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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663871/design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-zinc-supplementation-to-improve-markers-of-mortality-and-hiv-disease-progression-in-hiv-positive-drinkers-in-st-petersburg-russia
#1
Natalia Gnatienko, Matthew S Freiberg, Elena Blokhina, Tatiana Yaroslavtseva, Carly Bridden, Debbie M Cheng, Christine E Chaisson, Dmitry Lioznov, Sally Bendiks, Glory Koerbel, Sharon M Coleman, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
Background Russia continues to have an uncontrolled HIV epidemic and its per capita alcohol consumption is among the highest in the world. Alcohol use among HIV-positive individuals is common and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Alcohol use and HIV each lead to microbial translocation, which in turn results in inflammation. Zinc supplementation holds potential for lowering levels of biomarkers of inflammation, possibly as a consequence of its impact on intestinal permeability. This paper describes the protocol of a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of zinc supplementation in St...
April 17, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658510/a-protocol-for-quantizing-total-bacterial-16s-rdna-in-plasma-as-a-marker-of-microbial-translocation-in-vivo
#2
Wei Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656181/elevated-systemic-microbial-translocation-in-pregnant-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-hiv-uninfected-women-and-its-inverse-correlations-with-plasma-progesterone-levels
#3
Zejun Zhou, Anna Maya Powell, Vishwanathan Ramakrishnan, Allison Eckard, Carol Wagner, Wei Jiang
In HIV infection, increased adverse perinatal outcomes reported among HIV-associated pregnancies are not fully understood. Currently, microbial product translocation (MT) from a permeable mucosa is demonstrated as a driver of inflammation, and may contribute to preterm delivery in HIV. Here, our results showed that plasma LPS levels (a representative marker of MT) were increased in HIV-infected women in the first and second trimester. Progesterone levels were significantly decreased in HIV-infected subjects in the first trimester and second trimester...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620717/the-microbial-metabolite-tmao-in-association-with-inflammation-and-microbial-dysregulation-in-three-hiv-cohorts-at-various-disease-stages
#4
Catharina Missailidis, Ujjwal Neogi, Peter Stenvinkel, Marius Trøseid, Piotr Nowak, Peter Bergman
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1-infection infers an increased cardiovascular risk where gut dysbiosis and microbial translocation may contribute. We assessed TMAO, a microbial metabolite with atherosclerotic properties, in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals at different clinical stages in relation to inflammatory markers, cardiovascular events and gut microbiota. METHODS: Primary HIV-1-infected (n = 17) and chronic HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 22) were sampled before and after ART-initiation...
April 3, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615954/microbiome-mediated-upregulation-of-microrna-146a-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Yuhai Zhao, Walter J Lukiw
The first indication of a potential mechanistic link between the pathobiology of the human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract microbiome and its contribution to the pathogenetic mechanisms of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) came a scant 4 years ago (1). Ongoing research continues to strengthen the hypothesis that neurotoxic microbial-derived components of the GI tract microbiome can cross aging GI tract and blood-brain barriers and contribute to progressive proinflammatory neurodegeneration, as exemplified by the AD-process...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615110/gut-dependent-microbial-translocation-induces-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-events-after-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#6
Xin Zhou, Jing Li, Junli Guo, Bin Geng, Wenjie Ji, Qian Zhao, Jinlong Li, Xinlin Liu, Junxiang Liu, Zhaozeng Guo, Wei Cai, Yongqiang Ma, Dong Ren, Jun Miao, Shaobo Chen, Zhuoli Zhang, Junru Chen, Jiuchang Zhong, Wenbin Liu, Minghui Zou, Yuming Li, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Post-infarction cardiovascular remodeling and heart failure are the leading cause of myocardial infarction (MI)-driven death during the past decades. Experimental observations have involved intestinal microbiota in the susceptibility to MI in mice; however, in humans, identifying whether translocation of gut bacteria to systemic circulation contributes to cardiovascular events post-MI remains a major challenge. RESULTS: Here, we carried out a metagenomic analysis to characterize the systemic bacteria in a cohort of 49 healthy control individuals, 50 stable coronary heart disease (CHD) subjects, and 100 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients...
April 3, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614774/the-brain-intestinal-mucosa-appendix-microbiome-brain-loop
#7
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604979/hiv-and-spinal-cord-disease
#8
Seth N Levin, Jennifer L Lyons
The epidemiology of spinal cord disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown due to a paucity of data since combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV mediates spinal cord injury indirectly, by immune modulation, degeneration, or associated infections and neoplasms. The pathologies vary and range from cytotoxic necrosis to demyelination and vasculitis. Control of HIV determines the differential for all neurologic presentations in infected individuals. Primary HIV-associated acute transverse myelitis, an acute inflammatory condition with pathologic similarities to HIV encephalitis, arises in early infection and at seroconversion...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601578/hiv-induces-production-of-il-18-from-intestinal-epithelial-cells-that-increases-intestinal-permeability-and-microbial-translocation
#9
Ossama Allam, Suzanne Samarani, Vikram Mehraj, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Cecile Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Routy, Devendra Amre, Ali Ahmad
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine of the IL-1 family with multiple context dependent functions. We and others have shown that HIV infection is accompanied by increased circulating levels of IL-18 along with decreased levels of its antagonist, Interleukin-18 Binding Protein (IL-18BP). The infection is also accompanied by intestinal inflammation and decreased intestinal integrity as measured by intestinal permeability, regeneration and repair. However, little is known concerning the relation between high level of IL-18 associated with the viral infection and intestinal permeability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597139/microbial-effectors-and-the-role-of-water-and-sugar-in-the-infection-battle-ground
#10
REVIEW
Farid El Kasmi, Diana Horvath, Thomas Lahaye
Phytopathogenic microbes multiply in the apoplast-a plant's intercellular spaces-of infected plants, and hence their success relies on the conditions in this habitat. Despite being extracellular parasites, most microbes translocate effectors into host cells that promote disease by acting inside cells. Initial studies suggested that effectors act predominantly as suppressors of plant immunity. These pioneering studies were trend-setting, causing a strong bias in the functional investigation of effectors. Yet, recent studies on bacterial model pathogens have identified effectors that promote disease by causing either increased sugar or water levels in the apoplast...
March 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590318/intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-and-microbial-translocation-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-is-associated-with-preterm-birth
#11
Rupak Shivakoti, Nikhil Gupte, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vandana Kulkarni, Usha Balasubramanian, Ramesh Bhosale, Pradeep Sambrey, Aarti Kinikar, Renu Bharadwaj, Sandesh Patil, Sadaf Inamdar, Nishi Suryavanshi, Subash Babu, Robert C Bollinger, Amita Gupta
Background: Preterm birth (PTB) rates are high in HIV-infected populations, even when on treatment. Still, only a subset of all births in HIV-infected pregnant women result in PTB, suggesting risk factors other than HIV infection itself are also important. Inflammation is a known risk factor in uninfected populations but their role in HIV-infected population have not been studied; in addition, the immune pathways involved are not clear and non-invasive immune markers with predictive value are lacking...
March 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546579/the-antidiabetic-drug-metformin-blunts-netosis-in-vitro-and-reduces-circulating-netosis-biomarkers-in-vivo
#12
Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540734/a-lachnospiraceae-dominated-bacterial-signature-in-the-fecal-microbiota-of-hiv-infected-individuals-from-colombia-south-america
#13
Homero San-Juan-Vergara, Eduardo Zurek, Nadim J Ajami, Christian Mogollon, Mario Peña, Ivan Portnoy, Jorge I Vélez, Christian Cadena-Cruz, Yirys Diaz-Olmos, Leidy Hurtado-Gómez, Silvana Sanchez-Sit, Danitza Hernández, Irina Urruchurtu, Pierina Di-Ruggiero, Ella Guardo-García, Nury Torres, Oscar Vidal-Orjuela, Diego Viasus, Joseph F Petrosino, Guillermo Cervantes-Acosta
HIV infection has a tremendous impact on the immune system's proper functioning. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is significantly disarrayed during HIV infection. Compositional changes in the gut microbiota might contribute to the mucosal barrier disruption, and consequently to microbial translocation. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating changes in the fecal microbiota of HIV-infected individuals from Colombia. We analyzed the fecal microbiota of 37 individuals via 16S rRNA gene sequencing; 25 HIV-infected patients and 12 control (non-infected) individuals, which were similar in body mass index, age, gender balance and socioeconomic status...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523750/altered-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease-systemic-effects-of-gut-derived-uremic-toxins
#14
REVIEW
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512027/strain-specific-quantification-of-native-probiotic-bacillus-spp-and-their-effect-on-liver-function-and-gut-microflora-of-experimental-rats
#15
Papanna Shobharani, Serva P Muthukumar, Dhanya Kizhakayil, Prakash M Halami
Safety and efficacy was investigated for two candidate probiotic B. flexus MCC2427 and B. licheniformis MCC2512 via in vivo studies on albino Wistar rats. In acute toxicity assay, rats were fed with single dose of 1010  cfu mL-1 of probiotics. The follow-up studies for next 14 days did not reveal any toxicity-related criteria indicating the non-toxicity nature of probiotics. In 90-day repeated dosage studies, the cultures were administered in three doses (106 , 107 , 108  cfu mL-1 ). Results showed no overt toxic effect and no drastic treatment-related changes pertaining to histopathology of vital organs...
March 6, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499047/characterizing-the-metabolic-phenotype-of-intestinal-villus-blunting-in-zambian-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-and-persistent-diarrhea
#16
Marta Farràs, Kanta Chandwe, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Beatrice Amadi, John Louis-Auguste, Ellen Besa, Kanekwa Zyambo, Richard Guerrant, Paul Kelly, Jonathan Richard Swann
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is widespread throughout the tropics and in children is associated with stunting and other adverse health outcomes. One of the hallmarks of EED is villus damage. In children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) the severity of enteropathy is greater and short term mortality is high, but the metabolic consequences of enteropathy are unknown. Here, we characterize the urinary metabolic alterations associated with villus health, classic enteropathy biomarkers and anthropometric measurements in severely malnourished children in Zambia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491401/gut-microbial-composition-in-patients-with-psoriasis
#17
Francisco M Codoñer, Ana Ramírez-Bosca, Eric Climent, Miguel Carrión-Gutierrez, Mariano Guerrero, Jose Manuel Pérez-Orquín, José Horga de la Parte, Salvador Genovés, Daniel Ramón, Vicente Navarro-López, Empar Chenoll
Since the last 5-10 years the relevance of the gut microbiome on different intestinal illnesses has been revealed. Recent findings indicate the effect of gut microbiome on certain dermatological diseases such as atopic dermatitis. However, data on other skin diseases such as psoriasis are limited. This is the first time attempting to reveal the gut microbiome composition of psoriatic patients with a prospective study including a group of patients with plaque psoriasis, analyzing their gut microbiome and the relationship between the microbiome composition and bacterial translocation...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488306/2-tridecanone-impacts-surface-associated-bacterial-behaviours-and-hinders-plant-bacteria-interactions
#18
Isabel M López-Lara, Joaquina Nogales, Ángel Pech-Canul, Nieves Calatrava-Morales, Lydia M Bernabéu-Roda, Paloma Durán, Virginia Cuéllar, José Olivares, Laura Alvarez, Diana Palenzuela-Bretones, Manuel Romero, Stephan Heeb, Miguel Cámara, Otto Geiger, María J Soto
Surface motility and biofilm formation are behaviours which enable bacteria to infect their hosts and are controlled by different chemical signals. In the plant symbiotic alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the lack of long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity (FadD) leads to increased surface motility, defects in biofilm development, and impaired root colonization. In this study, analyses of lipid extracts and volatiles revealed that a fadD mutant accumulates 2-tridecanone (2-TDC), a methylketone known as a natural insecticide...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483915/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-is-upregulated-in-hiv-infected-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-individuals-with-defective-immune-recovery
#19
Alessandra Bandera, Michela Masetti, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Mara Biasin, Antonio Muscatello, Nicola Squillace, Mario Clerici, Andrea Gori, Daria Trabattoni
Background: Inflammasome-mediated activation of caspase-1 regulates inflammatory responses and pyroptosis. We analyzed possible associations between inflammasome-related genes and immune reconstitution in HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated patients. Methods: Cross-sectional, case-control study. HIV-infected patients on ART for ≥24 months with HIV-RNA<50 cp/mL for ≥12 months were enrolled and defined as immunological responders (IR) or non-responders (INR) if CD4 count was ≥500 or ≤350 cells/μL, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468256/intestinal-barrier-impairment-and-immune-activation-in-hiv-infected-advanced-late-presenters-are-not-dependent-on-cd4-recovery
#20
Kamila Wójcik-Cichy, Anna Piekarska, Elżbieta Jabłonowska
Damage of the mucosal barrier in HIV infection, microbial translocation, and immune activation can persist even in patients on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) especially advanced late presenters. The aim of this study was to find factors that determine immune activation and bacterial translocation in HIV-infected advanced late presenters on suppressive ART. Forty-three late presenters (CD4 < 200 cells/µl prior to ART) on successful ART (more than 2 years of ART) with optimal and suboptimal CD4 recovery were enrolled into this study...
February 21, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
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