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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816608/function-of-plasma-membrane-microdomain-associated-proteins-during-legume-nodulation
#1
Zhenzhen Qiao, Marc Libault
Plasma membrane microdomains are plasma membrane sub-compartments enriched in sphingolipids and sterols, and composed by a specific set of proteins. They are involved in recognizing signal molecules, transducing these signals, and controlling endocytosis and exocytosis processes. In a recent study, applying biochemical and microscopic methods, we characterized the soybean GmFWL1 protein, a major regulator of soybean nodulation, as a new membrane microdomain-associated protein. Interestingly, upon rhizobia inoculation of the soybean root system, GmFWL1 and one of its interacting partners, GmFLOT2/4, both translocate to the root hair cell tip, the primary site of interaction and infection between soybean and Rhizobium...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801271/comparative-evaluation-of-microbial-translocation-products-lps-scd14-igm-endocab-in-hiv-1-infected-indian-individuals
#2
Neema Negi, Ravinder Singh, Ashutosh Sharma, Bimal Kumar Das, Madhu Vajpayee
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and IgM Endocab levels have been reported to be associated with disease progression in HIV-1 infection. In this longitudinal study, plasma levels of different microbially translocated products (LPS, sCD14, Endocab) was investigated in HIV-1 infected Indian Individuals stratified as Rapid (R), Viremic slow (VS), Slow progressors (S) and healthy controls. METHOD: Ten healthy and twenty HIV-1 infected individuals were enrolled...
August 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795125/the-microbiome-activates-cd4-t-cell-mediated-immunity-to%C3%A2-compensate-for-increased-intestinal-permeability
#3
Karen L Edelblum, Gil Sharon, Gurminder Singh, Matthew A Odenwald, Anne Sailer, Severine Cao, Sarina Ravens, Irene Thomsen, Kamal El Bissati, Rima McLeod, Chen Dong, Sandeep Gurbuxani, Immo Prinz, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Jerrold R Turner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite a prominent association, chronic intestinal barrier loss is insufficient to induce disease in human subjects or experimental animals. We hypothesized that compensatory mucosal immune activation might protect individuals with increased intestinal permeability from disease. We used a model in which intestinal barrier loss is triggered by intestinal epithelial-specific expression of constitutively active myosin light chain kinase (CA-MLCK). Here we asked whether constitutive tight junction barrier loss impacts susceptibility to enteric pathogens...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783170/loss-of-claudin-3-expression-induces-il6-gp130-stat3-signaling-to-promote-colon-cancer-malignancy-by-hyperactivating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#4
R Ahmad, B Kumar, Z Chen, X Chen, D Müller, S M Lele, M K Washington, S K Batra, P Dhawan, A B Singh
The hyperactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts as a switch to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promote colorectal cancer. However, due to its essential role in gut homeostasis, therapeutic targeting of this pathway has proven challenging. Additionally, IL-6/Stat-3 signaling, activated by microbial translocation through the dysregulated mucosal barrier in colon adenomas, facilitates the adenoma to adenocarcinomas transition. However, inter-dependence between these signaling pathways and key mucosal barrier components in regulating colon tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782046/circulating-loxl2-levels-reflect-severity-of-intestinal-fibrosis-and-galt-cd4-t-lymphocyte-depletion-in-treated-hiv-infection
#5
Sophie Seang, Anoma Somasunderam, Maitreyee Nigalye, Ma Somsouk, Timoty W Schacker, Joyce L Sanchez, Peter W Hunt, Netanya S Utay, Jordan E Lake
BACKGROUND: Incomplete immune reconstitution may occur despite successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) fibrosis may contribute via local CD4(+) T lymphocyte depletion, intestinal barrier disruption, microbial translocation, and immune activation. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, we measured circulating fibrosis biomarker levels on cryopreserved plasma from adult HIV-infected (HIV+) SCOPE study participants on suppressive ART who also had fibrosis quantification on recto-sigmoid biopsies...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762863/dendritic-cells-maturated-by-co-culturing-with-hiv-1-latently-infected-jurkat-t-cells-or-stimulating-with-aids-associated-pathogens-secrete-tnf-alpha-to-reactivate-hiv-1-from-latency
#6
Xiao-Xin Ren, Li Ma, Wei-Wei Sun, Wen-Dong Kuang, Tai-Sheng Li, Xia Jin, Jian-Hua Wang
Elucidation of mechanisms underlying the establishment, maintenance of and reactivation from HIV-1 latency is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating HIV-1 reservoirs. Microbial translocation, as a consequence of HIV-1-induced deterioration of host immune system, is known to result in a systemic immune activation and transient outbursts of HIV-1 viremia in chronic HIV-1 infection. How these microbes cause the robust HIV-1 reactivation remains elusive. Dendritic cells (DCs) have previously been shown to reactivate HIV-1 from latency; however, the precise role of DCs in reactivating HIV-1 from latently infected T-cell remains obscure...
August 1, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752953/evidence-of-microbial-rhodopsins-in-antarctic-dry-valley-edaphic-systems
#7
Leandro D Guerrero, Surendra Vikram, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Don A Cowan
Microorganisms able to synthesize rhodopsins have the capacity to translocate ions through their membranes, using solar energy to generate a proton motive force. Rhodopsins are the most abundant phototrophic proteins in oceanic surface waters and are key constituents in marine bacterial ecology. However, it remains unclear how rhodopsins are used in most microorganisms. Despite their abundance in marine and fresh-water systems, the presence of functional rhodopsin systems in edaphic habitats has never been reported...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746996/the-influence-of-bioavailable-heavy-metals-and-microbial-parameters-of-soil-on-the-metal-accumulation-in-rice-grain
#8
Ling Xiao, Dongsheng Guan, M R Peart, Yujuan Chen, Qiqi Li, Jun Dai
A field-based study was undertaken to analyze the effects of soil bioavailable heavy metals determined by a sequential extraction procedure, and soil microbial parameters on the heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. The results showed that Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations in rice grain decreases by 65.9%, 78.9%, 32.6%, 80.5%, 61.0% and 15.7%, respectively in the sites 3 (far-away), compared with those in sites 1 (close-to). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that soil catalase activity, the MBC/MBN ratio, along with bioavailable Cd, Cr and Ni could explain 68...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743079/impact-of-lyophilized-lactobacillus-salivarius-dspv-001p-administration-on-growth-performance-microbial-translocation-and-gastrointestinal-microbiota-of-broilers-reared-under-low-ambient-temperature
#9
J E Blajman, C A Olivero, M L Fusari, J A Zimmermann, E Rossler, A P Berisvil, A Romero Scharpen, D M Astesana, L P Soto, M L Signorini, M V Zbrun, L S Frizzo
This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating the effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P on growth performance, microbial translocation, and gastrointestinal microbiota of broilers reared under low ambient temperature. Two hundred and forty, one-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly distributed into two treatment groups, a probiotic group and a control group, with four replicates per treatment and 30 broilers per replicate. The temperature of the broiler house was maintained at 18-22°C during the first three weeks, after which the temperature was at range of 8°C to 12°C...
July 19, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740337/eubiotic-properties-of-rifaximin-disruption-of-the-traditional-concepts-in-gut-microbiota-modulation
#10
REVIEW
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Maria Assunta Zocco, Francesca D'Aversa, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini
Antibiotics are usually prescribed to cure infections but they also have significant modulatory effects on the gut microbiota. Several alterations of the intestinal bacterial community have been reported during antibiotic treatment, including the reduction of beneficial bacteria as well as of microbial alpha-diversity. Although after the discontinuation of antibiotic therapies it has been observed a trend towards the restoration of the original condition, the new steady state is different from the previous one, as if antibiotics induced some kind of irreversible perturbation of the gut microbial community...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735521/myd88-erk-nfkb%C3%A2-pathways-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-release-in-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-stimulated-by-porphyromonas%C3%A2-gingivalis
#11
Francesca Diomede, Maria Zingariello, Marcos F X B Cavalcanti, Ilaria Merciaro, Jacopo Pizzicannella, Natalia De Isla, Sergio Caputi, Patrizia Ballerini, Oriana Trubiani
The present study was aimed at investigating whether human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) were capable of sensing and reacting to lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-G) which is widely recognized as a major pathogen in the development and progression of periodontitis. At this purpose hPDLCs were stimulated with 5 μg/mL LPS-G various times and the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was evaluated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in innate immune signaling in response to microbial infections, and in particular TLR4, type-I transmembrane proteins, has been shown recognizing LPS-G...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724342/periodontal-disease-and-intra-amniotic-complications-in-women-with-preterm-prelabor-rupture-of-membranes
#12
Vladimira Radochova, Ivana Kacerovska Musilova, Martin Stepan, Peter Vescicik, Radovan Slezak, Bo Jacobsson, Marian Kacerovsky
OBJECTIVE: Periodontal disease is frequently suggested as a possible causal factor for preterm delivery. The link between periodontal disease and preterm delivery is a possible translocation of periopathogenic bacteria to the placenta and amniotic fluid as well as a systemic response to this chronic inflammatory disease. However, there is a lack of information on whether there is an association between clinical periodontal status in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719012/the-impact-of-immunoglobulin-in-acute-hiv-infection-on-the-hiv-reservoir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
J Tiraboschi, S Ray, K Patel, A Teague, M Pace, P Phalora, N Robinson, E Hopkins, J Meyerowitz, Y Wang, J Cason, S Kaye, J Sanderson, P Klenerman, S Fidler, J Frater, J Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS: Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19)...
July 18, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707083/layered-defense-how-mucus-and-tight-junctions-seal-the-intestinal-barrier
#14
REVIEW
Christopher T Capaldo, Domonica N Powell, Daniel Kalman
The colonic mucosa provides a vital defensive barrier separating the body from the microbial populations residing in the intestinal lumen. Indeed, growing evidence shows that loss of this barrier may cause disease or exacerbate disease progression. The loss of barrier integrity increases the translocation of bacterial antigens and stimulates inflammation in the intestinal mucosa, which is the central pathological feature of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This review focuses on how intestinal mucus and intercellular tight junctions (TJs) act together to maintain the integrity of the colonic barrier and how barrier integrity is dysregulated in IBD...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706459/beauvericin-a-cyclic-peptide-inhibits-inflammatory-responses-in-macrophages-by-inhibiting-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#15
Sulgi Yoo, Mi-Yeon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Beauvericin (BEA), a cyclic hexadepsipeptide produced by the fungus Beauveria bassiana, is known to have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial actions. However, how BEA suppresses macrophage-induced inflammatory responses has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory properties of BEA and the underlying molecular mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Levels of nitric oxide (NO), mRNA levels of transcription factors and the inflammatory genes inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and interleukin (IL)-1, and protein levels of activated intracellular signaling molecules were determined by Griess assay, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), luciferase reporter gene assay, and immunoblotting analysis...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687194/the-influence-of-the-commensal-microbiota-on-distal-tumor-promoting-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Claire M Buchta Rosean, Melanie R Rutkowski
Commensal microbes inhabit barrier surfaces, providing a first line of defense against invading pathogens, aiding in metabolic function of the host, and playing a vital role in immune development and function. Several recent studies have demonstrated that commensal microbes influence systemic immune function and homeostasis. For patients with extramucosal cancers, or cancers occurring distal to barrier surfaces, the role of commensal microbes in influencing tumor progression is beginning to be appreciated. Extrinsic factors such as chronic inflammation, antibiotics, and chemotherapy dysregulate commensal homeostasis and drive tumor-promoting systemic inflammation through a variety of mechanisms, including disruption of barrier function and bacterial translocation, release of soluble inflammatory mediators, and systemic changes in metabolic output...
July 4, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670966/malnutrition-in-hiv-infected-children-is-an-indicator-of-severe-disease-with-an-impaired-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Maximilian Muenchhoff, Michael Healy, Ravesh Singh, Julia Roider, Andreas Groll, Chirjeev Kindra, Thobekile Sibaya, Angeline Moonsamy, Callum McGregor, Michelle Q Phan, Alejandro Palma, Henrik Kloverpris, Alasdair Leslie, Raziya Bobat, Philip S LaRussa, Thumbi Ndung'u, Philip Jr Goulder, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Mohendran Archary
Objectives This observational study aimed to describe immunopathogenesis and treatment outcomes in children with and without severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and HIV-infection. Design We studied markers of microbial translocation (16sDNA), intestinal damage (iFABP), monocyte activation (sCD14), T-cell activation (CD38, HLA-DR) and immune exhaustion (PD1) in 32 HIV-infected children with and 41 HIV-infected children without SAM prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cross-sectionally compared these children to 15 HIV-uninfected children with and 19 HIV-uninfected children without SAM...
July 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668626/microrna-mediated-signaling-and-regulation-of-nutrient-transport-and-utilization
#18
REVIEW
Pei-Shan Chien, Chih-Bin Chiang, Zhengrui Wang, Tzyy-Jen Chiou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small-RNA regulators, control diverse developmental processes and stress responses. Recent studies of nutrient-responsive miRNAs have offered novel insights into how plants regulate gene expression to coordinate endogenous demand and external availability of nutrients. Here, we review the mechanisms mediated by miRNAs to facilitate nutrient transport and utilization and show that miRNAs: first, control nutrient uptake and translocation by targeting nutrient transporters or their regulators; second, adjust nutrient metabolism by redistributing nutrients for biosynthesis of more essential compounds; and third, modulate root development and microbial symbiosis to exploit soil nutrients...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667632/monitoring-effector-translocation-using-the-tem-1-beta-lactamase-reporter-system
#19
Julie Allombert, Anne Vianney, Xavier Charpentier
Among the bacterial secretion systems, the Type III, IV, and VI secretion systems enable bacteria to secrete proteins directly into a target cell. This specific form of secretion, referred to as translocation, is essential for a number of pathogens to alter or kill targeted cells. The translocated proteins, called effector proteins, can directly interfere with the normal processes of the targeted cells, preventing elimination of pathogens and promoting their multiplication. The function of effector proteins varies greatly depending on the considered pathogen and the targeted cell...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661459/macrophages-and-phospholipases-at-the-intersection-between-inflammation-and-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#20
REVIEW
Francesca Spadaro, Serena Cecchetti, Laura Fantuzzi
Persistent low grade immune activation and chronic inflammation are nowadays considered main driving forces of the progressive immunologic failure in effective antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Among the factors contributing to this phenomenon, microbial translocation has emerged as a key driver of persistent immune activation. Indeed, the rapid depletion of gastrointestinal CD4⁺ T lymphocytes occurring during the early phases of infection leads to a deterioration of the gut epithelium followed by the translocation of microbial products into the systemic circulation and the subsequent activation of innate immunity...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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