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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222679/comparative-mitogenomics-indicates-respiratory-competence-in%C3%A2-parasitic-viscum-despite%C3%A2-loss-of-complex-i%C3%A2-and-extreme-sequence%C3%A2-divergence-and-reveals-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-remarkable%C3%A2-variation-in-genome-size
#1
Elizabeth Skippington, Todd J Barkman, Danny W Rice, Jeffrey D Palmer
BACKGROUND: Aerobically respiring eukaryotes usually contain four respiratory-chain complexes (complexes I-IV) and an ATP synthase (complex V). In several lineages of aerobic microbial eukaryotes, complex I has been lost, with an alternative, nuclear-encoded NADH dehydrogenase shown in certain cases to bypass complex I and oxidize NADH without proton translocation. The first loss of complex I in any multicellular eukaryote was recently reported in two studies; one sequenced the complete mitogenome of the hemiparasitic aerial mistletoe, Viscum scurruloideum, and the other sequenced the V...
February 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217742/piericidin-a1-blocks-yersinia-ysc-type-iii-secretion-system-needle-assembly
#2
Jessica M Morgan, Miles C Duncan, Kevin S Johnson, Andreas Diepold, Hanh Lam, Allison J Dupzyk, Lexi R Martin, Weng Ruh Wong, Judith P Armitage, Roger G Linington, Victoria Auerbuch
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial virulence factor expressed by dozens of Gram-negative pathogens but largely absent from commensals. The T3SS is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents that may disarm pathogenic bacteria while leaving commensal populations intact. We previously identified piericidin A1 as an inhibitor of the Ysc T3SS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Piericidins were first discovered as inhibitors of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and some bacteria...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214973/a-multifunctional-alanine-rich-anti-inflammatory-peptide-bcp61-showed-potent-inhibitory-effects-by-inhibiting-both-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-expression
#3
Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Young Kyun Kim, Md Saifur Rahman, G C Pradeep, Jin Cheol Yoo, Joo-Won Suh
The purified BCP61 was reported to be a unique low-molecular-weight (MW) anti-microbial peptide because of its non-identical alanine-rich N-terminal sequence. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of BCP61 on induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. The treatment with BCP61, with varying concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL, inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPKs (extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and mitogen-activated protein (p38)) as well as production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
February 18, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211545/the-effect-of-gut-microbiome-on-tolerance-to-morphine-mediated-antinociception-in-mice
#4
Minho Kang, Ryan A Mischel, Sukhada Bhave, Essie Komla, Alvin Cho, Charity Huang, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
There is growing appreciation for the importance of gastrointestinal microbiota in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While morphine and other narcotics are the most widely prescribed therapy for moderate to severe pain clinically, they have been noted to alter microbial composition and promote bacterial translocation to other tissues. Here we examined the pharmacodynamic properties of chronic morphine in mice following bacterial depletion with oral gavage of an antibiotic cocktail (ABX). ABX significantly reduced gut bacteria and prevented chronic morphine induced increases in gut permeability, colonic mucosal destruction, and colonic IL-1β expression...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#5
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202625/gut-microbiota-promotes-obesity-associated-liver-cancer-through-pge2-mediated-suppression-of-antitumor-immunity
#6
Tze Mun Loo, Fumitaka Kamachi, Yoshihiro Watanabe, Shin Yoshimoto, Hiroaki Kanda, Yuriko Arai, Yaeko Nakajima-Takagi, Atsushi Iwama, Tomoaki Koga, Yukihiko Sugimoto, Takayuki Ozawa, Masaru Nakamura, Miho Kumagai, Koichi Watashi, Makoto M Taketo, Tomohiro Aoki, Shuh Narumiya, Masanobu Oshima, Makoto Arita, Eiji Hara, Naoko Ohtani
Obesity increases the risk of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, the precise molecular mechanisms through which obesity promotes HCC development are still unclear. Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota may influence liver diseases by transferring its metabolites and components. Here, we show that the hepatic translocation of obesity-induced lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a Gram positive gut microbial component, promotes HCC development by creating a tumor-promoting microenvironment...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182619/contribution-of-common-infections-to-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#7
Victoria Berquist, Jennifer F Hoy, Janine M Trevillyan
HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease due to complex interactions between the increased incidence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and HIV and antiretroviral-associated inflammation and dyslipidemia. Increasing evidence suggests that a number of important co-pathogens, including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C virus, and periodontal disease, are likely to also be contributing. Mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and modification of lipids play a role; however, induction of systemic inflammation is the likely key pathogenic link by which this occurs...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176790/architectural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-in-classical-whipple-s-disease
#8
H-J Epple, J Friebel, V Moos, H Troeger, S M Krug, K Allers, K Schinnerling, A Fromm, B Siegmund, M Fromm, J D Schulzke, T Schneider
Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) affects the gastrointestinal tract and rather elicits regulatory than inflammatory immune reactions. Mechanisms of malabsorption, diarrhea, and systemic immune activation are unknown. We here analyzed mucosal architecture, barrier function, and immune activation as potential diarrheal trigger in specimens from 52 CWD patients. Our data demonstrate villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia associated with epithelial apoptosis and reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in the duodenum of CWD patients...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174721/znt2-mediated-zinc-import-into-paneth-cell-granules-is-necessary-for-coordinated-secretion-and-paneth-cell-function%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-mice
#9
Abigail B Podany, Justin Wright, Regina Lamendella, David I Soybel, Shannon L Kelleher
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defects in Paneth cell (PC) function are associated with microbial dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation. PC granules contain antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and substantial stores of zinc (Zn). We hypothesized that Zn, transported into the granule through the Zn transporter (ZnT)2, is critical for signature PC functions. METHODS: ZnT2 was localized to PC granules using immunofluorescence and sucrose gradient fractionation in wild-type (wt) mice, and consequences of ZnT2 loss were characterized in ZnT2 knockout (ZnT2ko) mice...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174308/bacillus-subtilis-swarmer-cells-lead-the-swarm-multiply-and-generate-a-trail-of-quiescent-descendants
#10
Lina Hamouche, Soumaya Laalami, Adrian Daerr, Solène Song, I Barry Holland, Simone J Séror, Kassem Hamze, Harald Putzer
: Bacteria adopt social behavior to expand into new territory, led by specialized swarmers, before forming a biofilm. Such mass migration of Bacillus subtilis on a synthetic medium produces hyperbranching dendrites that transiently (equivalent to 4 to 5 generations of growth) maintain a cellular monolayer over long distances, greatly facilitating single-cell gene expression analysis. Paradoxically, while cells in the dendrites (nonswarmers) might be expected to grow exponentially, the rate of swarm expansion is constant, suggesting that some cells are not multiplying...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167239/6-gingerol-protects-intestinal-barrier-from-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-damage-via-inhibition-of-p38-mapk-to-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling
#11
Yanli Li, Bin Xu, Ming Xu, Dapeng Chen, Yongjian Xiong, Mengqiao Lian, Yuchao Sun, Zeyao Tang, Li Wang, Chunling Jiang, Yuan Lin
Intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury caused by severe trauma, intestinal obstruction, and operation is one of the tough challenges in clinic. 6-Gingerol (6G), a main active ingredient of ginger, is found to have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer activities. The present study was designed to characterize the potential protective effects of 6G on rat intestinal I/R injury and reveal the correlated mechanisms. Rat intestinal I/R model was established with clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and 6G was intragastrically administered for three consecutive days before I/R injury...
February 4, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125732/dysregulation-of-systemic-and-mucosal-humoral-responses-to-microbial-and-food-antigens-as-a-factor-contributing-to-microbial-translocation-and-chronic-inflammation-in-hiv-1-infection
#12
Zdenek Hel, Jun Xu, Warren L Denning, E Scott Helton, Richard P H Huijbregts, Sonya L Heath, E Turner Overton, Benjamin S Christmann, Charles O Elson, Paul A Goepfert, Jiri Mestecky
HIV-1 infection is associated with an early and profound depletion of mucosal memory CD4+ T cells, a population that plays an indispensable role in the regulation of isotype switching and transepithelial transport of antibodies. In this study, we addressed whether the depletion of CD4+ T cell in HIV-1-infected individuals results in altered humoral responses specific to antigens encountered at mucosal surfaces. Comprehensive protein microarray of systemic humoral responses to intestinal microbiota demonstrated reduced IgG responses to antigens derived from Proteobacteria and Firmicutes but not Bacteroidetes...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118375/chlorin-e6-mediated-photodynamic-therapy-suppresses-p-acnes-induced-inflammatory-response-via-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapks-signaling-pathway
#13
Yoon-Young Wang, A-Reum Ryu, Solee Jin, Yu-Mi Jeon, Mi-Young Lee
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), consisting of photosensitizer, light, and oxygen has been used for the treatment of various diseases including cancers, microbial infections and skin disorders. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of chlorin e6-mediated PDT in P. acnes-infected HaCaT cells using photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and halogen light. The live and heat-killed P. acnes triggered an upregulation of inflammatory molecules such as iNOS, NO, and inflammatory cytokine in HaCaT cells and mouse model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107731/natural-amelioration-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-toxicity-in-fenugreek%C3%A2-trigonella-foenum-gracum-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-glomus-intraradices-secretion-of-glomalin
#14
Narges Ghasemi Siani, Seyfollah Fallah, Lok Raj Pokhrel, Ali Rostamnejadi
Owing to rising production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the myriad of consumer applications, ENPs are being released into the environment where their potential fate and effects have remained unclear. With naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF; Glomus intraradices) in soils, their influence (positive or negative) on ENPs toxicity in plants is not well documented. Herein, we investigated potential influence of AMF on the growth and development in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) under varied Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) treatments (0, 125, 250, 375 and 500 μg g(-1))...
January 3, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056337/marked-enteropathy-in-an-accelerated-macaque-model-of-aids
#15
Joshua D Croteau, Elizabeth L Engle, Suzanne E Queen, Erin N Shirk, M Christine Zink
Enteropathy in HIV infection is not eliminated with combination antiretroviral therapy and is possibly linked to microbial translocation. We used a rapidly progressing SIV/pigtailed macaque model of HIV to examine enteropathy and microbial translocation. Histologic evidence of intestinal disease was observed in only half of infected macaques during late-stage infection (LSI). Combination antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute infection prevented intestinal disease. In the ileum and colon, enteropathy was associated with increased caspase-3 staining, decreased CD3(+) T cells, and increased SIV-infected cells...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046052/integrative-analysis-of-immunological-data-to-explore-chronic-immune-t-cell-activation-in-successfully-treated-hiv-patients
#16
Marie-Quitterie Picat, Isabelle Pellegrin, Juliette Bitard, Linda Wittkop, Cécile Proust-Lima, Benoît Liquet, Jean-François Moreau, Fabrice Bonnet, Patrick Blanco, Rodolphe Thiébaut
OBJECTIVES: To unravel the complex relationships between cytomegalovirus-induced-, autoimmune-induced responses, microbial translocation and chronic immune activation (CIA) in successfully treated HIV-infected patients and to explore the mediating role of alpha-interferon in these processes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study nested in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in South-Western France. METHODS: Patients initiated antiretroviral therapy between 2005 and 2008 and were treated with sustained virological suppression for at least two years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042237/gut-microbiome-surgical-complications-and-probiotics
#17
REVIEW
George Stavrou, Katerina Kotzampassi
The trigger for infectious complications in patients following major abdominal operations is classically attributed to endogenous enteral bacterial translocation, due to the critical condition of the gut. Today, extensive gut microbiome analysis has enabled us to understand that almost all "evidence-based" surgical or medical intervention (antibiotics, bowel preparation, opioids, deprivation of nutrition), in addition to stress-released hormones, could affect the relative abundance and diversity of the enteral microbiome, allowing harmful bacteria to proliferate in the place of depressed beneficial species...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027803/rules-of-engagement-the-type-vi-secretion-system-in-vibrio-cholerae
#18
REVIEW
Avatar Joshi, Benjamin Kostiuk, Andrew Rogers, Jennifer Teschler, Stefan Pukatzki, Fitnat H Yildiz
Microbial species often exist in complex communities where they must avoid predation and compete for favorable niches. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a contact-dependent bacterial weapon that allows for direct killing of competitors through the translocation of proteinaceous toxins. Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative pathogen that can use its T6SS during antagonistic interactions with neighboring prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. The T6SS not only promotes V. cholerae's survival during its aquatic and host life cycles, but also influences its evolution by facilitating horizontal gene transfer...
December 24, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024280/comparative-effect-of-berberine-and-its-derivative-8-cetylberberine-on-attenuating-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#19
Min Feng, Zongyao Zou, Xia Zhou, Yinran Hu, Hang Ma, Yubo Xiao, Xuegang Li, Xiaoli Ye
Berberine (BBR), one of the main bioactive compounds in Rhizoma coptidis, has multiple pharmacological activities. It has been reported that 8-cetylberberine (8-BBR-C16) has increased anti-microbial property in vivo and a higher bioavailability in hamsters. Therefore, in the present study, we used apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (ApoE(-/-)) as an atherosclerosis model to investigate the anti-atherosclerosis effects of 8-BBR-C16. After 12weeks of treatment, the atherosclerotic plaque area of the aorta, serum lipid profile, the plasma redox state and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in ApoE(-/-) mice were determined...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003152/the-microbiome-immunity-and-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#20
Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Robert Yolken
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are serious neuropsychiatric disorders of uncertain etiology. Recent studies indicate that immune activation may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Numerous studies in animal models indicate that the mucosal microbiome may influence cognition and behavior by altering the functioning of the immune system. It is thus likely that the microbiome plays a role in human psychiatric disorders. The study of immune alterations and the microbiome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is in its infancy...
December 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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