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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102007/effects-of-diet-restriction-and-diet-complexity-on-life-history-strategies-in-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#1
Heather M Skinner, Andrew M Durso, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susan L Durham, Sarah D Mueller, Susannah S French
Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101439/development-of-highly-variable-microsatellite-markers-for-the-tetraploid-silene-stellata-caryophyllaceae
#2
Juannan Zhou, Michele R Dudash, Charles B Fenster, Elizabeth A Zimmer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We designed and tested microsatellite markers for the North American native species Silene stellata (Caryophyllaceae) to investigate its population genetic structure and identify selection on floral design through male reproductive success. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 153 candidate microsatellite loci were isolated based on next-generation sequencing. We identified 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci in three populations of S. stellata, with di- or trinucleotide repeats...
December 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101122/start-early-does-social-instability-during-the-pre-and-early-postnatal-development-prepare-male-wild-cavies-for-social-challenge-later-in-life
#3
Katja Siegeler, Lars Lewejohann, Klaus Failing, Norbert Sachser, Sylvia Kaiser
BACKGROUND: The social environment the mother experiences during pregnancy and lactation can powerfully influence the offspring's behavioural profile. Our previous studies in wild cavies show that two different social environments during pregnancy and lactation bring about different behavioural strategies of male offspring later in life: An unstable social environment leads to a behavioural camouflage strategy, hypothesised to be beneficial at times of socially challenging situations...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100821/tail-regeneration-after-autotomy-revives-survival-a-case-from-a-long-term-monitored-lizard-population-under-avian-predation
#4
Jhan-Wei Lin, Ying-Rong Chen, Ying-Han Wang, Kuen-Chih Hung, Si-Min Lin
Caudal autotomy in lizards has intrigued scientists for more than 100 years. Because of the relative lack of literature under natural conditions, the complicated association among field autotomy rate, real predation pressure, the long-term cost of tail loss, and the benefit of regeneration remains equivocal. In this study, we conducted a 7-year capture-mark-recapture (CMR) programme with a wild population of a sexually dichromatic lizard, Takydromus viridipunctatus We used autotomy indexes and a contemporary bird census mega-dataset of four predatory birds as predictors to examine the association between tail loss and predation pressure...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100708/the-origin-of-floral-organ-identity-quartets
#5
Philip Ruelens, Zhicheng Zhang, Hilda van Mourik, Steven Maere, Kerstin Kaufmann, Koen Geuten
The origin of flowers has puzzled plant biologists ever since Darwin referred to their sudden appearance in the fossil record as an abominable mystery. Flowers are considered to be an assembly of protective, attractive and reproductive male and female leaf-like organs. Their origin cannot be understood by a morphological comparison to gymnosperms, their closest relatives, which develop separate male or female cones. Despite these morphological differences, gymnosperms and angiosperms possess a similar genetic toolbox consisting of phylogenetically related MADS-domain proteins...
January 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100475/effects-of-obesity-and-exercise-on-testicular-leptin-signal-transduction-and-testosterone-biosynthesis-in-male-mice
#6
Xuejie Yi, Haining Gao, Dequan Chen, Donghui Tang, Wanting Huang, Tao Li, Tie Ma, Bo Chang
To explore the role of the testicular leptin and JAK-STAT(LEP-JAK-STAT) pathway in testosterone biosynthesis during juvenile stages and exercise for weight loss, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal-diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) groups. After 10 weeks, mice in the HFD group were further divided randomly into obese control (OC), obese moderate-volume exercise (OME), and obese high-volume exercise (OHE) groups. Mice in the OME group were provided with 2 h/day, 6 days/week swimming exercise for 8 weeks and mice in the OHE group underwent twice the amount of daily exercise intervention as the OME group...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099777/positive-selection-on-sperm-ion-channels-in-a-brooding-brittle-star-consequence-of-life-history-traits-evolution
#7
A A-T Weber, L Abi-Rached, N Galtier, A Bernard, J I Montoya-Burgos, A Chenuil
Closely related species are key models to investigate mechanisms leading to reproductive isolation and early stages of diversification, also at the genomic level. The brittle star cryptic species complex Ophioderma longicauda encompasses the sympatric broadcast spawning species C3 and the internal brooding species C5. Here we used de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly in two closely related species displaying contrasting reproductive modes to compare their genetic diversity and to investigate the role of natural selection in reproductive isolation...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097419/modelling-wolbachia-infection-in-a-sex-structured-mosquito-population-carrying-west-nile-virus
#8
József Z Farkas, Stephen A Gourley, Rongsong Liu, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu
Wolbachia is possibly the most studied reproductive parasite of arthropod species. It appears to be a promising candidate for biocontrol of some mosquito borne diseases. We begin by developing a sex-structured model for a Wolbachia infected mosquito population. Our model incorporates the key effects of Wolbachia infection including cytoplasmic incompatibility and male killing. We also allow the possibility of reduced reproductive output, incomplete maternal transmission, and different mortality rates for uninfected/infected male/female individuals...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097049/sharing-refuges-on-arid-islands-ecological-and-social-influence-on-aggregation-behaviour-of-wall-geckos
#9
Raquel Vasconcelos, Sara Rocha, Xavier Santos
BACKGROUND: The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. METHODS: After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096618/evaluation-of-sperm-recovered-after-slaughter-from-cauda-epididymides-of-red-sokoto-bucks
#10
A H Abu, A I Kisani, T Ahemen
AIM: Viable spermatozoa could be recovered from the cauda epididymides for the purpose of preservation of genetic material of male animals with desirable traits and for use in reproductive biotechnology. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage time on testicular and epididymal biometry, sperm reserves and epididymal sperm characteristics of red Sokoto bucks post mortem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testes-epididymides were collected immediately after slaughter of mature red Sokoto bucks and transported in ice chest to the laboratory...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096494/reproductive-performance-primarily-depends-on-the-female-genotype-in-a-two-factorial-breeding-experiment-using-high-fertility-mouse-lines
#11
Martina Langhammer, Marten Michaelis, Michaela F Hartmann, Stefan A Wudy, Alexander Sobczak, Gerd Nürnberg, Norbert Reinsch, Jennifer Schön, Joachim M Weitzel
Mouse models showing an improved fertility phenotype are barely described in the literature. In the present study, we further characterized two outbred mouse models that have been selected for the phenotype 'high fertility' for more than 177 generations (fertility lines (FL) 1 and 2). In order to delineate the impact of males and females on fertility parameters, we performed a two-factorial breeding experiment by mating males and females of the three different genotypes (FL1, FL2, unselected control (Ctrl)) in all 9 possible combinations...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094344/estrogen-related-receptor-is-required-for-the-testicular-development-and-for-the-normal-sperm-axoneme-mitochondrial-derivatives-in-drosophila-males
#12
Snigdha Misra, Anuj Kumar Pandey, Snigdha Gupta, Ajay Kumar, Priyanka Khanna, Jai Shankar, Kristipati Ravi Ram
Estrogen related receptors (ERRs), categorized as orphan nuclear receptors, are critical for energy homeostasis and somatic development. However, significance of ERRs in the development of reproductive organs/organelles/cells remain poorly understood, albeit their homology to estrogen receptors. In this context, here, we show that knockdown of ERR in the testes leads to improperly developed testes with mis-regulation of genes (aly, mia, bruce, bam, bgcn, fzo and eya) involved in spermatogenesis, resulting in reduced male fertility...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093195/health-and-functioning-of-adolescents-conceived-by-assisted-reproductive-technology
#13
Eyal Fruchter, Ronit Beck-Fruchter, Ariel Hourvitz, Mark Weiser, Shira Goldberg, Daphna Fenchel, Liat Lerner-Geva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the general health, mental health, and cognitive ability of assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived adolescents. DESIGN: A nested case-control study within a historic cohort. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 253 ART-conceived adolescents born between 1982 and 1993 and 253 matched references according to birth year, gender, and the high-school they attended. INTERVENTION(S): None...
January 5, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092795/moderate-aerobic-exercise-training-for-improving-reproductive-function-in-infertile-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Behzad Hajizadeh Maleki, Bakhtyar Tartibian
This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (P<0...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091518/insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-long-term-storage-and-survival-of-sperm-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#15
Ellen Paynter, A Harvey Millar, Mat Welch, Barbara Baer-Imhoof, Danyang Cao, Boris Baer
Honeybee males produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Because queens never re-mate after a single mating episode early in life, sperm are stored in a specialised organ for years but the proximate mechanisms underlying this key physiological adaptation are unknown. We quantified energy metabolism in honeybee sperm and show that the glycolytic metabolite glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P) is a key substrate for honeybee sperm survival and energy production. This reliance on non-aerobic energy metabolism in stored sperm was further supported by our findings of very low levels of oxygen inside the spermatheca...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089693/effects-of-six-priority-controlled-phthalate-esters-with-long-term-low-dose-integrated-exposure-on-male-reproductive-toxicity-in-rats
#16
Hai-Tao Gao, Run Xu, Wei-Xin Cao, Liang-Liang Qian, Min Wang, Lingeng Lu, Qian Xu, Shu-Qin Yu
Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PEs) surroundings. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to the mixture of six priority controlled phthalate esters (MIXPs): dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), on male rat reproductive system and further to explore the underlying mechanisms of the reproductive toxicity...
January 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089345/the-insect-spermatheca-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
Tales V Pascini, Gustavo F Martins
In the female insect, the spermatheca is an ectodermal organ responsible for receiving, maintaining, and releasing sperm to fertilize eggs. The number and morphology of spermathecae vary according to species. Within the spermathecal lumen, substances in the semen and secretions from the spermathecal gland nourish the sperm. Thus, the spermatheca provides an appropriate environment that ensures the long-term viability of sperm. Maintaining sperm viability for long periods within the spermatheca is crucial for insect reproductive success; however, the details of this process remain poorly understood...
December 5, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088559/increased-expression-of-carbon-monoxide-producing-enzymes-in-the-mpoa-after-sexual-experience-in-male-rats
#18
Christopher L Robison, Jenna A McHenry, Elaine M Hull
The hypothalamus contains numerous nuclei involved in the regulation of reproductive, stress, circadian, and homeostatic behaviors, with many of these nuclei concentrated within the preoptic and anterior regions. The gaseous neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), has already been shown to have an important regulatory role within the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the anterior hypothalamus, where it facilitates sexual behaviors. However, little is known about the role of other gaseous neurotransmitters in this area...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088501/a-review-of-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-laboratory-animals
#19
REVIEW
Makoto Ema, Hirokazu Okuda, Masashi Gamo, Kazumasa Honda
We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in laboratory animals. AgNPs showed testicular/sperm toxicity in males and ovarian and embryonic toxicity in females. Maternal injection of AgNPs delayed physical development and impaired cognitive behavior in offspring. Ag was accumulated in the testes after administration of AgNPs. AgNPs were identified in the visceral yolk sac after administration during early gestation in mice...
January 11, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088261/parquetina-nigrescens-leaves-chemical-profile-and-influence-on-the-physical-and-biochemical-indices-of-sexual-activity-of-male-wistar-rats
#20
Omowumi Titilola Kayode, Musa Toyin Yakubu
OBJECTIVE: The leaves of Parquetina nigrescens have been claimed in folk medicine to be useful for managing sexual dysfunction, but there is inadequate scientific evidence for this claim. This investigation was conducted to assess the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Parquetina nigrescens (AEPN) in rats induced with sexual dysfunction. METHODS: Male rats were allocated into various groups after being induced into sexual dysfunction with paroxetine hydrochloride...
January 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
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