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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425301/development-of-a-novel-rationally-designed-antibiotic-to-inhibit-a-nontraditional-bacterial-target
#1
Pavel Dibrov, Elena Dibrov, Thane G Maddaford, Melissa Kenneth, Jordan Nelson, Craig Resch, Grant N Pierce
The search for new nontraditional targets is a high priority in antibiotic design today. Bacterial membrane energetics based on sodium ion circulation offers potential alternative targets. The present work identifies the Na(+)-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR), a key respiratory enzyme in many microbial pathogens, as indispensible for the Chlamydia trachomatis infectious process. Infection by Chlamydia trachomatis significantly increased first H(+) and then Na(+) levels within the host mammalian cell...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413062/assessment-of-mucosal-integrity-by-quantifying-neutrophil-granulocyte-influx-in-murine-models-of-acute-intestinal-injury
#2
Julius Clemens Fischer, Alexander Wintges, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
Intact epithelial body surfaces represent physical barriers which protect the organism from invading pathogens and loss of nutrients. Barrier malfunction is closely linked to disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. In fact, several pharmacological or radiobiological therapeutic strategies have side effects that affect epithelial surfaces. In this context, assays that accurately assess epithelial barrier integrity in patients and animal models are crucial to create a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to disease or limiting therapeutic approaches due to barrier disruption...
April 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397806/corylin-protects-lps-induced-sepsis-and-attenuates-lps-induced-inflammatory-response
#3
Yung-Li Hung, Shih-Hua Fang, Shu-Chi Wang, Wei-Chung Cheng, Po-Len Liu, Chia-Cheng Su, Chi-Shuo Chen, Ming-Yii Huang, Kuo-Feng Hua, Kun-Hung Shen, Yu-Ting Wang, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Chia-Yang Li
Corylin is a main compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae). A variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-proliferation, and anti-inflammatory properties of corylin have been reported. Nevertheless, the effect of corylin in microbial infection and sepsis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of corylin. Our experimental results demonstrated that corylin inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and NO by both LPS-activated RAW 264...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388647/impact-of-probiotic-saccharomyces-boulardii-on-the-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-treated-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Judit Villar-García, Robert Güerri-Fernández, Andrés Moya, Alicia González, Juan J Hernández, Elisabet Lerma, Ana Guelar, Luisa Sorli, Juan P Horcajada, Alejandro Artacho, Giuseppe D Auria, Hernando Knobel
Dysbalance in gut microbiota has been linked to increased microbial translocation, leading to chronic inflammation in HIV-patients, even under effective HAART. Moreover, microbial translocation is associated with insufficient reconstitution of CD4+T cells, and contributes to the pathogenesis of immunologic non-response. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recently showed that, compared to placebo, 12 weeks treatment with probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii significantly reduced plasma levels of bacterial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein or LBP) and systemic inflammation (IL-6) in 44 HIV virologically suppressed patients, half of whom (n = 22) had immunologic non-response to antiretroviral therapy (<270 CD4+Tcells/μL despite long-term suppressed viral load)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362071/differential-effects-of-antiretrovirals-on-microbial-translocation-and-gut-microbiota-composition-of-hiv-infected-patients
#5
María J Villanueva-Millán, Patricia Pérez-Matute, Emma Recio-Fernández, José M Lezana Rosales, José A Oteo
INTRODUCTION: Increased bacterial translocation and alterations to gut microbiota composition have been described in HIV infection and contribute to immune activation and inflammation. These effects persist despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the contribution of different cART combinations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term effects of different combinations of cART on bacterial translocation and gut microbiota composition in HIV-infected patients...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362070/awareness-and-perceived-fairness-of-option-b-in-malawi-a-population-level-perspective
#6
Sara Yeatman, Jenny Trinitapoli
INTRODUCTION: Policies for rationing antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been subject to on-going ethical debates. Introduced in Malawi in 2011, Option B+ prioritized HIV-positive pregnant women for lifelong ART regardless of the underlying state of their immune system, shifting the logic of allocation away from medical eligibility. Despite the rapid expansion of this policy, we know little about how it has been understood and interpreted by the people it affects. METHODS: We assessed awareness and perceived fairness of the prioritization system for ART among a population-based sample of young women (n = 1440) and their partners (n = 574) in southern Malawi...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360349/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
W H Wilson Tang, Takeshi Kitai, Stanley L Hazen
Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases...
March 31, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348560/specific-strains-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-differentially-modulate-the-profile-of-adipokines-in-vitro
#8
Emanuel Fabersani, María Claudia Abeijon-Mukdsi, Romina Ross, Roxana Medina, Silvia González, Paola Gauffin-Cano
Obesity induces local/systemic inflammation accompanied by increases in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and hormones. Previous studies have shown that probiotics could improve the intestinal dysbiosis induced by metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Microorganisms could (directly or indirectly) affect adipokine levels due to their capacity to induce translocation of several intestinal microbial antigens into systemic circulation, which could lead to metabolic endotoxemia or produce immunomodulation in different organs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347915/chromium-speciation-bioavailability-uptake-toxicity-and-detoxification-in-soil-plant-system-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Shahid, Saliha Shamshad, Marina Rafiq, Sana Khalid, Irshad Bibi, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Camille Dumat, Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
Chromium (Cr) is a potentially toxic heavy metal which does not have any essential metabolic function in plants. Various past and recent studies highlight the biogeochemistry of Cr in the soil-plant system. This review traces a plausible link among Cr speciation, bioavailability, phytouptake, phytotoxicity and detoxification based on available data, especially published from 2010 to 2016. Chromium occurs in different chemical forms (primarily as chromite (Cr(III)) and chromate (Cr(VI)) in soil which vary markedly in term of their biogeochemical behavior...
March 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346561/reduced-intestinal-motility-mucosal-barrier-function-and-inflammation-in-aged-monkeys
#10
E L Mitchell, A T Davis, K Brass, M Dendinger, R Barner, R Gharaibeh, A A Fodor, K Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the general health and intestinal physiology of young and old non-human primates with comparable life histories and dietary environments. DESIGN: Vervet monkeys (Chlorcebus aethiops sabaeus) in stable and comparable social and nutritional environments were selected for evaluation. Health phenotype, circulating cytokines and biomarkers of microbial translocation (MT) were measured (n=26-44). Subsets of monkeys additionally had their intestinal motility, intestinal permeability, and fecal microbiomes characterized...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346358/genomic-evidence-for-bacterial-determinants-influencing-obesity-development
#11
Raphael D Isokpehi, Shaneka S Simmons, Matilda O Johnson, Marinelle Payton
Obesity is a major global public health problem requiring multifaceted interventional approaches including dietary interventions with probiotic bacteria. High-throughput genome sequencing of microbial communities in the mammalian gastrointestinal system continues to present diverse protein function information to understand the bacterial determinants that influence obesity development. The goal of the research reported in this article was to identify biological processes in probiotic bacteria that could influence the mechanisms for the extraction of energy from diet in the human gastrointestinal system...
March 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343357/gut-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
R G Armani, A Ramezani, A Yasir, S Sharama, M E F Canziani, D S Raj
With over 100 trillion microbial cells, the gut microbiome plays important roles in both the maintenance of health and the pathogenesis of disease. Gut microbiome dysbiosis, resulted from alteration of composition and function of the gut microbiome and disruption of gut barrier function, is commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The dysbiotic gut microbiome generates excessive amounts of uremic toxins, and the impaired intestinal barrier permits translocation of these toxins into the systemic circulation...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338646/type-iv-secretion-and-signal-transduction-of-helicobacter-pylori-caga-through-interactions-with-host-cell-receptors
#13
REVIEW
Steffen Backert, Nicole Tegtmeyer
Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful human bacterium, which is exceptionally equipped to persistently inhabit the human stomach. Colonization by this pathogen is associated with gastric disorders ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers to cancer. Highly virulent H. pylori strains express the well-established adhesins BabA/B, SabA, AlpA/B, OipA, and HopQ, and a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). The adhesins ascertain intimate bacterial contact to gastric epithelial cells, while the T4SS represents an extracellular pilus-like structure for the translocation of the effector protein CagA...
March 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316036/targeting-the-microbiome-in-heart-failure
#15
REVIEW
Allyson Zabell, W H Wilson Tang
Heart failure is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world today. While there have been major advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure over the past decades, disease progression remains inevitable in the majority of patients and effective therapies to prevent heart failure are still lacking. Research has turned to better understand the gut microbiome because alterations in their ecosystems have been associated with various downstream chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286112/the-gut-microbiome-and-microbial-translocation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Ali Mirza, Yang Mao-Draayer
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a distinct intestinal microbial community (microbiota) and increased low-grade translocation of bacteria from the intestines into the circulation. The observed change of intestinal bacteria in MS patients regulate immune functions involved in MS pathogenesis. These functions include: systemic and central nervous system (CNS) immunity (including peripheral regulatory T cell function), the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS-resident cell activity. This review discusses the MS intestinal microbiota implication on MS systemic- and CNS-immunopathology...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280004/connexin-purinergic-signaling-in-enteric-glia-mediates-the-prolonged-effect-of-morphine-on-constipation
#17
Sukhada Bhave, Aravind Gade, Minho Kang, Kurt F Hauser, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
Morphine is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of pain. However, side effects, including persistent constipation and antinociceptive tolerance limit its clinical efficacy. Prolonged morphine treatment results in a "leaky" gut predisposing to colonic inflammation that is facilitated by microbial dysbiosis and associated bacterial translocation. In this study, we examined the role of enteric glia in mediating this secondary inflammatory response to prolonged treatment with morphine. We found that purinergic P2X receptor activity was significantly enhanced in enteric glia that were isolated from mice with long-term morphine treatment (in vivo) but not upon direct exposure of glia to morphine (in vitro)...
March 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265887/coronary-artery-disease-in-hiv-infected-patients-downside-of-living-longer
#18
REVIEW
John Charles A Lacson, Revery P Barnes, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased the life expectancy of patients with HIV infection, allowing them to live longer with this chronic medical condition and consequently experiencing conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Several studies have investigated the increased risk of CVD in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, less is known about the exact mechanisms involved in this increased risk. Also, specific guidelines for management of CVD in PLWH have not been developed yet...
April 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263922/citrulline-and-monocyte-derived-macrophage-reactivity-before-conditioning-predict-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#19
Thomas Hueso, Valérie Coiteux, Marie Joncquel Chevalier Curt, Julien Labreuche, Thierry Jouault, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, David Seguy
During conditioning, intestinal damage induces microbial translocation, which primes macrophage reactivity and leads to donor-derived T cell stimulation. Little is known about the role of intestinal health and macrophage reactivity before conditioning in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We assessed (1) citrulline, a surrogate marker of functional enterocyte mass and (2) circulating monocyte-derived macrophage reactivity, before allo-HCT...
March 2, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263365/plasticity-in-nitrogen-uptake-among-plant-species-with-contrasting-nutrient-acquisition-strategies-in-a-tropical-forest
#20
Kelly M Andersen, Jordan R Mayor, Benjamin L Turner
Nitrogen (N) availability influences the productivity and distribution of plants in tropical montane forests. Strategies to acquire soil N, such as direct uptake of organic compounds or associations with root symbionts to enhance N acquisition in exchange for carbon (C), may facilitate plant species coexistence and ecosystem N retention. Alternatively, rapid microbial turnover of soil N forms in tropical soils might promote flexible plant N-uptake strategies and mediate species coexistence. We tested whether sympatric plant species with different root symbiont associations, and therefore potentially different nutrient acquisition strategies, partition chemical forms of N or show plasticity in N uptake in a tropical pre-montane forest in Panama...
March 6, 2017: Ecology
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