSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase), converting Δ5-steroids into Δ4-steroids, is an important oxidoreductase in steroidogenesis. In the present study, StAR and 3βHSD1 were cloned and characterized from protogynous orange-spotted grouper...
January 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077272/evaluation-of-sodium-arsenite-exposure-on-reproductive-competence-in-pregnant-and-postlactational-dams-and-their-offspring
#12
Nadia Soledad Bourguignon, María Marta Bonaventura, Diego Rodríguez, Marianne Bizzozzero, Clara Ventura, Mariel Nuñez, Victoria Adela Lux-Lantos, Carlos Libertun
We investigated arsenite exposure on the reproductive axis of dams (during pregnancy and at cyclicity resumption) and their offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to 5 (A5) or 50ppm (A50) of sodium arsenite in drinking water from gestational day 1 (GD1) until sacrifice at GD18 or two months postpartum. Offspring were exposed to the same treatment as their mothers from weaning to adulthood. A50-pregnant rats gained less weight, showed increased testosterone and estradiol but pregnancy was unaffected. After lactation, arsenic-exposed dams presented compromised cyclicity, decreased estradiol, increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), less preovulatory follicles and presence of ovarian cysts, suggesting impaired reproduction...
January 7, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076534/absorption-and-metabolization-of-sex-hormones-and-their-transformation-into-contraceptive-technologies-the-paths-taken-by-medical-thought-in-brazil
#13
Claudia Bonan, Luiz Antonio Teixeira, Andreza Rodrigues Nakano
The article analyses knowledge assimilation and the development of clinical and research practices relating to sex hormones among Brazilian gynaecologists. It discusses the paths taken by medical thought from the reception of the hormones to their transformation into contraceptives. Our objective is to comprehend styles of introducing and disseminating medical technologies in the area of reproductive health in Brazil. It uses methods of historical analysis and takes as its source the Anais Brasileiros de Ginecologia, a journal published between 1936 and 1970...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074980/-implications-of-chilean-legal-framework-in-teen-pregnancy-prevention-conflict-and-insecurity-in-health-professionals
#14
Carolina Luttges D, Carolina Leyton M, Ingrid Leal F, Paulina Troncoso E, Temístocles Molina G
BACKGROUND: Teenage pregnancy is a psychosocial and multifactorial problem described as a lack of exercise of rights in sexual and reproductive health. There are important aspects in the doctor-patient relationship and confidentiality that directly affect the continuity and quality of care. There are controversies in the laws relating to the provision of contraception and confidentiality, and those that protect the sexual indemnity, especially in adolescents under 14 years. AIM: To describe the implications of the legal framework for professional midwives in the care of adolescents younger than 14 years in sexual and reproductive health...
October 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074919/development-of-microsatellite-markers-and-estimation-of-inbreeding-frequency-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-melittobia
#15
Jun Abe, Bart A Pannebakker
The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using next-generation sequencing, 20 microsatellite loci were developed and characterized for M. australica. The developed loci were used to analyze two populations, one from a mainland Japan and one from the Okinawa island region...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074860/sex-and-age-dependent-patterns-of-survival-and-breeding-success-in-a-long-lived-endangered-avian-scavenger
#16
Ana Sanz-Aguilar, Ainara Cortés-Avizanda, David Serrano, Guillermo Blanco, Olga Ceballos, Juan M Grande, José L Tella, José A Donázar
In long-lived species, the age-, stage- and/or sex-dependent patterns of survival and reproduction determine the evolution of life history strategies, the shape of the reproductive value, and ultimately population dynamics. We evaluate the combined effects of age and sex in recruitment, breeder survival and breeding success of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), using 31-years of exhaustive data on marked individuals in Spain. Mean age of first reproduction was 7-yrs for both sexes, but females showed an earlier median and a larger variance than males...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074843/sexy-males-and-sexless-females-the-origin-of-triploid-apomicts
#17
P Muralidhar, D Haig
Apomixis and polyploidy are closely associated in angiosperms, but the evolutionary reason for this association is unknown. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, exists both as diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Here, in the context of T. officinale, we provide a model of the evolution of triploid apomicts from diploid sexuals. We posit an apomictic allele that arrests female meiosis in diploids, so that the plant produces diploid egg cells that can develop without fertilization, but haploid pollen...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074343/interspecies-sexual-behaviour-between-a-male-japanese-macaque-and-female-sika-deer
#18
Marie Pelé, Alexandre Bonnefoy, Masaki Shimada, Cédric Sueur
Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal...
January 10, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073983/a-novel-embryo-culture-media-supplement-that-improves-pregnancy-rates-in-mice
#19
A R Highet, T Bianco-Miotto, K G Pringle, A Peura, S Bent, J Zhang, M B Nottle, J G Thompson, C T Roberts
The preimplantation embryo in vivo is exposed to numerous growth factors in the female reproductive tract, which are not recapitulated in embryo culture media in vitro The IGF2 and plasminogen activator systems facilitate blastocyst development. We hypothesized that the addition of IGF2 in combination with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen could improve rates of blastocyst hatching and implantation in mice. B6BcF1 and CBAB6F2 mouse embryos were divided into one of four supplemented culture media treatment groups: (1) control (media only); (2) 12...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073972/awareness-and-attitude-regarding-reproductive-options-of-persons-carrying-a-brca-mutation-and-their-partners
#20
J J G Gietel-Habets, C E M de Die-Smulders, I A P Derks-Smeets, A Tibben, V C G Tjan-Heijnen, R van Golde, E Gomez-Garcia, C M Kets, L A D M van Osch
STUDY QUESTION: To what extent are BRCA mutation carriers and their partners in the Netherlands aware about preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and prenatal diagnosis (PND) as reproductive options and what is their attitude towards these options? SUMMARY ANSWER: Awareness of PGD (66%) and PND (61%) among BRCA mutation carriers and their partners is relatively high and 80% and 26%, respectively, of BRCA carriers and their partners find offering PGD and PND for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) acceptable...
January 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
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