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male reproduction

Manan Khan, Nazish Jabeen, Teka Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Jafar Hussain, Asim Ali, Ranjha Khan, Long Jiang, Tao Li, Qizhao Tao, Xingxia Zhang, Hao Yin, Changping Yu, Xiaohua Jiang, Qinghua Shi
There are more than 2300 genes that are predominantly expressed in mouse testes. The role of hundreds of these genes has been studied in mouse spermatogenesis but still there are many genes whose function is unknown. Gene knockout (KO) strategy in mice is widely used for in vivo study of gene function. The present study was designed to explore the function of the four genes: Tex37, Ccdc73, Prss55 and Nxt2, which were evolutionarily conserved in eutherians. We found that these genes had a testis-enriched expression pattern in mice except Nxt2...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bram Vanthournout, Mette Marie Busck, Jesper Bechsgaard, Frederik Hendrickx, Andreas Schramm, Trine Bilde
Sex allocation theory predicts that when sons and daughters have different reproductive values, parents should adjust offspring sex ratio towards the sex with the higher fitness return. Haplo-diploid species directly control offspring sex ratio, but species with chromosomal sex determination (CSD) were presumed to be constrained by Mendelian segregation. There is now increasing evidence that CSD species can adjust sex ratio strategically, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. One hypothesis states that adaptive control is more likely to evolve in the heterogametic sex through a bias in gamete production...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Toshiyuki Harumoto, Takema Fukatsu, Bruno Lemaitre
Male killing is a selfish reproductive manipulation caused by symbiotic bacteria, where male offspring of infected hosts are selectively killed. The underlying mechanisms and the process of their evolution are of great interest not only in terms of fundamental biology, but also their potential applications. The two bacterial Drosophila symbionts, Wolbachia and Spiroplasma , have independently evolved male-killing ability. This raises the question whether the underlying mechanisms share some similarities or are specific to each bacterial species...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sanaz Sohrabizadeh, Katayoun Jahangiri, Reza Khani Jazani
BACKGROUND: Natural disasters represent critical threats to the health, safety, and well-being of a community-including reproductive health, which has been neglected in disaster-stricken regions. The current study was undertaken to explore administrative issues related to post-disaster reproductive health systems in Iran. METHODS: A qualitative approach using in-depth unstructured interviews was applied to explore the administrative issues of reproductive health systems in the affected regions...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Neelam Pandey, Sarbani Giri
Increasing male infertility of unknown aetiology can be associated with environmental factors. Extensive use of mobile phones has exposed the general population to unprecedented levels of radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) that may adversely affect male reproductive health. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of RFR Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) type, 900 MHz and melatonin supplementation on germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Kelly J Chan, Divya Jolly, Jennifer J Liang, Jamie D Weinand, Joshua D Safer
OBJECTIVE: Existing transgender treatment guidelines suggest that for transmasculine treatment, there is a possible need for estrogen-lowering strategies adjunct to testosterone therapy. Further, guidelines advocate consideration of prophylactic female reproductive tissue surgeries for transgender men to avoid the possibility of estrogen-related health risks. Despite the paucity of objective data, some transgender men seek conversion inhibitors. We sought to determine estradiol levels in transgender men treated with testosterone therapy and the change in those levels with treatment, if any...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Melanie Laura Lawrence, James R Smith, Jamie Andrew Davies
The mesonephros of mammals is a transient renal structure that contributes to various aspects of mammalian fetal development including the male reproductive system, hematopoietic stem cells and vascular endothelial cells. The mesonephros develops from the intermediate mesoderm and forms tubules that are segmented in a similar way to the nephrons of the permanent kidney (but lacking loops of Henle). Early studies have suggested that the mesonephros in marsupials and some placental mammals may perform an excretory function, but these studies have not directly shown active transport of organic anions and cations...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Tai-Wan Yao, Jia Liu, Xue-Zhi Li, Lin Ma, Jia-Peng Wu, Xiao-Fang Xi, Yan Fu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on chronic inflammatory response of Leydig cells in aged rats with low testosterone, so as to investigate its underlying mechanism of anti-male reproductive aging. METHODS: Twenty-four 20 months old SD rats were randomly divided into EA, medication and aged control groups ( n = 8 in each), and other 8 young SD rats (2 months of age) were used as the youth control group. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to "Guanyuan"(CV 4) and bilate-ral "Shenshu"(BL 23) for 15 min, once daily for 8 weeks except the weekends...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Martha J Nelson-Flower, Elizabeth M Wiley, Tom P Flower, Amanda R Ridley
Delayed dispersal is a key step in the evolution of familial animal societies and cooperative breeding. However, no consensus has been reached on the ecological and social circumstances driving delayed dispersal. Here, we test predictions from the ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry hypotheses as well as the recently proposed dual benefits hypothesis to better understand the evolution of group-living and cooperative breeding. Furthermore, we consider how individual social circumstances within groups affect dispersal decisions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Jared R Towers, Muriel J Hallé, Helena K Symonds, Gary J Sutton, Alexandra B Morton, Paul Spong, James P Borrowman, John K B Ford
Infanticide can be an extreme result of sexual conflict that drives selection in species in which it occurs. It is a rarely observed behaviour but some evidence for its occurrence in cetaceans exists in three species of dolphin. Here we describe observations of an adult male killer whale (Orcinus orca) and his post-reproductive mother killing a neonate belonging to an unrelated female from the same population in the North Pacific. This is the first account of infanticide reported in killer whales and the only case committed jointly by an adult male and his mother outside of humans...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Florent Masson, Sandra Calderon Copete, Fanny Schüpfer, Gonzalo Garcia-Arraez, Bruno Lemaitre
Endosymbiotic bacteria associated with eukaryotic hosts are omnipresent in nature, particularly in insects. Studying the bacterial side of host-symbiont interactions is, however, often limited by the unculturability and genetic intractability of the symbionts. Spiroplasma poulsonii is a maternally transmitted bacterial endosymbiont that is naturally associated with several Drosophila species. S. poulsonii strongly affects its host's physiology, for example by causing male killing or by protecting it against various parasites...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Reshma Ramachandran, Cd McDaniel
Parthenogenesis or "virgin birth" is embryonic development in unfertilized eggs. It is a routine means of reproduction in many invertebrates. However even though parthenogenesis occurs naturally in even more advanced vertebrates, like birds, it is mostly abortive in nature. In fact, multiple limiting factors, such as delayed and unorganized development as well as unfavorable conditions developing within the unfertilized egg upon incubation, are associated with termination of progressive development of parthenogenetic embryos...
March 20, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Brenda Ramos Robles, Ricardo A Valdez, Uriel Juárez Hernández, Brenda Marquina Castillo, Dulce Mata Espinosa, Jorge Barrios Payan, Rogelio Hernández Pando, Marta C Romano
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that mainly affects the lungs. Along the course of pulmonary TB there are remarkable changes in the production of cytokines that cause endocrine changes. So far, it is not known the physiological and histological changes in the male reproductive system during pulmonary TB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pulmonary TB produces histological alterations of the BALB/c mice reproductive organs, as well as abnormalities in spermatogenesis, serum testosterone concentrations and expression of testicular cytokines...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Li-Ping Hou, Hongxing Chen, Chang-En Tian, Ye Liang, Rong-Rong Wu, Xing-Mei Zhang, Xu-Wen Fang, Cui-Ping Zhang, Jun-Jie Hu, Li-Ying Song, Yan-Qiu Liang, Daniel Schlenk, Lingtian Xie
Synthetic hormones in wastewater effluents released into the aquatic environments may interfere with the normal endocrine systems of fish in receiving streams. Norgestrel (NGT) is a synthetic progestin widely used in oral contraceptives and frequently detected in wastewater effluents. In this study, adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were exposed to three environmentally relevant concentrations of norgestrel (NGT) (i.e., 3.6, 35.8, and 368.0 ng L-1) for 42 d, fin morphology, histology of the ovary, and reproductive behaviors were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Sergio Torres-Rueda, Mwita Wambura, Helen A Weiss, Marya Plotkin, Katharine Kripke, Joseph Chilongani, Hally Mahler, Evodius Kuringe, Maende Makokha, Augustino Hellar, Carl Schutte, Kokuhumbya J Kazaura, Daimon Simbeye, Gerry Mshana, Natasha Larke, Gissenge Lija, John Changalucha, Anna Vassall, Richard Hayes, Jonathan M Grund, Fern Terris-Prestholt
BACKGROUND: Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of HIV acquisition, demand for services is lower among men in most at-risk age groups (ages 20-34 years). A randomised controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of locally-tailored demand creation activities (including mass media, community mobilisation and targeted service delivery) in increasing uptake of campaign-delivered VMMC among men aged 20-34 years. We conducted an economic evaluation to understand the intervention's cost and cost-effectiveness...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Lee Ena, Jong Seung Lim, Ji Yeon Son, Yu Jin Park, Yong Hee Lee, Ji Yeong Kim, Seung Jun Kwack, Byung Mu Lee, Mee-Young Ahn, Hyung Sik Kim
Triclosan (TCS), a common antimicrobial ingredient, is present in many consumer products, including soaps, shampoos, and toothpaste. Owing to its widespread use, potential adverse effects on animals and humans may arise from lifetime exposure, but data on chronic prepubertal exposure of TCS are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of subchronic TCS exposure (0.25, 25, 250, or 750 mg/kg) on target organ toxicity in prepubertal male rats. After daily administration of TCS to rats by oral gavage for 60 d, a significant reduction in body weight and relative weights of liver, kidneys, testes, and adrenal glands was observed in the 750-mg/kg (high dose) group...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jean-Christophe Billeter, Mariana F Wolfner
Chemicals released into the environment by food, predators and conspecifics play critical roles in Drosophila reproduction. Females and males live in an environment full of smells, whose molecules communicate to them the availability of food, potential mates, competitors or predators. Volatile chemicals derived from fruit, yeast growing on the fruit, and flies already present on the fruit attract Drosophila, concentrating flies at food sites, where they will also mate. Species-specific cuticular hydrocarbons displayed on female Drosophila as they mature are sensed by males and act as pheromones to stimulate mating by conspecific males and inhibit heterospecific mating...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Zufferey Fanny, Rahban Rita, Garcia Arnaud, Gagnebin Yoric, Boccard Julien, Tonoli David, Jeanneret Fabienne, Stettler Eric, Senn Alfred, Nef Serge, Rudaz Serge, F Rossier Michel
Steroids play an important role in sperm production and quality. These hormones have been extensively studied in blood, but poorly investigated in semen. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the relationship between sperm quality and steroid profiles in blood and semen in a small cohort of young Swiss men. Another objective was to determine whether the presence of xenobiotics or drugs could influence these profiles. Semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines, and steroid profiles in blood serum and seminal plasma were determined by two complementary approaches: a targeted investigation involving the quantification of a limited number of relevant steroids for testing putative correlations with sperm parameters and a global "steroidomic" analysis highlighting their complex metabolic relationship...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Vander Borght Mélodie, Wyns Christine
Infertility is a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. It is estimated to affect between 8 and 12% of reproductive-aged couples worldwide. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases but contribute to 50% of cases overall. Secondary infertility is the most common form of female infertility around the globe, often due to reproductive tract infections. The three major factors influencing the spontaneous probability of conception are the time of unwanted non-conception, the age of the female partner and the disease-related infertility...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
María Florencia Scaia, María Clara Volonteri, Silvia Cristina Czuchlej, Nora Raquel Ceballos
Rhinella arenarum is a South American toad with wide geographic distribution. Testes of this toad produce high amount of androgens during the non reproductive season and shift steroid synthesis from androgens to 5α-pregnanedione during the breeding. In addition, plasma estradiol (E2 ) in males of this species shows seasonal variations but, since testes of R. arenarum do not express aromatase, the source of plasma E2 remained unknown for several years. However, the Bidder's organ (BO), a structure located at one pole of each testis, is proposed to be the main source of E2 in male's toads since it expresses several steroidogenic enzymes and is able to produce E2 from endogenous substrates throughout the year...
March 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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