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microbial translocation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040604/associations-of-plasma-cytokine-and-microbial-translocation-biomarkers-with-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#1
Varghese George, Linda Harrison, Margaret Roach, Xiao-Dong Li, Camlin Tierney, Margaret A Fischl, Judith Aberg, Pablo Tebas, David M Asmuth, Richard B Pollard, Catherine Godfrey, Savita Pahwa
A nested case-cohort study was performed in participants of a clinical trial of first-line human immunodeficiency virus treatments to investigate plasma biomarkers of inflammation and microbial translocation for their association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Fifty-one of 1452 participants with baseline CD4 count <350 cells/μL developed IRIS. Plasma from 51 IRIS cases, including 6 stratified by preenrollment CD4 count ≤200 cells/μL, were analyzed and compared to 94 non-IRIS controls...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034105/changes-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-host-homeostasis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-focus-on-the-bacterial-gut-microbiome
#2
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz Dein Terra Mota Ribeiro, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections cause severe CD4+ T cell depletion leading to chronic inflammation and immune activation, impaired barrier function, and microbial translocation. Even under effective antiretroviral therapy, these processes persist, leading to gut microbiome dysbiosis and disturbance of microbiome-host homeostasis. This systematic review aims at analyzing how gut microbiome and host immune system influence each other during HIV pathogenesis. An online search applying the PubMed database was conducted...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030980/beneficial-effect-of-alcohol-withdrawal-on-gut-permeability-and-microbial-translocation-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#3
Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Nathalie Pansu, Thibault Mura, Stéphanie Pelletier, Régis Alarcon, Lucie Gamon, Pascal Perney, Florence Apparailly, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Catherine Dunyach-Remy
BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiota exerts beneficial or harmful effects in several disorders. Many factors, including alcohol consumption, may influence its composition and trigger bacterial translocation. Excessive alcohol consumption increases gut permeability and translocation of endotoxin into peripheral circulation. Although plasma endotoxin concentrations have been measured often, quantitative changes following alcohol withdrawal have never been described in subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD)...
October 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028667/impact-of-antiretroviral-drugs-on-the-microbiome-unknown-answers-to-important-questions
#4
Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Nichole R Klatt, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known on how different antiretroviral (ARV) drugs affect the gut microbiome in HIV infection; and conflicting data exists on the effect of ARV drugs on residual inflammation/immune activation and microbial translocation. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut microbiome involvement in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV infection is increasingly being recognized. Various studies have shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to restore gut health despite effective suppression of plasma HIV viremia...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028666/microbial-translocation-translating-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-to-hiv
#5
Alexandra M Ortiz, Jason M Brenchley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article describes recent advances in understanding the causes and consequences of microbial translocation in HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent microbial translocation contributes to aberrant immune activation in immunodeficiency lentiviral infections and thereby, pathogenesis and mortality. Efforts to delineate the circumstances surrounding translocation have benefited from use of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected nonhuman primates and highlight the overwhelming immunologic diversion caused by translocating microbes...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020215/long-term-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-associated-with-increased-microbial-product-translocation-innate-immune-activation-and-reduced-immunologic-recovery-in-patients-with-chronic-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#6
J A Serpa, A M Rueda, A Somasunderam, N S Utay, D Lewis, J P Couturier, K G Breaux, M Rodriguez-Barradas
Background: Translocation of microbial products from the damaged gut causes increased immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) predispose to bacterial overgrowth in the gut. We hypothesized that long-term use of PPIs is associated with greater microbial translocation and immune activation in HIV. Methods: HIV-infected persons on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), including those receiving long-term PPIs (PPI+ group) or not (PPI- group), were enrolled...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976546/effect-of-nadph-availability-on-free-fatty-acid-production-in-e-coli
#7
Wei Li, Hui Wu, Mai Li, Ka-Yiu San
Microbial conversion of renewable carbon sources to free fatty acids has attracted significant attention in recent years. Accumulation of free fatty acids in E. coli by overexpression of an acyl-ACP thioesterase which can break the fatty acid elongation has been well established. Various efforts have been made to increase fatty acid production in E. coli by enhancing the enzymes involved in the fatty acid synthesis cycle or host strain manipulations. The current study focused on the effect of NADPH availability on free fatty acids (FFAs) productivity...
October 4, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955383/novel-concept-of-a-heart-gut-axis-in-the-pathophysiology-of-heart-failure
#8
REVIEW
Takehiro Kamo, Hiroshi Akazawa, Jun-Ichi Suzuki, Issei Komuro
Patients with heart failure (HF) have structural and functional changes of the gut as a result of microcirculatory disturbances. A disrupted gut epithelial barrier may lead to translocation of microbial products into systemic circulation, possibly aggravating HF by inducing inflammatory responses. Gut microbiota play an essential role in the maintenance of host homeostasis because large quantities of their gene products complement host physiological processes. Emerging evidence has suggested the potential clinical significance of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of HF...
September 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954839/young-pigs-consuming-lysozyme-transgenic-goat-milk-are-protected-from-clinical-symptoms-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection
#9
Lydia C Garas, Caitlin A Cooper, Matthew W Dawson, Jane-Ling Wang, James D Murray, Elizabeth A Maga
Background: Diarrheal diseases in infancy and childhood are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in developing nations. Lysozyme, an antimicrobial component of human milk, is thought to play a role in establishing a healthy intestinal microbiota and immune system. Consumption of breast milk has been shown to prevent intestinal infections and is a recommended treatment for infants with diarrhea.Objective: This study aimed to examine the ability of lysozyme-rich goat milk to prevent intestinal infection...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950279/bacterial-translocation-from-the-gut-to-the-distant-organs-an-overview
#10
Ravinder Nagpal, Hariom Yadav
BACKGROUND: The intestinal epithelial layer is the chief barricade between the luminal contents and the host. A healthy homeostatic intestinal barrier is pivotal for maintaining gastrointestinal health, which impacts the overall health as it safeguards the gut-blood axis and checks gut microbes including potential pathogens from entering into the circulation. SUMMARY: Under healthy milieus, the intestinal barrier is generally very dynamic and effective, with luminal side being heavily infested with a wide variety of gut microbes while the basolateral side remains virtually sterile...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#11
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934209/microbial-translocation-is-correlated-with-hiv-evolution-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients
#12
Jean-Jacques Tudesq, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Christophe Combescure, Régine Doncesco, Didier Laureillard, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Albert Sotto
Microbial translocation (MT) is characterized by bacterial products passing into the blood through the gut barrier and is a key phenomenon in the pathophysiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. MT is also associated with liver damage in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) patients. The aim of the study was to assess MT in plasma of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. 16S rDNA (16 S Ribosomal DNA subunit) marker and other markers of MT such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#13
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926641/impact-of-monotherapy-on-hiv-1-reservoir-immune-activation-and-co-infection-with-epstein-barr-virus
#14
Maria Raffaella Petrara, Anna Maria Cattelan, Lolita Sasset, Riccardo Freguja, Francesco Carmona, Silvia Sanavia, Marisa Zanchetta, Paola Del Bianco, Anita De Rossi
OBJECTIVES: Although monotherapy (mART) effectiveness in maintaining viral suppression and CD4 cell count has been extensively examined in HIV-1-infected patients, its impact on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, microbial translocation and co-infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 32 patients who switched to mART; patients were studied at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks after mART initiation. Thirty-two patients who continued combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the same period of time were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901565/review-article-next-generation-transformative-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-and-management-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#15
REVIEW
A J Czaja
BACKGROUND: Advances in autoimmune hepatitis that transform current concepts of pathogenesis and management can be anticipated as products of ongoing investigations driven by unmet clinical needs and an evolving biotechnology. AIM: To describe the advances that are likely to become transformative in autoimmune hepatitis, based on the direction of current investigations. METHODS: Pertinent abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms...
September 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#16
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882639/effects-of-residual-levels-of-tetracycline-on-the-barrier-functions-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#17
Kuppan Gokulan, Carl E Cerniglia, Charles Thomas, Silvia A Pineiro, Sangeeta Khare
Tetracyclines are frequently used in food-producing animals to treat, control, and prevent microbial diseases. Concerns are raised regarding the effects of residual levels of tetracycline, which may be present in the food supply, for emergence of drug-resistance and transfer of antibiotic-resistance gene in intestinal microbiota. In contrast, no information is available regarding the possible effects of residual tetracycline on the gastrointestinal epithelial layer barrier-disruption. This study investigates the outcome of tetracycline treatment on intestinal epithelial cells integrity...
September 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882558/cinnamaldehyde-protects-human-dental-pulp-cells-against-oxidative-stress-through-the-nrf2-ho-1-dependent-antioxidant-response
#18
Nam-Yi Kim, Sang-Gun Ahn, Soo-A Kim
Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has various functional properties, such as anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. This study examined the intracellular signaling mechanisms of CA on the oxidative stress response in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). The results showed that CA did not have any cell cytotoxicity or cause morphological changes at concentrations up to 50µM. A CA treatment strongly up-regulated the cellular protein level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and promoted Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880224/parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota
#19
REVIEW
Monika Cahova, Miriam Bratova, Petr Wohl
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated with PN is multifactorial, including non-specific intestine inflammation, compromised intestinal permeability, and barrier function associated with increased bacterial translocation, primary and secondary cholangitis, cholelithiasis, short bowel syndrome, disturbance of hepatobiliary circulation, lack of enteral nutrition, shortage of some nutrients (proteins, essential fatty acids, choline, glycine, taurine, carnitine, etc...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878351/tillage-and-nitrogen-fertilization-enhanced-belowground-carbon-allocation-and-plant-nitrogen-uptake-in-a-semi-arid-canola-crop-soil-system
#20
Jharna Rani Sarker, Bhupinder Pal Singh, Xinhua He, Yunying Fang, Guangdi D Li, Damian Collins, Annette L Cowie
Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) allocation and assimilation are coupled processes, likely influencing C accumulation, N use efficiency and plant productivity in agro-ecosystems. However, dynamics and responses of these processes to management practices in semi-arid agro-ecosystems are poorly understood. A field-based (13)CO2 and urea-(15)N pulse labelling experiment was conducted to track how C and N allocation and assimilation during canola growth from flowering to maturity were affected by short-term (2-year) tillage (T) and no-till (NT) with or without 100 kg urea-N ha(-1) (T-0, T-100, NT-0, NT-100) on a Luvisol in an Australian semi-arid region...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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