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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927133/benefit-of-rebiopsy-for-deciding-treatment-strategy-in-rectal-cancer-a-case-report
#1
Kenta Kawasaki, Yasuo Hamamoto, Takeshi Suzuki, Kenro Hirata, Yasutaka Sukawa, Akiyoshi Kasuga, Yuichiro Hayashi, Hiromasa Takaishi, Kaori Kameyama, Takanori Kanai
Rebiopsy is considered an option for specific types of cancer, such as breast, non-small cell lung, and prostate cancer, in clinical trials and in practice. The benefit of rebiopsy comes from the selection of a new treatment strategy based on the genetic profile of the cells, which may reflect the development of drug resistance or hormonal changes. For colorectal cancer, the presence of different genomic mutations between the primary tumor and its metastases is rare, and rebiopsy is therefore not generally performed...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927104/antisense-rna-transcripts-in-the-blood-may-be-novel-diagnostic-markers-for-colorectal-cancer
#2
Tomohiro Kurokawa, Keisuke Kohno, Kentaro Nagai, Mitsuru Chiba, Sugiru Pak, Soichiro Murata, Kiyoshi Fukunaga, Hiroshi Yasue, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Numerous genetic studies have been conducted regarding the occurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the prognosis using microarrays. However, adequate investigations into the diagnostic application of microarrays have yet to be performed. The simplicity and accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis tracking are important requirements for its processes, and the use of blood cells for diagnosis is considered to be suitable to meet these requirements. The patients involved in the study were 28 preoperative patients with CRC and 6 healthy individuals who served as controls...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927094/genomic-markers-of-ovarian-adenocarcinoma-and-its-relevancy-to-the-effectiveness-of-chemotherapy
#3
Monika Englert-Golon, Bartosz Burchardt, Bartlomiej Budny, Szymon Dębicki, Blanka Majchrzycka, Elzbieta Wrotkowska, Piotr Jasiński, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Radosław Słopień, Marek Ruchała, Stefan Sajdak
Ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the seventh highest cause of cancer-associated mortality in women worldwide. It is the second highest cause of mortality among female reproductive malignancies. The current standard first-line treatment for advanced ovarian cancer includes a combination of surgical debulking and standard systemic platinum-based chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Although a deeper understanding of this disease has been attained, relapse occurs in 70% of patients 18 months subsequent to the first-line treatment...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926903/-pharmacotherapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-difficulties-and-prospects
#4
Z H Wang, J Zhou, L Shen
The incidence of pancreatic cancer has been obviously increasing in China over the last decade, however, those patients with advanced pancreatic cancer are suffering from limited treatment strategies and poor clinical prognosis. Chemotherapy improved the overall survival of cases with advanced pancreatic cancer to 8-11 months, and erlotinib brought an additional survival of only 10 days. In this article, the recent progresses on advanced pancreatic cancer were reviewed at the genetic and molecular sub-typing levels, and corresponding clinical transformation studies summarized, some of which have showed encouraging clinical prospects but others have failed due to the complexity of pancreatic cancer...
September 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926831/multiparameter-investigation-of-a-46-xx-46-xy-tetragametic-chimeric-phenotypical-male-patient-with-bilateral-scrotal-ovotestes-and-ovulatory-activity
#5
Yolande van Bever, Katja P Wolffenbuttel, Hennie T Brüggenwirth, Eric Blom, Annelies de Klein, Bert H J Eussen, Florijn van der Windt, Sabine E Hannema, Arianne B Dessens, Lambert C J Dorssers, Katharina Biermann, Remko Hersmus, Yolanda B de Rijke, Leendert H J Looijenga
We report on an adult male initially presenting with gynecomastia and a painless scrotal mass without additional genital anomalies. Hyperpigmentation of the skin following the Blaschko's lines was identified. He underwent gonadectomy because of suspected cancer. Histological analyses revealed an ovotestis with ovulatory activity confirmed by immunohistochemistry with multiple markers. Karyotyping of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes and a buccal smear revealed a 46,XX/46,XY chimeric constitution with different percentages...
September 20, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926425/the-roles-of-dna-methylation-in-the-stages-of-cancer
#6
K Wyatt McMahon, Enusha Karunasena, Nita Ahuja
Next year will mark 60 years since Dr. Leslie Foulds outlined his hypothesis that cancer is "a dynamic process advancing through stages that are qualitatively different," leading the way to our view of cancer progression as we know it today. Our understanding of the mechanisms of these stages has been continuously evolving this past half-century, and there has always been an active discussion of the roles of both genetic and epigenetic changes in directing this progression. In this review, we focus on the roles one particular epigenetic mark-DNA methylation-plays in these various "discontinuous" stages of cancer...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926338/melk-is-not-necessary-for-the-proliferation-of-basal-like-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Hai-Tsang Huang, Hyuk-Soo Seo, Tinghu Zhang, Yubao Wang, Baishan Jiang, Qing Li, Dennis L Buckley, Behnam Nabet, Justin M Roberts, Joshiawa Paulk, Shiva Dastjerdi, Georg E Winter, Hilary McLauchlan, Jennifer Moran, James E Bradner, Michael J Eck, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Jean J Zhao, Nathanael S Gray
Thorough preclinical target validation is essential for the success of drug discovery efforts. In this study, we combined chemical and genetic perturbants, including the development of a novel selective maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) inhibitor HTH-01-091, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated MELK knockout, a novel chemical-induced protein degradation strategy, RNA interference and CRISPR interference to validate MELK as a therapeutic target in basal-like breast cancers (BBC). In common culture conditions, we found that small molecule inhibition, genetic deletion, or acute depletion of MELK did not significantly affect cellular growth...
September 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926134/early-genetic-aberrations-in-patients-with-sporadic-colorectal-cancer
#8
Brooke R Druliner, Xiaoyang Ruan, Hugues Sicotte, Daniel O'Brien, Hongfang Liu, Jean-Pierre A Kocher, Lisa Boardman
Chromosome instability (CIN) is widely observed in both sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). Defects in APC and WNT signaling are primarily associated with CIN in hereditary CRC, but the genetic causes for CIN in sporadic CRC remain elusive. Using high-density SNP array and exome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we characterized loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and copy number variation (CNV) in the peripheral blood, normal colon and corresponding tumor tissue in 15 CRC patients with proficient mismatch repair (MMR) and 24 CRC patients with deficient MMR...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925869/perspectives-of-plant-natural-products-in-inhibition-of-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis-by-regulating-multiple-signaling-pathways
#9
Md Shahid Sarwar, Hong-Jie Zhang, Siu Wai Tsang
Metastasis is often derived from increased invasion and migration of tumor cells, and is the most frequent cause of cancer-associated death. Either the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of metastatic cancer remains very challenging today by virtue of the complex histopathology and genetic or epigenetic variations. Medicinal scientists had discovered many potential anti-invasive and anti-metastatic compounds from plant materials. However, data on currently available plant-based compounds inhibiting cancer invasion and metastasis is relatively scanty and no published article has been found with updated information in this unique and important aspect...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925392/atypical-e2fs-inhibit-tumor-angiogenesis
#10
B G M W Weijts, B Westendorp, B T Hien, L M Martínez-López, M Zijp, I Thurlings, R E Thomas, S Schulte-Merker, W J Bakker, A de Bruin
Atypical E2F transcription factors (E2F7 and E2F8) function as key regulators of cell cycle progression and their inactivation leads to spontaneous cancer formation in mice. However, the mechanism of the tumor suppressor functions of E2F7/8 remain obscure. In this study we discovered that atypical E2Fs control tumor angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer. We genetically inactivated atypical E2Fs in epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasm and analyzed blood vessel formation in three different animal models of cancer...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925066/beyond-the-androgen-receptor-ii-new-approaches-to-understanding-and-treating-metastatic-prostate-cancer-report-from-the-2017-coffey-holden-prostate-cancer-academy-meeting
#11
REVIEW
Andrea K Miyahira, Heather H Cheng, Wassim Abida, Leigh Ellis, Lauren C Harshman, Daniel E Spratt, Jonathan W Simons, Kenneth J Pienta, Howard R Soule
INTRODUCTION: The 2017 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy (CHPCA) Meeting, "Beyond the Androgen Receptor II: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Metastatic Prostate Cancer," was held in Carlsbad, California from June 14-17, 2017. METHODS: The CHPCA is an annual scientific conference hosted by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) that is uniquely designed to produce extensive and constructive discussions on the most urgent and impactful topics concerning research into the biology and treatment of metastatic prostate cancer...
September 18, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924745/hypertonia-linked-protein-trak1-functions-with-mitofusins-to-promote-mitochondrial-tethering-and-fusion
#12
Crystal A Lee, Lih-Shen Chin, Lian Li
Hypertonia is a neurological dysfunction associated with a number of central nervous system disorders, including cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and epilepsy. Genetic studies have identified a homozygous truncation mutation in Trak1 that causes hypertonia in mice. Moreover, elevated Trak1 protein expression is associated with several types of cancers and variants in Trak1 are linked to childhood absence epilepsy in humans. Despite the importance of Trak1 in health and disease, the mechanisms of Trak1 action remain unclear and the pathogenic effects of Trak1 mutation are unknown...
September 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924377/current-progresses-of-single-cell-dna-sequencing-in-breast-cancer-research
#13
REVIEW
Jianlin Liu, Ragini Adhav, Xiaoling Xu
Breast cancers display striking genetic and phenotypic diversities. To date, several hypotheses are raised to explain and understand the heterogeneity, including theories for cancer stem cell (CSC) and clonal evolution. According to the CSC theory, the most tumorigenic cells, while maintaining themselves through symmetric division, divide asymmetrically to generate non-CSCs with less tumorigenic and metastatic potential, although they can also dedifferentiate back to CSCs. Clonal evolution theory recapitulates that a tumor initially arises from a single cell, which then undergoes clonal expansion to a population of cancer cells...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924212/chst9-rs1436904-genetic-variant-contributes-to-prognosis-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#14
Jupeng Yuan, Nasha Zhang, Hui Zhu, Jibing Liu, Huaixin Xing, Fei Ma, Ming Yang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) refers to one aggressive histological subtype of breast cancer with high heterogeneity and poor prognosis after standard therapy. Lack of clearly established molecular mechanism driving TNBC progression makes personalized therapy more difficult. Thus, identification of genetic variants associated with TNBC prognosis will show clinic significance for individualized treatments. Our study is aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the genome wide association study (GWAS)-identified CHST9 rs1436904 and AQP4 rs527616 genetic variants in our established early-stage TNBC sample database...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924054/immunosurveillance-and-immunoediting-of-breast-cancer-via-class-i-mhc-receptors
#15
Megan M Tu, Mir Munir A Rahim, Celine Sayed, Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud, Andrew P Makrigiannis
Ly49 receptors, which recognize 'self' class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecules, enable natural killer (NK) cells to detect loss of MHC-I expression on transformed and virally-infected cells. The impact of NK cell-mediated MHC-I surveillance on immunoediting of breast cancer is still not fully understood. This work assesses the impact of Ly49 receptors on tumor development in terms of cancer control and in driving immune-evading cancer mutations. Genetically modified Ly49-deficient mice and those lacking NK cells through antibody depletion were less able to control E0771-derived mammary tumors in an MHC-I-dependent fashion...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924022/pan-genomic-analyses-identify-key-helicobacter-pylori-pathogenic-loci-modified-by-carcinogenic-host-microenvironments
#16
Jennifer M Noto, Abha Chopra, John T Loh, Judith Romero-Gallo, M Blanca Piazuelo, Mark Watson, Shay Leary, Amber C Beckett, Keith T Wilson, Timothy L Cover, Simon Mallal, Dawn A Israel, Richard M Peek
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer; however, the majority of infected individuals do not develop disease. Pathological outcomes are mediated by complex interactions among bacterial, host and environmental constituents, and two dietary factors linked with gastric cancer risk are iron deficiency and high salt. We hypothesised that prolonged adaptation of H. pylori to in vivo carcinogenic microenvironments results in genetic modification important for disease...
September 18, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923859/upregulation-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-in-colonic-epithelia-reprograms-metabolism-and-promotes-carcinogenesis
#17
Ches'Nique M Phillips, John Zatarain, Michael E Nicholls, Craig Porter, Steve G Widen, Ketan Thanki, Paul Johnson, Muhammad U Jawad, Mary Pat Moyer, James W Randall, Judith L Hellmich, Manjit Maskey, Suimin Qiu, Thomas Wood, Nadiya Druzhyna, Bartosz Szczesny, Katalin Modis, Csaba Szabo, Celia Chao, Mark R Hellmich
The transsulfuration enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and its product hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are aberrantly upregulated in colorectal cancers, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression by both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. However, it is unknown whether the CBS/H2S axis plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Here, we report upregulation of CBS in human biopsies of precancerous adenomatous polyps and show that forced upregulation of CBS in an adenoma-like colonic epithelial cell line is sufficient to induce metabolic and gene expression profiles characteristic of colorectal cancer cells...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923856/genomic-activation-of-pparg-reveals-a-candidate-therapeutic-axis-in-bladder-cancer
#18
Jonathan T Goldstein, Ashton C Berger, Juliann Shih, Fujiko F Duke, Laura Furst, David J Kwiatkowski, Andrew D Cherniack, Matthew Meyerson, Craig A Strathdee
The PPARG gene encoding the nuclear receptor PPAR-gamma is activated in bladder cancer, either directly by gene amplification or mutation, or indirectly by mutation of the RXRA gene which encodes the heterodimeric partner of PPAR-gamma. Here we show that activating alterations of PPARG or RXRA lead to a specific gene expression signature in bladder cancers. Reducing PPARG activity, whether by pharmacologic inhibition or genetic ablation, inhibited proliferation of PPARG-activated bladder cancer cells. Our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for PPARG as a candidate therapeutic target in bladder cancer...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923776/prostate-cancer-xenografts-and-hormone-induced-prostate-carcinogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Dalton T McLean, Douglas W Strand, William A Ricke
Despite the advancement of transgenic and gene knockout animal models in the prostate cancer research, there is still a need for utilizing xenograft models. Xenografts can be grown in multiple sites/organs within immunocompromised animals such as mice and rats. Although prostate xenografts have been derived from many species, human cells and tissues are the most commonly used due to their potential clinical significance. Xenograft models that progress from one state or stage to another are commonly used to address important scientific questions including malignant transformation, metastatic spread, and castration resistance...
September 8, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923544/modulation-of-oncogenic-transcription-factors-by-bioactive-natural-products-in-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Mohadeseh Hasanpourghadi, Ashok Kumar Pandurangan, Mohd Rais Mustafa
Carcinogenesis, a multi-step phenomenon, characterized by alterations at genetic level and affecting the main intracellular pathways controlling cell growth and development. There are growing number of evidences linking oncogenes to the induction of malignancies, especially breast cancer. Modulations of oncogenes lead to gain-of-function signals in the cells and contribute to the tumorigenic phenotype. These signals yield a large number of proteins that cause cell growth and inhibit apoptosis. Transcription factors such as STAT, p53, NF-κB, c-JUN and FOXM1, are proteins that are conserved among species, accumulate in the nucleus, bind to DNA and regulate the specific genes targets...
September 15, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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