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beta glucuronidase

Maree Flaherty, Katie Geering, Stephanie Crofts, John Grigg
BACKGROUND: Sly syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VII) is an autosomal recessive metabolic storage disorder due to mutations in the GUSB gene encoding the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Deficiency of this lysosomal enzyme impairs the body's ability to break down the glycosaminoglycans - dermatan, heparan and chondroitin sulphate. Coarse facial features and macrocephaly are typically seen along with bony and skeletal abnormalities, including joint contractures and short stature. Widespread involvement occurs in many other tissues including cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and neurological systems...
September 20, 2016: Ophthalmic Genetics
Takayuki Sasaki, Yoshiyuki Tsuchiya, Michiyo Ariyoshi, Ryohei Nakano, Koichiro Ushijima, Yasutaka Kubo, Izumi C Mori, Emi Higashiizummi, Ivan Galis, Yoko Yamamoto
The aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) family of proteins transports malate and/or inorganic anions across plant membranes. To demonstrate the possible role of ALMT genes in tomato fruit development, we focused on SlALMT4 and SlALMT5, the two major genes expressed during fruit development. Predicted proteins were classified into clade-2 of the family many members of which localize to endomembranes. Tissue-specific gene expression was determined using transgenic tomato expressing the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene controlled by their own promoters...
September 11, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Nianbai Fang, Shanggong Yu, Sean H Adams, Martin J J Ronis, Thomas M Badger
We present a method using a combination of enzymatic deconjugation and targeted LC-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-MS analysis for analyzing all common bile acids (BAs) in piglet urine, and in particular, for detecting conjugated BAs either in the absence of their standards, or when present in low concentrations. Initially, before enzymatic deconjugation, 19 unconjugated BAs (FBAs) were detected where the total concentration of the detected FBAs was 9.90 μmol/l. Sixty-seven conjugated BAs were identified by LC-MRM-MS analysis before and after enzymatic deconjugation...
October 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Alfred A Chan, Mina Bashir, Magali N Rivas, Karen Duvall, Peter A Sieling, Thomas R Pieber, Parag A Vaishampayan, Susan M Love, Delphine J Lee
The microbiome impacts human health and disease. Until recently, human breast tissue and milk were presumed to be sterile. Here, we investigated the presence of microbes in the nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and their potential association with breast cancer. We compared the NAF microbiome between women with a history of breast cancer (BC) and healthy control women (HC) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The NAF microbiome from BC and HC showed significant differences in community composition. Two Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) showed differences in relative abundances between NAF collected from BC and HC...
2016: Scientific Reports
Philipp Stadler, Günter Blöschl, Wolfgang Vogl, Juri Koschelnik, Markus Epp, Maximilian Lackner, Markus Oismüller, Monika Kumpan, Lukas Nemeth, Peter Strauss, Regina Sommer, Gabriela Ryzinska-Paier, Andreas H Farnleitner, Matthias Zessner
Detection of enzymatic activities has been proposed as a rapid surrogate for the culture-based microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources. This paper presents the results of tests on four fully automated prototype instruments for the on-site monitoring of beta-d-glucuronidase (GLUC) activity. The tests were performed on sediment-laden stream water in the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) during the period of March 2014 to March 2015. The dominant source of faecal pollution in the stream was swine manure applied to the fields within the catchment...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
Irina Boycheva, Valya Vassileva, Miglena Revalska, Grigor Zehirov, Anelia Iantcheva
In eukaryotes, histone acetyltransferases regulate the acetylation of histones and transcription factors, affecting chromatin structural organization, transcriptional regulation, and gene activation. To assess the role of HAC1, a gene encoding for a histone acetyltransferase in Medicago truncatula, stable transgenic lines with modified HAC1 expression in the model plants M. truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and Arabidopsis thaliana were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and used for functional analyses...
May 14, 2016: Protoplasma
Shuang-shuang Guo, Lin Cheng, Li-min Yang, Mei Han
The β-Glucuronidase gene (sbGUS) cDNA firstly from Scutellari abaicalensis leaf was cloned by RT-PCR, with GenBank accession number KR364726. The full length cDNA of sbGUS was 1 584 bp with an open reading frame (ORF), encoding an unstable protein with 527 amino acids. The bioinformatic analysis showed that the sbGUS encoding protein had isoelectric point (pI) of 5.55 and a calculated molecular weight about 58.724 8 kDa, with a transmembrane regions and signal peptide, had conserved domains of glycoside hydrolase super family and unintegrated trans-glycosidase catalytic structure...
November 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sebastian N W Hoernstein, Stefanie J Mueller, Kathrin Fiedler, Marc Schuelke, Jens T Vanselow, Christian Schuessele, Daniel Lang, Roland Nitschke, Gabor L Igloi, Andreas Schlosser, Ralf Reski
Protein arginylation is a posttranslational modification of both N-terminal amino acids of proteins and sidechain carboxylates and can be crucial for viability and physiology in higher eukaryotes. The lack of arginylation causes severe developmental defects in moss, affects the low oxygen response in Arabidopsis thaliana and is embryo lethal in Drosophila and in mice. Although several studies investigated impact and function of the responsible enzyme, the arginyl-tRNA protein transferase (ATE) in plants, identification of arginylated proteins by mass spectrometry was not hitherto achieved...
June 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Moon-Soo Chung, Sungbeom Lee, Ji-Hee Min, Ping Huang, Hyun-Woo Ju, Cheol Soo Kim
Biochemical, genetic, physiological, and molecular research in plants has demonstrated a central role of glucose (Glc) in the control of plant growth, metabolism, and development, and has revealed networks that integrate light, stresses, nutrients, and hormone signaling. Previous studies have reported that AtPGR protein as potential candidates for Glc signaling protein. In the present study, we characterized transcription factors that bind to the upstream region of the AtPGR gene isolated using the yeast one-hybrid screening with an Arabidopsis cDNA library...
July 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
F B Ferraz, J H Fernandez
Macrophages are essential components of the innate and adaptive immune responses, playing a decisive role in atherosclerosis, asthma, obesity, and cancer. The differential gene expression resulting from adhesion of macrophages to the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) has been studied in the J774A1 murine macrophage cell line using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The goal of this study was to identify housekeeping genes (HKGs) that remain stable and unaltered under normal culture conditions and in the presence of laminin after a time lapse of 6 and 24 h...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Shingo Mizuochi, Maria Nelson, Chris Baylis, Becky Green, Keith Jewell, Farinaz Monadjemi, Yi Chen, Yvonne Salfinger, Maria Cristina Fernandez
The Compact Dry "Nissui" EC method, originally certified by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Test Method(SM) program for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli coliforms in raw meat products (Performance Tested Method(SM) 110402), has undergone an evaluation to extend the method's claim to cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, instant nonfat dry milk powder, and pasteurized milk (2% fat). Compact Dry EC is a ready-to-use dry media sheet containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, selective agents, and a chromogenic medium, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL diluted sample...
March 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Patrick J Burke, Joseph Z Hamilton, Thomas A Pires, Jocelyn R Setter, Joshua H Hunter, Julia H Cochran, Andrew B Waight, Kristine A Gordon, Brian E Toki, Kim K Emmerton, Weiping Zeng, Ivan J Stone, Peter D Senter, Robert P Lyon, Scott C Jeffrey
A quaternary ammonium-based drug-linker has been developed to expand the scope of antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) payloads to include tertiary amines, a functional group commonly present in biologically active compounds. The linker strategy was exemplified with a β-glucuronidase-cleavable auristatin E construct. The drug-linker was found to efficiently release free auristatin E (AE) in the presence of β-glucuronidase and provide ADCs that were highly stable in plasma. Anti-CD30 conjugates comprised of the glucuronide-AE linker were potent and immunologically specific in vitro and in vivo, displaying pharmacologic properties comparable with a carbamate-linked glucuronide-monomethylauristatin E control...
May 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Senjuti Sinharoy, Chengwu Liu, Andrew Breakspear, Dian Guan, Sarah Shailes, Jin Nakashima, Shulan Zhang, Jiangqi Wen, Ivone Torres-Jerez, Giles Oldroyd, Jeremy D Murray, Michael K Udvardi
The symbiosis between leguminous plants and soil rhizobia culminates in the formation of nitrogen-fixing organs called nodules that support plant growth. Two Medicago truncatula Tnt1-insertion mutants were identified that produced small nodules, which were unable to fix nitrogen effectively due to ineffective rhizobial colonization. The gene underlying this phenotype was found to encode a protein containing a putative membrane-localized domain of unknown function (DUF21) and a cystathionine-β-synthase domain...
April 2016: Plant Physiology
Mohammad Irfan, Sumit Ghosh, Vijaykumar S Meli, Anil Kumar, Vinay Kumar, Niranjan Chakraborty, Subhra Chakraborty, Asis Datta
α-Mannosidase (α-Man), a fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, is involved in ripening-associated fruit softening process. However, the regulation of fruit-ripening specific expression of α-Man is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the promoter of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) α-Man to provide molecular insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Fruit ripening-specific activation of the α-Man promoter was revealed by analysing promoter driven expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter in transgenic tomato...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zeljko M Prijovich, Pierre-Alain Burnouf, Hua-Cheng Chou, Ping-Ting Huang, Kai-Chuan Chen, Tian-Lu Cheng, Yu-Lin Leu, Steve R Roffler
Major limitations of camptothecin anticancer drugs (toxicity, nonselectivity, water insolubility, inactivation by human serum albumin) may be improved by creating glucuronide prodrugs that rely on beta-glucuronidase for their activation. We found that the camptothecin derivative 5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[de]quinoline-camptothecin (BQC) displays greater cytotoxicity against cancer cells than the clinically used camptothecin derivatives SN-38 and topotecan even in the presence of human serum albumin. We synthesized the prodrug BQC-glucuronide (BQC-G), which was 4000 times more water soluble and 20-40 times less cytotoxic than BQC...
April 4, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Monika Drastikova, Martin Beranek, Filip Gabalec, David Netuka, Vaclav Masopust, Tomas Cesak, Josef Marek, Vladimir Palicka, Jan Cap
AIMS: Pituitary adenomas (PA) are non-invasive benign tumors with a high autopsy prevalence. They are classified according to the type of hormone secreted (prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin, folitropin, or luteinizing hormone). Clinically non-functioning adenomas (CNFA) lacking the typical hypersecretion of hormones make up a significant portion of PA. The aim of the study was to determine the complete expression profiles of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-SSTR5), dopamine receptors type 2 (D2R), and estrogen receptors (ER1) in various types of PA...
June 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Xiaoli Ma, Weina Cui, Wenji Liang, Zhanjing Huang
A novel salt-induced gene with unknown functions was cloned through analysis of gene expression profile of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49 under salt stress. The gene was named Triticum aestivum salt-related protein (TaSP) and deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KF307326). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that TaSP expression was induced under salt, abscisic acid (ABA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSP was mainly localized in cell membrane...
December 2015: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Qin Yang, Yong Zhou, Fu-Yu Li, Hui Mao, Anuj Shrestha, Wen-Jie Ma, Nan-Sheng Cheng, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: There is currently no effective medication to prevent stone recurrence after choledochoscopic lithotomy or to treat proliferative cholangitis (PC), which is the pathologic basis of hepatolithiasis. This study aimed to investigate whether gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, inhibited cholangio hyperplasia and lithogenesis in PC. METHODS: After cholangioscopic lithotomy, indwelling catheters were placed in the diseased bile duct lumens in 94 patients with hepatolithiasis...
October 2015: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Emília Hijová, Alena Šoltésová, Rastislav Salaj, Jozef Kuzma, Ladislav Strojný, Alojz Bomba, Kristína Gregová
The aim of presented study was to investigate the influence of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin on the activity of β-glucuronidase enzyme, and counts of coliform and lactobacilli in fresh caecal digesta, cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8), and trancription nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB) activities in colon tissue and blood samples of rats with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis. The rats were randomly divided into four groups - CG, AC, AC+PRE and AC+PRO. Colitis was induced using of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7d...
2015: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Z W Fang, X Y Xu, J F Gao, P K Wang, Z X Liu, B L Feng
C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)/dehydration-responsive element (DREB) transcription factors play key roles in plant stress responses. However, little information is available on the regulation of CBF/DREB expression. In this study, we isolated and characterized the FeDREB1 promoter sequence from the common buckwheat accession Xinong 9976. To identify the upstream region of the FeDREB1 gene required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of FeDREB1 promoter deletion derivatives. Each deletion construct was analyzed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in tobacco leaves treated with 4°C cold or drought stress...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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