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female reproduction

Michelle Bedenbaugh, Rick McCosh, Justin Lopez, John Connors, Robert L Goodman, Stan Hileman
<br> Background: Neuronal intermediates that communicate estrogen and progesterone feedback to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are essential for modulating reproductive cyclicity. Individually, kisspeptin and nitric oxide (NO) influence GnRH secretion. However, it is possible these two neuronal intermediates interact with one another to affect reproductive cyclicity. METHODS: We investigated the neuroanatomical relationship of one isoform of the enzyme that synthesizes NO, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to kisspeptin and GnRH in adult female rhesus monkeys and sheep using dual-label immunofluorescence...
June 21, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Flávia C M Pinto, Rosangela R De-Carvalho, Ana Cecilia A X De-Oliveira, Isabella F Delgado, Francisco J R Paumgartten
β-ionone (BIO) is used in fragrances, toiletries and non-cosmetic products, and as a flavor food additive. Notwithstanding the widespread human exposure, there are limited data on the reproductive toxicity of BIO. This study evaluated the developmental toxicity of BIO (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight/day) given orally to rats on days 6-15 of gestation (GD6-15). C-section was on GD21 and implantations, living and dead fetuses and resorptions were recorded. Fetuses were weighed, and examined for external abnormalities and skeleton and visceral anomalies...
June 18, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Tonje K Sørdalen, Kim T Halvorsen, Hugo B Harrison, Charlie D Ellis, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Halvor Knutsen, Even Moland, Esben M Olsen
Removing individuals from a wild population can affect the availability of prospective mates and the outcome of competitive interactions, with subsequent effects on mating patterns and sexual selection. Consequently, the rate of harvest-induced evolution is predicted to be strongly dependent on the strength and dynamics of sexual selection, yet there is limited empirical knowledge on the interplay between selective harvesting and the mating systems of exploited species. In this study, we used genetic parentage assignment to compare mating patterns of the highly valued and overexploited European lobster ( Homarus gammarus ) in a designated lobster reserve and nearby fished area in southern Norway...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Eduardo H Umeoka, Matheus C Eiras, Iara G Viana, Vanessa S Giorgi, Aline Bueno, Débora C Damasceno, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Paula A Navarro
Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is an animal model for epilepsy studies, the chronic multifactorial disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The animals of this strain are genetically predisposed to sound-induced seizures, called audiogenic seizures, and have been used for many years in studies to understand the mechanisms involved in the epilepsies and their neuropsychiatric comorbidities, as well as the screening of potential anti-convulsant agents. Nevertheless, little is known about the reproductive characteristics of these animals...
June 21, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Robert D Denton, Ariadna E Morales, H Lisle Gibbs
Quantifying introgression between sexual species and polyploid lineages traditionally thought to be asexual is an important step in understanding what drives the longevity of putatively asexual groups. Here, we capitalize on three recent innovations-ultraconserved element (UCE) sequencing, bioinformatic techniques for identifying genome-specific variation in polyploids, and model-based methods for evaluating historical gene flow-to measure the extent and tempo of introgression over the evolutionary history of an allopolyploid lineage of all-female salamanders and two ancestral sexual species...
June 21, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Long Tan, Hai-Qiang Li, Yi-Bo Li, Wei Liu, Wei Pang, Yu-Gang Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To identify the genotype of (APP/PS1) transgenic mice and evaluate the changing of cognitive and behavioral fu nctions, provide an effective animal model for the Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. METHODS: Male APP/PS1 transgenic mice mated with female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, and the genotype of their filial mice was identified by PCR. The APP +/PS1 + mice were assigned into AD model group (AD group, n =8), and the APP/PS1 mice were assigned into control group (CT group, n =8)...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Rhoune Ochako, Jerry Okal, Steven Kimetu, Ian Askew, Marleen Temmerman
BACKGROUND: Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are predisposed to a broad range of social, sexual and reproductive health problems such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV, unintended pregnancy, violence, sexual exploitation, stigma and discrimination. Female sex workers have unmet need for contraceptives and require comprehensive Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) prevention interventions. Existing programs pay little attention to the broad sexual and reproductive health and rights of these women and often focus on HIV and other STIs prevention, care and treatment while neglecting their reproductive health needs, including access to family planning methods...
June 20, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, Julie Gauzere, Aurore Bontemps, Jean-François Rey, Etienne K Klein
Inter-individual variation in fecundities has major consequences on population evolutionary potential, through genetic drift and selection. Using two spatially explicit mating models that analyze the genotypes of seeds and seedlings, we investigated the variation of male and female fecundities within and among three European beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands situated along an altitudinal gradient. Female and male individual fecundity distributions were both skewed in this monoecious species, and we found a higher variance in female as compared to male fecundities...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Jessica R Brzyski, Christopher R Stieha, D Nicholas McLetchie
Background and Aims: In dioecious plants, sexual reproduction requires close proximity to potential mates, but clonal growth can increase this distance and, therefore, reduce the probability of mating. Reduction in sexual propagules can lead to decreased dispersal and gene flow between populations. Gene flow and clonal growth may be further influenced by the size of the habitat patch. The effects of habitat size and reproductive mode (sexual or asexual reproduction) on spatial genetic structure and segregation of the sexes were tested by quantifying the distributions of genotypes and the sexes using the dioecious liverwort Marchantia inflexa...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hongyan Xu, Xinping Zhu, Wei Li, Zhoukai Tang, Yanyan Zhao, Xuling Wu
Gonadal cell lines provide valuable tools for studying gametogenesis, sex differentiation, and manipulating germ cells in reproductive biology. Female germline stem cells have been characterized and isolated from ovaries of mammalian species, including mice and human, but there has been very few studies on female germline stem cells in reptiles. Here, we described an ovarian stem cell-like line isolated and cultured from the Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), designated as PSO1. The cells showed high alkaline phosphatase activity with a normal diploid karyotype...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Bo-Jun Liu, Cheng-Feng Wu, Paul A Garber, Peng Zhang, Ming Li
In the present study, we compared mother-infant relationships in 57 mother-infant dyads residing in two wild, semi-provisioned (22 mother-infant dyads in 2014, 35 dyads in 2015) groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Nanwan Nature Reserve for Rhesus Macaques, Hainan, China. We also compared reproductive success between these two groups. The ecology and provisioning regime for each group was similar. These groups differed however, in size. Group 1 contained ∼35 individuals and Group 2 contained ∼120 individuals...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Sellamani Muthulakshmi, Pourmohammadi Fallah Hamideh, Hamid R Habibi, Kannan Maharajan, Krishna Kadirvelu, Venkataramana Mudili
In the present study, we aimed to assess the adverse effects of zearalenone (ZEA) at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μg l-1 ) on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis associated reproductive function using zebrafish model. ZEA was exposed to female zebrafish for 21 days to assess growth indices such as condition factor, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index and caspase 3 activity. Further, expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α and CYP19a1b genes in the brain, ERα and vitellogenin (Vtg) genes in the liver and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor, ERα, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17-βHSD and CYP19a1 genes in the ovary were also investigated...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Mariana Zancan, Rick Shandler R da Cunha, Francielle Schroeder, Léder L Xavier, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a sexually dimorphic area and plays a central role in the social behavior network of rats. Dendritic spines modulate synaptic processing and plasticity. Here, we compared the number and structure of dendritic spines in the MePD of prepubertal males and females, and postpubertal males with and without sexual experience. Spines were classified and measured after three-dimensional image reconstruction using DiI fluorescent labeling and confocal microscopy. Significantly differences are: (1) prepubertal males have more proximal spines, stubby/wide spines with long length and large head diameter, and thin and mushroom spines with wide neck and head diameters than prepubertal females, whereas (2) prepubertal females have more mushroom spines with long neck length than age-matched males...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Piotr Robakowski, Emilia Pers-Kamczyc, Ewelina Ratajczak, Peter A Thomas, Zi-Piao Ye, Mariola Rabska, Grzegorz Iszkuło
In dioecious woody plants, females often make a greater reproductive effort than male individuals at the cost of lower growth rate. We hypothesized that a greater reproductive effort of female compared with male Taxus baccata individuals would be associated with lower female photochemical capacity and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. Differences between the genders would change seasonally and would be more remarkable under nutrient deficiency. Electron transport rate (ETRmax ), saturation photosynthetic photon flux corresponding to maximum electron transport rate (PPFsat ), quantum yield of PSII photochemistry at PPFsat (ΦPPFsat ), and chlorophyll a fluorescence and activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined in needles of T...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Topi K Lehtonen, P Andreas Svensson, Bob B M Wong
Both between- and within-individual variation in behaviour can be important in determining mating opportunities and reproductive outcomes. Such behavioural variability can be induced by environmental conditions, especially if individuals vary in their tolerance levels or resource allocation patterns. We tested the effects of exposure to different salinity levels on male investment into two important components of mating success-intrasexual aggression and intersexual courtship-in a fish with a resource defence mating system, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rocco Malivindi, Marta Santoro, Daniela De Rose, Salvatore Panza, Serena Gervasi, Vittoria Rago, Saveria Aquila
The farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXR) is a bile acid sensor activated by binding to endogenous bile acids including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Although, FXR is expressed in male reproductive tissue, the relevance of the receptor on reproduction is scarcely known. Here we demonstrated the FXR presence and its action on several human sperm features. Western blot and Immunofluorescence assays evidenced the FXR expression in human spermatozoa and the localization in the middle piece. CDCA increasing concentrations and GW4064, synthetic ligand of FXR, were used to study the FXR influence on sperm motility, survival, capacitation, acrosome reaction and on glucose as well as lipid metabolism...
June 19, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Soo-Min Kim, Kyung-A Hwang, Kyung-Chul Choi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major sources of cellular oxidative stress. Specifically, cancer cells harbor genetic alterations that promote a continuous and elevated production of ROS. While such oxidative stress conditions could be harmful to normal cells, they facilitate cancer cell growth in multiple ways by causing DNA damage and genomic instability, and ultimately, by reprogramming cancer cell metabolism. This review provides up to date findings regarding the role of ROS generation induced by diverse biological molecules and chemicals in representative women's' cancer...
June 20, 2018: BMB Reports
Andrew Self, Samuel Chipokosa, Amos Misomali, Tricia Aung, Steven A Harvey, Mercy Chimchere, James Chilembwe, Lois Park, Chrissie Chalimba, Edson Monjeza, Fannie Kachale, Jameson Ndawala, Melissa A Marx
BACKGROUND: Malawi has made progress in increasing its overall modern contraceptive prevalence rate since 2000, resulting in a dramatic reduction in its total fertility rate. However, youth, 15-24 years, have not had the same successes. Teenage pregnancies are on the rise and little progress has been made in reducing unmet need for family planning among youth. With two-thirds of the population under the age of 25 and with Malawi's rapid population growth, reducing unmet need for family planning among youth remains a priority for the government's reproductive health agenda...
June 19, 2018: Reproductive Health
Momoko Kobayashi, Kaya Watanabe, Ritsuko Matsumura, Nozomi Anayama, Akio Miyamoto, Hitoshi Miyazaki, Koyomi Miyazaki, Takashi Shimizu, Makoto Akashi
Circadian dysfunction perturbs the female reproductive cycle. In particular, mice lacking the clock gene Bmal1 show severe infertility, implying that BMAL1 plays roles in ovulation and luteinization. Here, we examined temporal changes in clock gene expression in the ovary and oviduct before and during gonadotropin-induced follicular growth, ovulation, and luteinization in sexually immature mice. While the oviduct did not show a drastic change in clock gene expression, Bmal1 expression in the ovary was higher than that in control mice during the period from 4 to 16 hr after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration...
June 19, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
L R Rivkin, Spencer C H Barrett, Marc T J Johnson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The strength of plant-herbivore interactions varies in space and time, but the factors that explain this variation are poorly understood. Several lines of research suggest that variation in plant reproductive systems and latitude may explain resistance against herbivores, but how these factors jointly affect plant-herbivore interactions has not been investigated in detail. We examined the effects of latitude, sexual system, and plant gender on herbivory in Sagittaria latifolia, an aquatic plant in which populations are typically monoecious (separate female and male flowers) or dioecious (separate female and male plants)...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Botany
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