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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913619/plant-uptake-and-translocation-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-soil
#1
REVIEW
Venkata L Reddy Pullagurala, Swati Rawat, Ishaq O Adisa, Jose A Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
The advent of industrialization has led to the discovery of a wide range of chemicals designed for multiple uses including plant protection. However, after use, most of the chemicals and their derivatives end up in soil and water, interacting with living organisms. Plants, which are primary producers, are intentionally or unintentionally exposed to several chemicals, serving as a vehicle for the transfer of products into the food chain. Although the exposure of pesticides towards plants has been witnessed over a long time in agricultural production, other chemicals have attracted attention very recently...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907866/intestinal-damage-precedes-mucosal-immune-dysfunction-in-siv-infection
#2
Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Alicia R Berard, Jennifer A Manuzak, Charlene J Miller, Alexander S Zevin, Patricia Polacino, Jillian Gile, Brian Agricola, Mark Cameron, Shiu-Lok Hu, Jacob D Estes, R Keith Reeves, Jeremy Smedley, Brandon F Keele, Adam D Burgener, Nichole R Klatt
HIV and pathogenic SIV infection are characterized by mucosal dysfunction including epithelial barrier damage, loss of Th17 cells, neutrophil infiltration, and microbial translocation with accompanying inflammation. However, it is unclear how and when these contributing factors occur relative to one another. In order to determine whether any of these features initiates the cycle of damage, we longitudinally evaluated the kinetics of mucosal and systemic T-cell activation, microbial translocation, and Th17 cell and neutrophil frequencies following intrarectal SIV infection of rhesus macaques...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887013/high-level-extracellular-production-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-glutamyl-transpeptidase-from-bacillus-licheniformis-in-escherichia-coli-fed-batch-culture
#3
Shruti Bindal, Vikas Kumar Dagar, Meenu Saini, Yogender Pal Khasa, Rani Gupta
Increasing demand of microbial γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in food and pharmaceutical sectors raised the need for process development for high level production of the enzyme. In this respect, GGT from Bacillus licheniformis ER15 (SBLGGT) was cloned along with its native secretion signal and expressed in E. coli using different expression vectors. Native signal of the enzyme assistedits extracellular translocationin E. coli.Maximum enzyme expression was shown by construct pET51b-sblggt,in comparison to other clones, in E...
September 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886381/effects-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-on-growth-nutrient-and-metal-uptake-by-maize-seedlings-zea-mays-l-grown-in-soils-spiked-with-lanthanum-and-cadmium
#4
Qing Chang, Feng-Wei Diao, Qi-Fan Wang, Liang Pan, Zhen-Hua Dang, Wei Guo
Multiple contaminants can affect plant-microbial remediation processes because of their interactive effects on environmental behaviour, bioavailability and plant growth. Recent studies have suggested that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can facilitate the revegetation of soils co-contaminated with rare earth elements (REEs) and heavy metals. However, little is known regarding the role of AMF in the interaction of REEs and heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Claroideoglomus etunicatum on the biomass, nutrient uptake, metal uptake and translocation of maize grown in soils spiked with Lanthanum (La) and Cadmium (Cd)...
June 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874201/effect-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-supplementation-on-intestinal-inflammation-assessed-by-pet-mri-scans-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#5
Caroline J Arnbjerg, Beate Vestad, Johannes R Hov, Karin K Pedersen, Sofie Jespersen, Helle H Johannesen, Kristian Holm, Bente Halvorsen, Eva Fallentin, Adam E Hansen, Theis Lange, Andreas Kjær, Marius Trøseid, Barbara M Fischer, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Alterations in gut microbiome have been associated with inflammation and increased cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on intestinal inflammation, gut microbiota composition and systemic markers of microbial translocation and inflammation in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: This prospective, clinical interventional trial included 45 individuals (15 cART-naïve and 30 cART-treated) that ingested LGG twice daily at a dosage of 6 x109 colony-forming units per capsule for a period of eight weeks...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871918/candida-albicans-induced-epithelial-damage-mediates-translocation-through-intestinal-barriers
#6
Stefanie Allert, Toni M Förster, Carl-Magnus Svensson, Jonathan P Richardson, Tony Pawlik, Betty Hebecker, Sven Rudolphi, Marc Juraschitz, Martin Schaller, Mariana Blagojevic, Joachim Morschhäuser, Marc Thilo Figge, Ilse D Jacobsen, Julian R Naglik, Lydia Kasper, Selene Mogavero, Bernhard Hube
Life-threatening systemic infections often occur due to the translocation of pathogens across the gut barrier and into the bloodstream. While the microbial and host mechanisms permitting bacterial gut translocation are well characterized, these mechanisms are still unclear for fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans , a leading cause of nosocomial fungal bloodstream infections. In this study, we dissected the cellular mechanisms of translocation of C. albicans across intestinal epithelia in vitro and identified fungal genes associated with this process...
June 5, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862665/targeted-nucleotide-editing-technologies-for-microbial-metabolic-engineering
#7
REVIEW
Takayuki Arazoe, Akihiko Kondo, Keiji Nishida
Since the emergence of programmable RNA-guided nucleases based on Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) systems, genome editing technologies have become a simplified and versatile tool for genome editing in various organisms and cell types. Although genome editing enables efficient genome manipulations, such as gene disruptions, gene knockins, and chromosomal translocations via DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in eukaryotes, DSBs induced by the CRISPR/Cas system are lethal or severely toxic to many microorganisms...
June 3, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861127/connecting-the-immune-system-systemic-chronic-inflammation-and-the-gut-microbiome-the-role-of-sex
#8
REVIEW
Lisa Rizzetto, Francesca Fava, Kieran M Tuohy, Carlo Selmi
Unresolved low grade systemic inflammation represents the underlying pathological mechanism driving immune and metabolic pathways involved in autoimmune diseases (AID). Mechanistic studies in animal models of AID and observational studies in patients have found alterations in gut microbiota communities and their metabolites, suggesting a microbial contribution to the onset or progression of AID. The gut microbiota and its metabolites have been shown to influence immune functions and immune homeostasis both within the gut and systematically...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784935/a-causal-mechanism-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#9
REVIEW
Mel Greaves
In this Review, I present evidence supporting a multifactorial causation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a major subtype of paediatric cancer. ALL evolves in two discrete steps. First, in utero initiation by fusion gene formation or hyperdiploidy generates a covert, pre-leukaemic clone. Second, in a small fraction of these cases, the postnatal acquisition of secondary genetic changes (primarily V(D)J recombination-activating protein (RAG) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-driven copy number alterations in the case of ETS translocation variant 6 (ETV6)-runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)+ ALL) drives conversion to overt leukaemia...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783855/iec-specific-igf1-promotes-the-expansion-of-intestinal-stem-cells-during-epithelial-regeneration-and-functions-on-the-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#10
Yu Zheng, Yongli Song, Qi Han, Wenjie Liu, Jiuzhi Xu, Zhengquan Yu, Ran Zhang, Ning Li
It is well known that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) acts as a trophic factor in small intestine under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. However, it still lacks direct in vivo evidence of the functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)-specific IGF1 under both normal and pathological conditions. Using IEC-specific IGF1-knockout (cKO) mice and Lgr5-eGFP-CreERT mice, we demonstrate that IEC-specific IGF1 can enhance nutrient uptake, reduce protein catabolism and energy consumption, and promotes the proliferation and expansion of intestinal epithelial cells, including ISCs and intestinal secretory cells...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769727/microbial-signals-drive-pre-leukaemic-myeloproliferation-in-a-tet2-deficient-host
#11
Marlies Meisel, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Alain Pacis, Li Chen, Zachary M Earley, Toufic Mayassi, Joseph F Pierre, Jordan D Ernest, Heather J Galipeau, Nikolaus Thuille, Romain Bouziat, Manuel Buscarlet, Daina L Ringus, Yitang Wang, Ye Li, Vu Dinh, Sangman M Kim, Benjamin D McDonald, Matthew A Zurenski, Mark W Musch, Glaucia C Furtado, Sergio A Lira, Gottfried Baier, Eugene B Chang, A Murat Eren, Christopher R Weber, Lambert Busque, Lucy A Godley, Elena F Verdú, Luis B Barreiro, Bana Jabri
Somatic mutations in tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2), which encodes an epigenetic modifier enzyme, drive the development of haematopoietic malignancies1-7 . In both humans and mice, TET2 deficiency leads to increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells with a net developmental bias towards the myeloid lineage1,4,8,9 . However, pre-leukaemic myeloproliferation (PMP) occurs in only a fraction of Tet2-/- mice8,9 and humans with TET2 mutations1,3,5-7 , suggesting that extrinsic non-cell-autonomous factors are required for disease onset...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764649/the-biology-and-prevalence-of-fungal-diseases-in-managed-and-wild-bees
#12
REVIEW
Sophie Ef Evison, Annette B Jensen
Managed and wild bees, whether solitary or social have a plethora of microbial associations that vary in their influence on the health of the bees. In this review, we summarise our current knowledge of aspects of the biology and ecology of bee associated fungi. The biology of bees that fungi are associated with are described, and the likely influences on fungal transmission are discussed. There is a clear disparity in research on fungi associated with managed compared to wild bees, leaving gaps in our understanding of fungal pathogen epidemiology...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762170/a-compartmentalized-type-i-interferon-response-in-the-gut-during-chronic-hiv-1-infection-is-associated-with-immunopathogenesis
#13
Stephanie M Dillon, Kejun Guo, Gregory L Austin, Sara Gianella, Phillip A Engen, Ece A Mutlu, John Losurdo, Garth Swanson, Prachi Chakradeo, Ali Keshavarzian, Alan L Landay, Mario Santiago, Cara Wilson
OBJECTIVE(S): Type I IFN (IFN-I) responses confer both protective and pathogenic effects in persistent virus infections. IFN-I diversity, stage of infection and tissue compartment may account for this dichotomy. The gut is a major site of early HIV-1 replication and microbial translocation, but the nature of the IFN-I response in this compartment remains unclear. DESIGN: Samples were obtained from two IRB-approved cross-sectional studies. The first study included individuals with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection (n = 24) and age/gender balanced uninfected controls (n = 14)...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739341/hbv-and-hiv-viral-load-but-not-microbial-translocation-or-immune-activation-are-associated-with-liver-fibrosis-among-patients-in-south-africa
#14
Tongai Gibson Maponga, Monique I Andersson, Christoffel J van Rensburg, Joop E Arends, Jantjie Taljaard, Wolfgang Preiser, Richard H Glashoff
BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV negatively impacts the progression of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, including causing rapid progression to liver fibrosis. Sub-Saharan Africa represents arguably the most important intersection of high endemicity of both chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HIV infection. METHODS: We recruited 46 HBV/HIV-co-infected; 47 HBV-monoinfected; 39 HIV-monoinfected; and 37 HBV/HIV-uninfected patients from Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa...
May 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734393/orientia-tsutsugamushi-uses-two-ank-effectors-to-modulate-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-nuclear-transport-and-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcriptional-activation
#15
Sean M Evans, Kyle G Rodino, Haley E Adcox, Jason A Carlyon
Orientia tsutsugamushi causes scrub typhus, a potentially fatal infection that threatens over one billion people. Nuclear translocation of the transcription factor, NF-κB, is the central initiating cellular event in the antimicrobial response. Here, we report that NF-κB p65 nuclear accumulation and NF-κB-dependent transcription are inhibited in O. tsutsugamushi infected HeLa cells and/or primary macrophages, even in the presence of TNFα. The bacterium modulates p65 subcellular localization by neither degrading it nor inhibiting IκBα degradation...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725324/role-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-in-human-health-and-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Qinghui Mu, Vincent J Tavella, Xin M Luo
Lactobacillus reuteri ( L. reuteri ) is a well-studied probiotic bacterium that can colonize a large number of mammals. In humans, L. reuteri is found in different body sites, including the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, skin, and breast milk. The abundance of L. reuteri varies among different individuals. Several beneficial effects of L. reuteri have been noted. First, L. reuteri can produce antimicrobial molecules, such as organic acids, ethanol, and reuterin. Due to its antimicrobial activity, L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724256/gut-kidney-crosstalk-in-septic-acute-kidney-injury
#17
REVIEW
Jingxiao Zhang, Ghada Ankawi, Jian Sun, Kumar Digvijay, Yongjie Yin, Mitchell H Rosner, Claudio Ronco
Sepsis is the leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Septic AKI is a complex and multifactorial process that is incompletely understood. During sepsis, the disruption of the mucus membrane barrier, a shift in intestinal microbial flora, and microbial translocation may lead to systemic inflammation, which further alters host immune and metabolic homeostasis. This altered homeostasis may promote and potentiate the development of AKI. As part of this vicious cycle, when AKI develops, the clearance of inflammatory mediators and metabolic products is decreased...
May 3, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704909/gut-immunity-its-development-and-reasons-and-opportunities-for-modulation-in-monogastric-production-animals
#18
Leon J Broom, Michael H Kogut
The intestine performs the critical roles of nutrient acquisition, tolerance of innocuous and beneficial microorganisms, while retaining the ability to respond appropriately to undesirable microbes or microbial products and preventing their translocation to more sterile body compartments. Various components contribute to antimicrobial defenses in the intestine. The mucus layer(s), antimicrobial peptides and IgA provide the first line of defense, and seek to trap and facilitate the removal of invading microbes...
April 29, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687200/are-probiotics-effective-in-targeting-alcoholic-liver-diseases
#19
Meegun Hong, Dae Hee Han, Jitaek Hong, Dong Joon Kim, Ki Tae Suk
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders including steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Despite intensive research in the last two decades, there is currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for treating ALD. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut-liver axis and gut microbiome on the pathogenesis of ALD. Alcohol may induce intestinal dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability, which in turn result in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and translocation of microbial products from the gut to the liver (bacterial translocation)...
April 23, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682880/activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-macrophages-by-mycoplasmal-lipoproteins-and-lipopeptides
#20
A Saeki, M Sugiyama, A Hasebe, T Suzuki, K Shibata
The NLRP3 inflammasome, an intracellular sensor consisting of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), and procaspase-1, plays critical roles in host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells activated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) to induce production of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-18...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
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