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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442413/ongoing-changes-in-migration-phenology-and-winter-residency-at-bracken-bat-cave
#1
Phillip M Stepanian, Charlotte E Wainwright
Bats play an important role in agroecology and are effective bioindicators of environmental conditions, but little is known about their fundamental migration ecology, much less how these systems are responding to global change. Some of the world's largest bat populations occur during the summer in the south-central United States, when millions of pregnant females migrate from lower latitudes to give birth in communal maternity colonies. Despite a relatively large volume of research into these colonies, many fundamental questions regarding their abundance-including their intra- and interseasonal variability-remain unanswered, and even estimating the size of individual populations has been a long-running challenge...
February 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441682/genome-wide-analysis-of-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-the-sweet-potato-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#2
Yang Zeng, Yu-Ting Yang, Qing-Jun Wu, Shao-Li Wang, Wen Xie, You-Jun Zhang
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of insects are thought to play roles in olfactory recognition affecting host choice, copulation, reproduction, and other behaviors. Previous descriptions of OBPs and CSPs in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci often provided no or incomplete genetic information. In this study, we present a genome-wide and transcriptome-wide investigation of the OBPs and CSPs in B. tabaci MEAM1 (Middle East-Asia Minor1 species). Eight OBP and 19 CSP genes were identified that covered all previous sequences...
February 14, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441526/effects-of-parental-care-on-resource-allocation-into-immune-defense-and-buccal-microbiota-in-mouthbrooding-cichlid-fishes
#3
Isabel S Keller, Till Bayer, Walter Salzburger, Olivia Roth
Sexual dimorphism is founded upon a resource allocation trade-off between investments in reproduction versus other life-history traits including the immune system. In species with conventional parental care roles, theory predicts that males maximize their lifetime reproductive success by allocating resources towards sexual selection, while females achieve this through prolonging their lifespan. Here, we examine the interrelation between sexual dimorphism and parental care strategies in closely related maternal and biparental mouthbrooding cichlid fishes from East African Lake Tanganyika...
February 14, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441420/multilayered-signaling-pathways-for-pollen-tube-growth-and-guidance
#4
REVIEW
Hong-Ju Li, Jiang-Guo Meng, Wei-Cai Yang
Sexual reproductive success is essential for the survival of all higher organisms. As the most prosperous and diverse group of land plants on earth, flowering plants evolved highly sophisticated fertilization mechanisms. To adapt to the terrestrial environment, a tubular structure pollen tube has been evolved to deliver the immobile sperm cells to the egg and central cell enclosed within the ovule. The pollen tube is generated from the vegetative cell of the pollen (male gametophyte), where two sperm cells are hosted...
February 13, 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438890/flavonoids-from-chinese-bayberry-leaves-induced-apoptosis-and-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-via-erk-pathway-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#5
Yu Zhang, Shiguo Chen, Chaoyang Wei, Gary O Rankin, Xingqian Ye, Yi Charlie Chen
Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of death related to the female reproductive system in western countries. Adverse side effects and resistance to platinum based chemotherapy have become the major obstacles for ovarian cancer treatment. Natural products have gained great attention in cancer treatment in recent years. Chinese bayberry leaves flavonoids (BLF) containing rich content of myricitrin (myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside) and a part of quercetrin (quercetin 3-rhamnoside) inhibited the growth of an ovarian cancer cell line A2780/CP70...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438648/managing-menopausal-symptoms-after-cancer-an-evidence-based-approach-for-primary-care
#6
Jennifer L Marino, Helen C McNamara, Martha Hickey
Impaired ovarian function and menopausal symptoms are common after cancer treatment. Menopausal symptoms often occur at an earlier age in women with cancer, and may be more severe than in natural menopause; they may be the most persistent and troubling sequelae of cancer. A third of female patients with cancer report dissatisfaction with the quality and length of physician-patient discussions about reproductive health, including menopause. Systemic menopausal hormone therapy is the most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms, but it is not suitable for all patients after cancer - where it is unsuitable, alternative effective non-hormonal treatments are available...
February 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438553/rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-vatpase-subunits-affects-survival-and-reproduction-of-bed-bugs-hemiptera-cimicidae
#7
Sanjay Basnet, Shripat T Kamble
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) has resurged as one of the most troublesome household pests affecting people across the globe. Bed bug infestations have increased in recent years primarily due to the evolution of insecticide resistance and the insect's ability to hitchhike with travelers. vATPases are one of the most evolutionarily conserved holoenzymes in eukaryotes, which are mainly involved in proton transport across the plasma membranes and intracellular organelles. RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as a promising tool for insect control...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438493/history-of-estrogen-in-the-male-an-historical-perspective
#8
Rex A Hess, Paul S Cooke
Estrogens have traditionally been considered female hormones. Nevertheless, the presence of estrogenic substances in males has been known for over 90 years. Initial work with estrogen suggested that it was deleterious to male reproduction because exogenous estrogen treatments induced developmental abnormalities. However, demonstrations of estrogen synthesis in the testis and high concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) in rete testis fluid suggested that the female hormone might have a function in normal male reproduction...
February 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437777/trehalose-6-phosphate-regulates-photosynthesis-and-assimilate-partitioning-in-reproductive-tissue
#9
Maria Oszvald, Lucia F Primavesi, Cara A Griffiths, Jonathan Cohn, Shib Basu, Michael L Nuccio, Matthew J Paul
Transgenic maize expressing a rice trehalose phosphate phosphatase (TPP1) controlled by a rice MADS6 promoter active over the 2- to 3-week flowering period are higher yielding than wild type with or without drought during flowering. To better understand the mechanistic basis of the yield increase, we characterise gene expression and metabolite profiles in developing female reproductive tissue comprising florets, node, pith and shank and in leaves over the flowering period with and without drought. Using the β-glucuronidase reporter the MADS6 promoter activity was most closely linked to vasculature, particularly phloem companion cells in florets and pith consistent with largest decreases in trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) levels (2-3 fold) in pith and florets...
February 6, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437259/early-fetal-sexing-in-the-rhinoceros-by-detection-of-male-specific-genes-in-maternal-serum
#10
Monica A Stoops, G Douglas Winget, Christopher J DeChant, Ray L Ball, Terri L Roth
Genetic sexing of animals with long gestation time benefits the management of captive populations. Here, X and Y chromosome-specific primers, based on equine gene sequencing data, were developed and tested on captive rhinoceroses (10 males, 20 females) representing four species (Diceros bicornis, Certaotherium simum simum, Rhinoceros unicornis, and Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). The Y chromosome-specific primer set targeted SRY (Sex-determining region Y), and amplified a 177-bp product following PCR of DNA extracted from males, but not females, of all species...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435261/facultative-pupal-mating-in-heliconius-erato-implications-for-mate-choice-female-preference-and-speciation
#11
Timothy J Thurman, Emily Brodie, Elizabeth Evans, William Owen McMillan
Mating systems have broad impacts on how sexual selection and mate choice operate within a species, but studies of mating behavior in the laboratory may not reflect how these processes occur in the wild. Here, we examined the mating behavior of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato in the field by releasing larvae and virgin females and observing how they mated. H. erato is considered a pupal-mating species (i.e., males mate with females as they emerge from the pupal case). However, we observed only two teneral mating events, and experimentally released virgins were almost all mated upon recapture...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435238/symbiont-conferred-reproduction-and-fitness-benefits-can-favour-their-host-occurrence
#12
Yan-Kai Zhang, Kun Yang, Yu-Xi Zhu, Xiao-Yue Hong
Double infections of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma are frequent in natural populations of Tetranychus truncatus, a polyphagous mite species that has been a dominant species in China since 2009. However, little is known about the causes and ecological importance of such coexistences. In this study, we established T. truncatus strains with different infection types and then inferred the impact of the two endosymbionts on host reproduction and fitness. Double infection induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was demonstrated by reduction in egg hatchability of incompatible crosses...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435236/stronger-social-bonds-do-not-always-predict-greater-longevity-in-a-gregarious-primate
#13
Nicole A Thompson, Marina Cords
In group-living species, individuals often have preferred affiliative social partners, with whom ties or bonds can confer advantages that correspond with greater fitness. For example, in adult female baboons and juvenile horses, individuals with stronger or more social ties experience greater survival. We used detailed behavioral and life history records to explore the relationship between tie quality and survival in a gregarious monkey (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni), while controlling for dominance rank, group size, and life history strategy...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434276/the-extracellular-domain-of-pollen-receptor-kinase-3-is-structurally-similar-to-the-serk-family-of-co-receptors
#14
Sayan Chakraborty, Haiyun Pan, Qingyu Tang, Colin Woolard, Guozhou Xu
During reproduction in flowering plants, the male gametophyte delivers an immotile male gamete to the female gametophyte in the pistil by formation of pollen tubes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two synergid cells situated on either side of the egg cell produce cysteine-rich chemoattractant peptide LURE that guides the pollen tube to the female gametophyte for sexual reproduction. Recently, in Arabidopsis thaliana, Pollen Receptor Kinase 3 (PRK3), along with PRK1, PRK6, and PRK8, have been predicted to be the receptors responsible for sensing LURE...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433961/immunology-of-the-uterine-and-vaginal-mucosae
#15
REVIEW
Jordan Z Zhou, Sing Sing Way, Kang Chen
Along with the maintenance of symbiotic mutualism with commensal microbes and protection against invasive infections common to all mucosal barrier tissues, female reproductive tissues have additional, unique tasks that include dynamic cyclic cellular turnover in menstruation and immunological tolerance to genetically foreign fetal antigens in pregnancy. Here we review current knowledge on distinct features of the immune cells in female reproductive tissue with regard to antimicrobial host defense and adaptations to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy...
February 9, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433448/the-role-of-facial-pattern-variation-for-species-recognition-in-red-fronted-lemurs-eulemur-rufifrons
#16
Hanitriniaina Rakotonirina, Peter M Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel
BACKGROUND: Species recognition, i.e., the ability to distinguish conspecifics from heterospecifics, plays an essential role in reproduction. The role of facial cues for species recognition has been investigated in several non-human primate species except for lemurs. We therefore investigated the role of facial cues for species recognition in wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) at Kirindy Forest. We presented adult red-fronted lemurs pictures of male faces from five species including red-fronted lemurs, three closely related species, white-fronted lemurs (E...
February 13, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433012/talking-about-male-body-based-contraceptives-the-counseling-visit-and-the-feminization-of-contraception
#17
Katrina Kimport
In developed countries, women bear the primary, and sometimes exclusive, responsibility for preventing pregnancy in heterosexual sexual relations. This unequal burden is not an intrinsic fact; it is the consequence of broad social narratives and interpersonal negotiations. The contraceptive counseling visit is increasingly recognized as a site of the discursive production of normative ideas about reproduction, suggesting that clinicians themselves may contribute to the assignment of responsibility for contraceptive labor to women (i...
February 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432986/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-and-suicide-attempts-as-a-correlation-among-women-in-reproductive-age
#18
Narges Shams-Alizadeh, Azad Maroufi, Mahsa Rashidi, Daem Roshani, Fariba Farhadifar, Habibolah Khazaie
AIM: Women likely attempt suicide more than men and sex hormones or menstrual cycle may be associated with female suicide attempts. There are debates regarding the correlation of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and suicidal behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine if PMDD was associated with suicidal attempts as sex hormones are contributed in its pathogenesis. METHODS: As a case-control study 120 fertile woman with regular menstrual cycles attempting suicide and admitted to a general hospital were compared with a matched control group of 120 women selected among those accompanying other patients in other wards...
February 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432841/evaluation-of-13-week-repeated-oral-dose-toxicity-of-areca-catechu-in-f344-n-rats
#19
Hyun-Ji Kim, Je-Won Ko, Seung-Beom Cha, Hyun-Suk Heo, Jong-Hun Seo, Mi-Jin Cha, Jin-Sook Bae, Hyun-Kul Lee, Si-Whan Song, Jong-Choon Kim
This study investigated the potential toxicity of the Areca catechu water extract after 13-week repeated oral administration at 0, 166.7, 500, and 1500 mg/kg/day in rats. During the study period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, water consumption, urinalysis, estrous cycle, sperm count and motility, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology were examined. At 1500 mg/kg/day, both sexes exhibited an increase in the incidence of abnormal clinical signs, which included, decreased body weight gain and food consumption, and increased urine bilirubin, ketone bodies, specific gravity, and protein and kidney weight...
February 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432729/functional-characterization-and-quantitative-expression-analysis-of-two-gnrh-related-peptide-receptors-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#20
Alireza Oryan, Azizia Wahedi, Jean-Paul V Paluzzi
To cope with stressful events such as flight, organisms have evolved various regulatory mechanisms, often involving control by endocrine-derived factors. In insects, two stress-related factors include the gonadotropin-releasing hormone-related peptides adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ). AKH is a pleiotropic hormone best known as a substrate liberator of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. CRZ has been shown to have roles in pigmentation, ecdysis or act as a cardiostimulatory factor although a universal function has not yet been elucidated...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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