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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817714/insights-into-secular-trends-of-respiratory-tuberculosis-the-20th-century-maltese-experience
#1
Lianne Tripp, Larry A Sawchuk
Over half a century ago, McKeown and colleagues proposed that economics was a major contributor to the decline of infectious diseases, including respiratory tuberculosis, during the 19th and 20th centuries. Since then, there is no consensus among researchers as to the factors responsible for the mortality decline. Using the case study of the islands of Malta and Gozo, we examine the relationship of economics, in particular, the cost of living (Fisher index) and its relationship to the secular trends of tuberculosis mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816296/-complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-associated-with-vesical-fistula-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
K H Hua, L Yang, X W Zhang, W J Bai, Q Li, T Xu
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a very uncommon genetic disorder that results from the resistance of androgen receptor (AR) to androgen, which influences the formation of the male genitalia and in turn presents with female phenotype. Surgical resection of undesceaded testicle and different kinds of genitoplasty are crucial methods to correct the deformity of reproductive system, as well as hormone replacement therapy, which is an essential therapy for postoperational rehabilitation in AIS patients...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816268/-expression-and-localization-of-transmembrane-protein-cmtm2-in-human-testis-and-sperm
#3
X W Zhang, K Lan, W B Yang, Q Li, Y P Zhao, H Q Yin, B Kite, W J Bai, T Xu
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of transmembrane protein CMTM2 in the testis and sperm of adult males and to approach the potential function of the protein in the male reproductive system. METHODS: The expression of CMTM2 in human testis and sperm was confirmed by Western blot. Immunohistochemical staining was used for detecting CMTM2 localization in the testis tissue, TRITC-CMTM2 and FITC-Hoechst double immunofluorescence staining was performed to examine the subcellular localization of CMTM2 in the human sperm before and after acrosome reaction, that is, immunofluorescent staining was used for detecting CMTM2 localization in both the testis and sperm before and after the acrosome reaction...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815778/mapk8-regulates-chicken-male-germ-cell-differentiation-through-jnk-signaling-pathway
#4
Yingjie Wang, Yulin Bi, Qisheng Zuo, Wenhui Zhang, Dong Li, Na-Na He, Shaoze Cheng, Ya-Ni Zhang, Bichun Li
The study aims to analyze the key signaling pathways in regulating the process of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). We explored the specific regulating mechanisms of C-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in this process. Interference/overexpression of MAPK8 allows the JNK signaling pathway to be blocked/activated. In Retinoic acid (RA) induced in vitro differentiation assays, the expression of germ cell marker genes, cvh, c-kit, integrin α6 and integrin β1, was observed to upregulate while activating JNK signaling significantly...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815592/sexual-selection-on-male-body-size-genital-length-and-heterozygosity-consistency-across-habitats-and-social-settings
#5
Megan L Head, Andrew T Kahn, Jonathan M Henshaw, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
1. Spatial and temporal variation in environmental factors and the social setting can help to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits if it affects the strength of directional selection. A key social parameter which affects the intensity of, and sometimes predicts the response to, mating competition is the operational sex ratio (OSR; ratio of receptive males to females). 2. How the OSR affects selection for specific male traits is poorly understood. It is also unclear how sexual selection is affected by interactions between the OSR and environmental factors, such as habitat complexity, that alter key male-female interactions such as mate encounter rates...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814657/differential-sperm-storage-by-female-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#6
Nicola Hemmings, Tim Birkhead
When females mate promiscuously, female sperm storage provides scope to bias the fertilization success towards particular males via the non-random acceptance and utilization of sperm. The difficulties observing post-copulatory processes within the female reproductive tract mean that the mechanisms underlying cryptic female choice remain poorly understood. Here, we use zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, selected for divergent sperm lengths, combined with a novel technique for isolating and extracting sperm from avian sperm storage tubules (SSTs), to test the hypothesis that sperm from separate ejaculates are stored differentially by female birds...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814612/effects-of-a-social-cue-on-reproductive-development-and-pre-alternate-molt-in-seasonally-breeding-migrant-and-resident-female-songbirds-zonotrichia-leucophrys
#7
Helen E Chmura, Simone L Meddle, John C Wingfield, Thomas P Hahn
To time reproduction optimally, birds have evolved diverse mechanisms by which they respond to environmental changes that help them anticipate and prepare for the breeding season. While residents initiate reproductive preparation and breed in the same geographic location, migrant birds simultaneously prepare for breeding and migration far from their breeding grounds. As a result, it is hypothesized that migrant and resident birds use environmental cues differently to prepare to breed and that there is adaptive specialization in mechanisms regulating reproductive preparation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814267/sex-and-tissue-specific-gene-expression-patterns-identified-following-de-novo-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-norway-lobster-nephrops-norvegicus
#8
Guiomar Rotllant, Tuan Viet Nguyen, Valerio Sbragaglia, Lifat Rahi, Kevin J Dudley, David Hurwood, Tomer Ventura, Joan B Company, Vincent Chand, Jacopo Aguzzi, Peter B Mather
BACKGROUND: The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is economically important in European fisheries and is a key organism in local marine ecosystems. Despite multi-faceted scientific interest in this species, our current knowledge of genetic resources in this species remains very limited. Here, we generated a reference de novo transcriptome for N. norvegicus from multiple tissues in both sexes. Bioinformatic analyses were conducted to detect transcripts that were expressed exclusively in either males or females...
August 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813426/sexual-reproduction-in-plagiogrammacean-diatoms-first-insights-into-the-early-pennates
#9
Irena Kaczmarska, Benjamin S Gray, James M Ehrman, Mary Thaler
The genera Plagiogramma and Dimeregramma are members of a small, but evolutionarily important group of diatoms, the "basal" araphids. They are sister to all other pennates, both araphid and raphid taxa. Thus, their phylogenetic position carries the potential for providing insights into the earliest pennates. We documented sexual reproduction, mating system and sex cell development in the first members of the "basal" araphid clade ever investigated. The mating system in all these species involved heterothally...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812649/decreased-male-reproductive-success-in-association-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#10
Mika H Martikainen, John P Grady, Yi Shiau Ng, Charlotte L Alston, Grainne S Gorman, Robert W Taylor, Robert McFarland, Doug M Turnbull
The reproductive success of men with mitochondrial disease is to date unreported. We compared the age- and era-adjusted reproductive success of 94 British male patients with mitochondrial disease to that of the UK general male population. The reproductive success of men with mitochondrial disease was 65% of that in the general population (95% confidence interval: 53%; 79%), and the effect magnitude was related to the disease severity. This contrasts with the two previous studies finding that the reproductive success of women with mitochondrial DNA disease is not impaired...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812624/perceptive-costs-of-reproduction-drive-ageing-and-physiology-in-male-drosophila
#11
Zachary M Harvanek, Yang Lyu, Christi M Gendron, Jacob C Johnson, Shu Kondo, Daniel E L Promislow, Scott D Pletcher
Costs of reproduction are thought to result from natural selection optimizing organismal fitness within putative physiological constraints. Phenotypic and population genetic studies of reproductive costs are plentiful across taxa, but an understanding of their mechanistic basis would provide important insight into the diversity in life-history traits, including reproductive effort and ageing. Here, we dissect the causes and consequences of specific costs of reproduction in male Drosophila melanogaster. We find that key survival and physiological costs of reproduction arise from perception of the opposite sex, and they are reversed by the act of mating...
May 15, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812603/climate-change-upends-selection-on-ornamentation-in-a-wild-bird
#12
Simon R Evans, Lars Gustafsson
Secondary sexual traits have high heritabilities and are exposed to strong, environmentally sensitive selection, and so are expected to evolve rapidly in response to sustained environmental change. We examine the eco-evolutionary dynamics of ornament expression in a long-term study population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, in which forehead patch size, which positively influences male reproductive success, declined markedly over 34 years. Annual fitness selection on forehead patch size switched from positive to negative during the study, a reversal that is accounted for by rising spring temperatures at the breeding site: highly ornamented males were selectively favoured following cold breeding seasons but selected against following warm breeding seasons...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812560/an-invasive-social-insect-overcomes-genetic-load-at-the-sex-locus
#13
Rosalyn Gloag, Guiling Ding, Joshua R Christie, Gabriele Buchmann, Madeleine Beekman, Benjamin P Oldroyd
Some invasive hymenopteran social insects found new populations with very few reproductive individuals. This is despite the high cost of founder effects for such insects, which generally require heterozygosity at a single locus-the complementary sex determiner, csd-to develop as females. Individuals that are homozygous at csd develop as either infertile or subfertile diploid males or not at all. Furthermore, diploid males replace the female workers that are essential for colony function. Here we document how the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) overcame the diploid male problem during its invasion of Australia...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812227/effects-of-fluoride-on-surface-structure-of-primary-culture-leydig-cells-in-mouse
#14
Jian Li, Yan Shi, Hua Fan, Yanyan Li, Yuchen Zhu, Xijun Lin, Jianhai Zhang
Fluoride (F) is known to induce reproduction toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research. These findings aim to provide deeper insights into roles of soduim fluoride (NaF) in testis damage, which could contribute to a better understanding of fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity. The Leydig cells were administrated by 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L NaF for 24 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscope was used to identify the change of surface structure in the Leydig cells...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811877/alternative-reproductive-strategies-and-the-maintenance-of-female-color-polymorphism-in-damselflies
#15
Rosa A Sánchez-Guillén, Maren Wellenreuther, Jesús R Chávez-Ríos, Christopher D Beatty, Anais Rivas-Torres, María Velasquez-Velez, Adolfo Cordero-Rivera
Genetic polymorphisms are powerful model systems to study the maintenance of diversity in nature. In some systems, polymorphisms are limited to female coloration; these are thought to have arisen as a consequence of reducing male mating harassment, commonly resulting in negative frequency-dependent selection on female color morphs. One example is the damselfly Ischnura elegans, which shows three female color morphs and strong sexual conflict over mating rates. Here, we present research integrating male tactics, and female evolutionary strategies (female mating behavior and morph-specific female fecundity) in populations with different morph-specific mating frequencies, to obtain an understanding of mating rates in nature that goes beyond the mere measure of color frequencies...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811621/morphological-differences-of-the-reproductive-system-could-be-used-to-predict-the-optimum-grapholita-molesta-busck-control-period
#16
Zhiwei Zhang, Lina Men, Yunfei Peng, Jun Li, Angie Deng, Yuan Chen, Xianqian Liu, Ruiyan Ma
The oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta (Busck), is one of the dominant fruit-boring pests worldwide. In order to conduct integrated control of OFM effectively, it is important to predict the optimum control period. OFM populations have been monitored either by the number of trapped male moths exposed to sex pheromones or by the number of trapped male and female moths using food traps in orchards. The mating status and development stage of the trapped moths have not been characterized. The present paper studies the anatomical morphology of the OFM reproductive system at different development periods...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811388/hill-robertson-interference-reduces-genetic-diversity-on-a-young-plant-y-chromosome
#17
Josh Hough, Wei Wang, Spencer C H Barrett, Stephen I Wright
X and Y chromosomes differ in effective population size (Ne ), rates of recombination, and exposure to natural selection, all of which can affect patterns of genetic diversity. On Y chromosomes with suppressed recombination, natural selection is expected to eliminate linked neutral variation and lower the Ne of Y compared to X chromosomes or autosomes. However, female-biased sex ratios and high variance in male reproductive success can also reduce Y-linked Ne , making it difficult to infer the causes of low Y-diversity...
August 15, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810976/women-s-health-knowledge-and-skills-among-transitional-year-internship-trained-military-medical-officers-serving-as-independent-health-care-providers
#18
Ryan J Heitmann, Crystal B Hammons, Alison L Batig
BACKGROUND: Women comprise 14.5% of active duty service members. Delivery of women's health services is a critical component to personal, medical, and mission readiness. Our objective was to evaluate the knowledge, skills, and practices pertaining to basic elements of women's/reproductive health issues among transitional internship-trained general medical officers in the Army, Navy, and Air Force. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey study of transitional internship-trained graduates from 2012 to 2015 who transitioned to an operational assignment as an independent provider after internship graduation...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810198/phthalate-metabolites-related-to-infertile-biomarkers-and-infertility-in-chinese-men
#19
Liangpo Liu, Heng Wang, Meiping Tian, Jie Zhang, Parinya Panuwet, Priya Esilda D'Souza, Dana Boyd Barr, Qingyu Huang, Yankai Xia, Heqing Shen
Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have demonstrated androgen and anti-androgen effects on male reproduction from phthalate exposures, human studies still remain inconsistent. Therefore, a case-control study (n = 289) was conducted to evaluate the associations between phthalate exposures, male infertility risks, and changes in metabolomic biomarkers. Regional participants consisted of fertile (n = 150) and infertile (n = 139) males were recruited from Nanjing Medical University' affiliated hospitals...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809953/monitoring-health-and-reproductive-status-of-olms-proteus-anguinus-by-ultrasound
#20
Susanne Holtze, Maja Lukač, Ivan Cizelj, Frank Mutschmann, Claudia Anita Szentiks, Dušan Jelić, Robert Hermes, Frank Göritz, Stanton Braude, Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt
The olm (Proteus anguinus) is a troglomorphic, neotenous amphibian with extraordinary life expectancy and unique adaptations that deserve further investigation. A low reproductive rate and habitat decline render it threatened by extinction. Establishing captive populations for maintenance and artificial breeding may one day become crucial to the species. Longitudinal, in-vivo assessment of inner organs is invaluable to our understanding of reproductive physiology, health, and behavior. Using ultrasound, we measured heart rate and assessed health and reproductive status of 13 captive olms at Zagreb Zoo...
2017: PloS One
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