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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141230/sub-minute-phosphoregulation-of-cell-cycle-systems-during-plasmodium-gamete-formation
#1
Brandon M Invergo, Mathieu Brochet, Lu Yu, Jyoti Choudhary, Pedro Beltrao, Oliver Billker
The transmission of malaria parasites to mosquitoes relies on the rapid induction of sexual reproduction upon their ingestion into a blood meal. Haploid female and male gametocytes become activated and emerge from their host cells, and the males enter the cell cycle to produce eight microgametes. The synchronized nature of gametogenesis allowed us to investigate phosphorylation signaling during its first minute in Plasmodium berghei via a high-resolution time course of the phosphoproteome. This revealed an unexpectedly broad response, with proteins related to distinct cell cycle events undergoing simultaneous phosphoregulation...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141178/peri-conception-and-first-trimester-diet-modifies-reproductive-development-in-bulls
#2
K J Copping, M D Ruiz-Diaz, C S Rutland, N P Mongan, M J Callaghan, I C McMillen, R J Rodgers, V E A Perry
Nutritional perturbation during gestation alters male reproductive development in rodents and sheep. In cattle both the developmental trajectory of the feto-placental unit and its response to dietary perturbations is dissimilar to that of these species. This study examined the effects of dietary protein perturbation during the peri-conception and first trimester periods upon reproductive development in bulls. Nulliparous heifers (n=360) were individually fed a high- or low-protein diet (HPeri and LPeri) from 60 days before conception...
November 16, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140543/infant-mortality-in-white-faced-capuchins-the-impact-of-alpha-male-replacements
#3
Lauren F Brasington, Eva C Wikberg, Shoji Kawamura, Linda M Fedigan, Katharine M Jack
Infanticide is common in the context of alpha male replacements (AMR), particularly in groups where alpha males experience high reproductive skew and the infants are unlikely to be related to a new alpha male. We examined the relationship between the rate of infant mortality, infant age, and the occurrence and type of AMR in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator) of the Santa Rosa population in Sector Santa Rosa, Área de Conservación Guanacaste. Specifically, we investigated how the source of the new alpha male (coresident or extragroup) and relative aggression level during AMRs influenced infant mortality in this species...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139129/reproductive-biology-of-female-striped-marlin-kajikia-audax-in-the-western-pacific-ocean
#4
H-Y Chang, C-L Sun, S-Z Yeh, Y-J Chang, N-J Su, G DiNardo
Length and mass data for 1260 (536 females, 683 males, 41 sex unknown) striped marlin Kajikia audax were collected at the fish markets of Tungkang, Singkang and Nanfangao from July 2004 to September 2010. Of these samples, 534 gonads (236 females and 298 males) ranging from 95 to 206 cm in eye-to-fork length (LEF ) and 8 to 88 kg in round mass (MR ), were collected. Chi-square tests indicated sex ratios were homogeneous among months in 2004 and 2006-2008, but not in 2005, 2009 and 2010; and there were significant differences in sex ratio by size...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139128/development-of-secondary-sexual-characters-and-their-relationship-to-ontogeny-and-seasonal-reproductive-period-in-hyphessobrycon-igneus-ostariophysi-characiformes
#5
L Schönhofen Longoni, J Giora, C Bernhardt Fialho
Sexual dimorphism in size, anal-fin shape and coloration of Hyphessobrycon igneus, Characidae, were examined. Males were more frequent at larger body sizes, confirming body size as a sexually dimorphic trait. Anal-fin shape and the colour of all fins were the same for females and juveniles, differing only in adult males. Likewise, only adult males had bony hooks on fin rays; larger and more sexually mature males had the most numerous and developed hooks and hooks were most developed in degree and number during peak reproductive periods...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138966/postnatal-nutrition-influences-male-attractiveness-and-promotes-plasticity-in-male-mating-preferences
#6
José C Noguera, Neil B Metcalfe, Pat Monaghan
Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of male zebra finches, we show for the first time (1) that males reared on a poor (low) micronutrient diet had less complex songs as adults; (2) that these males, in contrast to the high micronutrient diet group, were more selective in their mating strategies, discriminating against those females most likely to reduce their clutch size when paired with males having less complex songs; and (3) that by following different mating strategies, males reared on the contrasting diets obtained similar reproductive benefits...
November 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137859/dynamics-and-control-of-infections-on-social-networks-of-population-types
#7
Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS...
October 26, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137315/protective-effects-of-sulforaphane-on-di-n-butylphthalate-induced-testicular-oxidative-stress-injury-in-male-mice-offsprings-via-activating-nrf2-are-pathway
#8
Zhiqiang Qin, Jingyuan Tang, Peng Han, Xuping Jiang, Chengdi Yang, Ran Li, Min Tang, Baixin Shen, Wei Wang, Chao Qin, Wei Zhang
Di-N-butylphthalate (DBP) is one of the most common endocrine-disrupting chemicals which can disrupt human endocrine system, especially in the male reproductive system. Here, this study was aimed to determine whether sulforaphane (SFN) could protect against testicular oxidative stress injury induced by DBP in male mice offsprings. Wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) and Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2(-/-)) timed-pregnant mice were given DBP orally from embryonic day (E)14.5 to E19.5. Subsequently, the oxidative stress markers were evaluated...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136660/predation-risk-affects-growth-and-reproduction-of-an-invasive-snail-and-its-lethal-effect-depends-on-prey-size
#9
Jing Guo, Pablo R Martín, Chunxia Zhang, Jia-En Zhang
The behavior of invasive species under predation risk has been studied extensively, but their growth and reproductive responses have rarely been investigated. We conducted experiments with juveniles and adults of the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata, and we observed changes in growth and reproduction in response to predation risk from a caged predator (Trachemys scripta elegans). P. canaliculata produced eggs earlier in the presence of predators and injured conspecifics compared with the control group (no risk), although the total number of egg masses laid by per female was exceeded by that of the controls after 15 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136648/imprinting-alterations-in-sperm-may-not-significantly-influence-art-outcomes-and-imprinting-patterns-in-the-cord-blood-of-offspring
#10
Li Tang, Zichao Liu, Ruopeng Zhang, Cunmei Su, Wenjuan Yang, Youlin Yao, Shuhua Zhao
An increase in imprinting disorders in children conceived though assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) has been the subject of several reports. The transmission of imprinting errors from the sperm of infertile fathers is believed to be a possible reason for the increased occurrence of these disorders. However, whether the imprinting alterations in sperm affect ART outcomes and the imprinting of offspring is unclear. In the current study, we analyzed the methylation of H19, SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1 by pyrosequencing sperm samples from 97 infertile patients and 31 proven fertile males as well as cord blood samples from 13 infantswho were conceived by infertile parents through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 30 healthy newborns who were conceived naturally...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136184/female-mimicry-by-sneaker-males-has-a-transcriptomic-signature-in-both-the-brain-and-gonad-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#11
Erica V Todd, Hui Liu, Melissa S Lamm, Jodi T Thomas, Kim Rutherford, Kelly C Thompson, John R Godwin, Neil J Gemmell
Phenotypic plasticity represents an elegant adaptive response of individuals to a change in their environment. Bluehead wrasses (Thalassoma bifasciatum) exhibit astonishing sexual plasticity, including female-to-male sex change and discrete male morphs that differ strikingly in behaviour, morphology and gonadal investment. Using RNA-seq transcriptome profiling, we examined the genes and physiological pathways underlying flexible behavioural and gonadal differences among female, dominant (bourgeois) male, and female-mimic (sneaker) male blueheads...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#12
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135156/-isolated-teratozoospermia-is-there-a-role-for-antioxidant-therapy
#13
E A Efremov, E V Kasatonova, Ya I Melnik, A A Nikushina
Recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings of idiopathic forms of isolated teratozoospermia that may confuse clinicians. Some researchers argue that at 0-1% of normal forms of spermatozoa, morphology itself cannot be a prognostic indicator of fertility, either in the planning of natural pregnancy, or when used in assisted reproduction. In this connection, the possible causes of teratozoospermia and alternative therapies are being actively sought, in addition to known invasive and costly procedures...
October 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134711/x-exceptionalism-in-caenorhabditis-speciation
#14
Asher D Cutter
Speciation genetics research in diverse organisms shows the X-chromosome to be exceptional in how it contributes to 'rules' of speciation. Until recently, however, the nematode phylum has been nearly silent on this issue, despite the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans having touched most other topics in biology. Studies of speciation with Caenorhabditis accelerated with the recent discovery of species pairs showing partial inter-fertility. The resulting genetic analyses of reproductive isolation in nematodes demonstrate key roles for the X-chromosome in hybrid male sterility and inviability, opening up new understanding of the genetic causes of Haldane's rule, Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule, and enabling tests of the large-X effect hypothesis...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134627/the-evolution-of-genital-shape-variation-in-female-cetaceans
#15
Dara N Orbach, Brandon Hedrick, Bernd Würsig, Sarah L Mesnick, Patricia Lr Brennan
Male genital diversification is likely the result of sexual selection. Female genital diversification may also result from sexual selection, although it is less well studied and understood. Female genitalia are complex among whales, dolphins, and porpoises, especially compared to other vertebrates. The evolutionary factors affecting the diversity of vaginal complexity could include ontogeny, allometry, phylogeny, sexual selection, and natural selection. We quantified shape variation in female genitalia using 2-D geometric morphometric analysis, and validated the application of this method to study soft tissues...
November 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134282/aba-and-iaa-control-microsporogenesis-in-petunia-hybrida-l
#16
L V Kovaleva, A S Voronkov, E V Zakharova, I M Andreev
The formation of fertile male gametophyte is known to require timely degeneration of polyfunctional tapetum tissue. The last process caused by the programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of the anther program maturation which leads to sequential anther tissue destruction coordinated with pollen differentiation. In the present work, distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in developing anthers of male-fertile and male-sterile lines of petunia (Petunia hybrida L.) was analyzed by using the immunohistochemical method...
November 13, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134139/male-sex-pheromone-components-in-heliconius-butterflies-released-by-the-androconia-affect-female-choice
#17
Kathy Darragh, Sohini Vanjari, Florian Mann, Maria F Gonzalez-Rojas, Colin R Morrison, Camilo Salazar, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Richard M Merrill, W Owen McMillan, Stefan Schulz, Chris D Jiggins
Sex-specific pheromones are known to play an important role in butterfly courtship, and may influence both individual reproductive success and reproductive isolation between species. Extensive ecological, behavioural and genetic studies of Heliconius butterflies have made a substantial contribution to our understanding of speciation. Male pheromones, although long suspected to play an important role, have received relatively little attention in this genus. Here, we combine morphological, chemical and behavioural analyses of male pheromones in the Neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133304/stem-cells-in-vitro-gametogenesis-and-male-fertility
#18
Go Nagamatsu, Katsuhiko Hayashi
Reconstitution in culture of biological processes, such as differentiation and organization, is a key challenge in regenerative medicine, and one in which stem cell technology plays a central role. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are useful materials for reconstitution of germ cell development in vitro, as they are capable of differentiating into gametes. Reconstitution of germ cell development, termed in vitro gametogenesis, will provide an experimental platform for a better understanding of germ cell development, as well as an alternative source of gametes for reproduction, with the potential to cure infertility...
November 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133227/chilling-effect-on-termination-of-reproductive-diapause-in-listronotus-maculicollis-coleoptera-curculionidae
#19
Shaohui Wu, Olga S Kostromytska, Fangsen Xue, Albrecht M Koppenhöfer
Diapausing adults of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis, were collected from their hibernating sites at different times in autumn and winter, and subjected to different conditions to observe diapause termination by dissecting and measuring the reproductive organs. When diapausing weevils were maintained under laboratory cold conditions (10 h light at 6°C:14 h dark at 4°C) from early December to late March, the sizes of reproductive organs of both sexes increased or fluctuated slightly, and very few females had developing oocytes, suggesting that most adults did not resume development during the chilling period...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131842/positive-selection-and-comparative-molecular-evolution-of-reproductive-proteins-from-new-zealand-tree-weta-orthoptera-hemideina
#20
Victoria G Twort, Alice B Dennis, Duckchul Park, Kathryn F Lomas, Richard D Newcomb, Thomas R Buckley
Animal reproductive proteins, especially those in the seminal fluid, have been shown to have higher levels of divergence than non-reproductive proteins and are often evolving adaptively. Seminal fluid proteins have been implicated in the formation of reproductive barriers between diverging lineages, and hence represent interesting candidates underlying speciation. RNA-seq was used to generate the first male reproductive transcriptome for the New Zealand tree weta species Hemideina thoracica and H. crassidens...
2017: PloS One
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