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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917639/lack-of-effect-of-maraviroc-intensification-on-blood-and-gut-reservoir
#1
Juan Tiraboschi, Shuvra Ray, Kamal Patel, Matthew Pace, Prabhjeet Phalora, Nicola Robinson, Emily Hopkins, Jodi Meyerowitz, Yanzhong Wang, Olubanke Davies, Christine Mant, John Cason, Steve Kaye, Jeremy Sanderson, Sara Fidler, Paul Klenerman, John Frater, Julie Fox
We show that intensification of treatment with maraviroc in patients chronically infected with HIV-1 receiving successful long-term ART was not associated with improvements in HIV related morbidity, HIV reservoir, microbial translocation, immune activation or immune exhaustion in either gut or peripheral blood. The measurement of reservoir in both gut and blood longitudinally contributes to a paucity of data in the area.
December 4, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907136/immune-activation-and-bacterial-translocation-a-link-between-impaired-immune-recovery-and-frequent-visceral-leishmaniasis-relapses-in-hiv-infected-patients
#2
Maria Luciana Silva-Freitas, Glaucia Fernandes Cota, Talia S Machado-de-Assis, Carmem Giacoia-Gripp, Ana Rabello, Alda M Da-Cruz, Joanna R Santos-Oliveira
The maintenance of chronic immune activation due to leishmaniasis or even due to microbial translocation is associated with immunosenescence and may contribute to frequent relapses. Our aim was to investigate whether patients with HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis (VL/HIV) who experience a single episode of VL have different immunological behaviors in comparison to those who experience frequent relapses. VL/HIV patients were allocated to non-relapsing (NR, n = 6) and relapsing (R, n = 11) groups and were followed from the active phase of VL up to 12 months post-treatment (mpt)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906073/gut-barrier-structure-mucosal-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#3
REVIEW
Camilla Tincati, Daniel C Douek, Giulia Marchetti
Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies...
April 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895415/factoring-the-intestinal-microbiome-into-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#4
EDITORIAL
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892709/gut-borne-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-a-promising-candidate-for-the-formulation-of-feed-additives-modulates-immune-system-and-gut-microbiota
#5
G García, C Dogi, A de Moreno de LeBlanc, C Greco, L Cavaglieri
The aim was to evaluate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC016 on immune parameters and gut microbiota in healthy mice. Animals received S. cerevisiae RC016 for 10 days. Microbial translocation to liver and changes in some bacterial populations in caecum were determined. Immune stimulation was assessed at gut level (measure ofimmunoglobulin A (IgA)(+) cells and luminal cytokine profile) and by evaluating the activity of peritoneal macrophages. Oral administration of S. cerevisiae RC016 did not induce microbial translocation to liver...
November 30, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873546/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-soymilk-fermented-by-a-riboflavin-producing-lactobacillus-plantarum-strain-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis
#6
R Levit, G Savoy de Giori, A de Moreno de LeBlanc, J G LeBlanc
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are idiopathic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by recurrent inflammation that require lifelong treatments. It has been shown that certain strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce specific health-promoting compounds in foods or in the gastrointestinal tract that can in turn prevent and/or treat IBD. This study was designed to evaluate the possible therapeutic potential of soymilk fermented by the riboflavin-producing strain Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 2130 in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic induced colitis mouse model...
November 22, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872210/distribution-and-activation-of-cd8-t-cells-in-the-duodenal-mucosa-before-and-after-hiv-seroconversion
#7
Kristina Allers, Andreas Puyskens, Hans-Jörg Epple, Dirk Schürmann, Jörg Hofmann, Verena Moos, Thomas Schneider
CD8(+) T cells in the intestinal mucosa influence the HIV-associated pathogenesis, but little is known about the dynamics of mucosal CD8(+) T cell counts and activation of these cells during the course of infection. In this study, mucosal CD8(+) T cells in the duodenum were studied at different stages of HIV infection, starting from the seronegative phase. In seronegative acute HIV infection, CD8(+) T cell counts increased in the epithelium, but not in the lamina propria. Infiltration of the lamina propria by peripherally expanded CD8(+) T cells was observed after seroconversion...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870059/transfer-of-13-c-between-paired-douglas-fir-seedlings-reveals-plant-kinship-effects-and-uptake-of-exudates-by-ectomycorrhizas
#8
Brian J Pickles, Roland Wilhelm, Amanda K Asay, Aria S Hahn, Suzanne W Simard, William W Mohn
Processes governing the fixation, partitioning, and mineralization of carbon in soils are under increasing scrutiny as we develop a more comprehensive understanding of global carbon cycling. Here we examined fixation by Douglas-fir seedlings and transfer to associated ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil microbes, and full-sibling or nonsibling neighbouring seedlings. Stable isotope probing with 99% (13) C-CO2 was applied to trace (13) C-labelled photosynthate throughout plants, fungi, and soil microbes in an experiment designed to assess the effect of relatedness on (13) C transfer between plant pairs...
November 21, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860212/alcohol-and-dietary-factors-associate-with-gut-integrity-and-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-adults
#9
A R Webel, A Sattar, N T Funderburg, B Kinley, C T Longenecker, D Labbato, Sm Khurshid Alam, G A McComsey
OBJECTIVES: HIV-infected adults have heightened monocyte activation and inflammation, at least partially as a consequence of altered gut integrity. The role of dietary factors in microbial translocation and inflammation and their downstream effect on markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been explored. Our purpose was to describe the longitudinal dietary patterns of HIV-infected adults, and to examine the relationship between dietary intake, gut integrity, inflammation and subclinical markers of CVD in HIV-infected adults...
November 9, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860118/association-between-serum-soluble-cd14-and-il-8-levels-and-clinical-outcome-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#10
Takeji Umemura, Tomohiro Sekiguchi, Satoru Joshita, Tomoo Yamazaki, Naoyuki Fujimori, Soichiro Shibata, Yuki Ichikawa, Michiharu Komatsu, Akihiro Matsumoto, Zakera Shums, Gary L Norman, Eiji Tanaka, Masao Ota
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by portal inflammation and immune-mediated destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts that often leads to liver decompensation and liver failure. Although the biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) can predict disease outcome in PBC, few biomarkers have been identified as prognostic tools applicable prior to UDCA treatment. We therefore sought to identify such indicators of long-term outcome in PBC in the Japanese population...
November 17, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859420/the-light-driven-sodium-ion-pump-a-new-player-in-rhodopsin-research
#11
Hideaki E Kato, Keiichi Inoue, Hideki Kandori, Osamu Nureki
Rhodopsins are one of the most studied photoreceptor protein families, and ion-translocating rhodopsins, both pumps and channels, have recently attracted broad attention because of the development of optogenetics. Recently, a new functional class of ion-pumping rhodopsins, an outward Na(+) pump, was discovered, and following structural and functional studies enable us to compare three functionally different ion-pumping rhodopsins: outward proton pump, inward Cl(-) pump, and outward Na(+) pump. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure-function relationships in these three light-driven pumps, mainly focusing on Na(+) pumps...
November 17, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857173/endotoxemia-contributes-to-cd27-memory-b-cell-apoptosis-via-enhanced-sensitivity-to-fas-ligation-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#12
Li-Yuan Chang, Yonghai Li, David E Kaplan
Peripheral CD27(+) memory B-cells become quantitatively reduced and dysfunctional in patients with cirrhosis through poorly characterized mechanisms. We hypothesized that the disappearance of CD27(+) memory B-cells results from enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis caused by exposure to gut microbial translocation products. Using isolated naïve and memory B-cells from patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls, ex vivo and activation-induced sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis was assessed under relevant experimental conditions...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855368/triggering-of-erythrocyte-cell-membrane-scrambling-by-emodin
#13
Morena Mischitelli, Mohamed Jemaà, Mustafa Almasry, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The natural anthraquinone derivative emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is a component of several Chinese medicinal herbal preparations utilized for more than 2000 years. The substance has been used against diverse disorders including malignancy, inflammation and microbial infection. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells erythrocytes may enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843150/the-bacterial-peptidoglycan-sensing-molecule-pglyrp2-modulates-brain-development-and-behavior
#14
T Arentsen, Y Qian, S Gkotzis, T Femenia, T Wang, K Udekwu, H Forssberg, R Diaz Heijtz
Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we show that bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from the commensal gut microbiota can be translocated into the brain and sensed by specific pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system. Using expression-profiling techniques, we demonstrate that two families of PRRs that specifically detect PGN (that is, PGN-recognition proteins and NOD-like receptors), and the PGN transporter PepT1 are highly expressed in the developing brain during specific windows of postnatal development in both males and females...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834858/impact-of-microbes-on-the-pathogenesis-of-primary-biliary-cirrhosis-pbc-and-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-psc
#15
REVIEW
Jochen Mattner
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) represent the major clinical entities of chronic cholestatic liver diseases. Both disorders are characterized by portal inflammation and slowly progress to obliterative fibrosis and eventually liver cirrhosis. Although immune-pathogenic mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PBC and PSC, neither disorder is considered to be a classical autoimmune disease, as PSC and PBC patients do not respond to immune-suppressants. Furthermore, the decreased bile flow resulting from the immune-mediated tissue assault and the subsequent accumulation of toxic bile products in PBC and PSC not only perpetuates biliary epithelial damage, but also alters the composition of the intestinal and biliary microbiota and its mutual interactions with the host...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827400/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-community-composition-affected-by-original-elevation-rather-than-translocation-along-an-altitudinal-gradient-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#16
Wei Yang, Yong Zheng, Cheng Gao, Ji-Chuang Duan, Shi-Ping Wang, Liang-Dong Guo
Elucidating arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal responses to elevation changes is critical to improve understanding of microbial function in ecosystems under global asymmetrical climate change scenarios. Here we examined AM fungal community in a two-year reciprocal translocation of vegetation-intact soil blocks along an altitudinal gradient (3,200 m to 3,800 m) in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. AM fungal spore density was significantly higher at lower elevation than at higher elevation regardless of translocation, except that this parameter was significantly increased by upward translocation from original 3,200 m to 3,400 m and 3,600 m...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822211/cd4-t-follicular-helper-and-iga-b-cell-numbers-in-gut-biopsies-from-hiv-infected-subjects-on-antiretroviral-therapy-are-similar-to-hiv-uninfected-individuals
#17
John Zaunders, Mark Danta, Michelle Bailey, Gerald Mak, Katherine Marks, Nabila Seddiki, Yin Xu, David J Templeton, David A Cooper, Mark A Boyd, Anthony D Kelleher, Kersten K Koelsch
BACKGROUND: Disruption of gastrointestinal tract epithelial and immune barriers contribute to microbial translocation, systemic inflammation, and progression of HIV-1 infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to reconstitution of CD4(+) T cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), but its impact on humoral immunity within GALT is unclear. Therefore, we studied CD4(+) subsets, including T follicular helper cells (Tfh), as well as resident B cells that have switched to IgA production, in gut biopsies, from HIV(+) subjects on suppressive ART compared to HIV-negative controls (HNC)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821584/microbial-translocation-associated-with-an-acute-phase-response-and-elevations-in-mmp-1-ho-1-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-strongyloides-stercoralis-infection
#18
Anuradha Rajamanickam, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukthi Bhootra, Chandrakumar Dolla, Thomas B Nutman, Subash Babu
Microbial translocation, characterized by elevated levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and related markers, is a common occurrence in HIV and some parasitic infections. This is usually associated with extensive inflammation and immune activation. To examine the occurrence of microbial translocation and the associated inflammatory response in asymptomatic, Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infection, we measured the plasma levels of LPS and other microbial translocation markers, acute-phase proteins, inflammatory markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in individuals with (INF) or without (UN) Ss infections...
November 7, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789726/monocyte-activation-is-associated-with-worse-cognitive-performance-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-women
#19
Brandon M Imp, Leah H Rubin, Phyllis C Tien, Michael W Plankey, Elizabeth T Golub, Audrey L French, Victor G Valcour
BACKGROUND:  Cognitive impairment persists despite suppression of plasma HIV RNA. Monocyte-related immune activation is a likely mechanism. We examined immune activation and cognition in a cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS:  Blood levels of activation markers, soluble CD163 (sCD163), soluble CD14 (sCD14), CRP, IL-6, and a gut microbial translocation marker (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP)) were measured in 253 women (73% HIV-infected)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788623/synergistic-effect-of-chickpea-plants-and-mesorhizobium-as-a-natural-system-for-chromium-phytoremediation
#20
Pilar A Velez, Melina A Talano, Cintia E Paisio, Elizabeth Agostini, Paola S González
The presence of chromium in soils not only affects the physiological processes of plants but also the microbial rhizosphere composition and metabolic activities of microorganisms. Hence, the inoculation of plants with Cr(VI)-tolerant rhizospheric microorganisms as an alternative to reduce Cr phytotoxicity was studied. In this work, chickpea germination was reduced by Cr(VI) concentrations of 150 and 250 mg/L (6 and 33%, respectively); however lower Cr(VI) concentrations negatively affected the biomass. On the other hand, its symbiont, Mesorhizobium ciceri, was able to grow and remove different Cr(VI) concentrations (5-20 mg/L)...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Technology
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