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microbial translocation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426952/nanosims-and-tissue-autoradiography-reveal-symbiont-carbon-fixation-and-organic-carbon-transfer-to-giant-ciliate-host
#1
Jean-Marie Volland, Arno Schintlmeister, Helena Zambalos, Siegfried Reipert, Patricija Mozetič, Salvador Espada-Hinojosa, Valentina Turk, Michael Wagner, Monika Bright
The giant colonial ciliate Zoothamnium niveum harbors a monolayer of the gammaproteobacteria Cand. Thiobios zoothamnicoli on its outer surface. Cultivation experiments revealed maximal growth and survival under steady flow of high oxygen and low sulfide concentrations. We aimed at directly demonstrating the sulfur-oxidizing, chemoautotrophic nature of the symbionts and at investigating putative carbon transfer from the symbiont to the ciliate host. We performed pulse-chase incubations with 14C- and 13C-labeled bicarbonate under varying environmental conditions...
February 9, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424776/a-prospective-study-of-serum-microbial-translocation-biomarkers-and-risk-of-aids-related-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#2
Marta Epeldegui, Larry Magpantay, Yu Guo, Gordana Halec, William G Cumberland, Priscilla K Yen, Bernard Macatangay, Joseph B Margolick, Anne F Rositch, Steven Wolinsky, Otoniel Martinez-Maza, Shehnaz K Hussain
: Chronic immune activation is a harbinger of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), yet the underlying basis is unclear. Microbial translocation, the passage of microbial components from the gastrointestinal tract into the systemic circulation, is a source of systemic immune activation in HIV infection and may be an important contributor to the chronic B-cell activation and subsequent AIDS-NHL development. We measured biomarkers of microbial translocation including bacterial receptors/antibodies, intestinal barrier proteins, and macrophage activation-associated cytokines/chemokines, in serum from 200 HIV-infected men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study prior to their AIDS-NHL diagnosis (mean = 3...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369159/substance-associated-elevations-in-monocyte-activation-among-methamphetamine-users-with-treated-hiv-infection
#3
Adam W Carrico, Emily M Cherenack, Margaret E Roach, Elise D Riley, Olorunleke Oni, Samantha E Dilworth, Steven Shoptaw, Peter Hunt, Sabita Roy, Suresh Pallikkuth, Savita Pahwa
OBJECTIVE: Microbial translocation and monocyte activation predict mortality in treated HIV. We examined whether substance use independently contributes to these pathophysiologic processes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study at baseline for a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) with undetectable HIV viral load (< 40 copies/mL) were enrolled. We examined if plasma biomarkers of monocyte activation and intestinal barrier integrity were associated with the following: 1) reactive urine toxicology results (Tox+) for stimulants (i...
January 23, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367348/integrin-%C3%AE-4-%C3%AE-7-expression-on-peripheral-blood-cd4-t-cells-predicts-hiv-acquisition-and-disease-progression-outcomes
#4
Aida Sivro, Alexandra Schuetz, Daniel Sheward, Vineet Joag, Sergey Yegorov, Lenine J Liebenberg, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Andrew Stalker, Ruth S Mwatelah, Philippe Selhorst, Nigel Garrett, Natasha Samsunder, Anisha Balgobin, Fatima Nawaz, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Anthony S Fauci, Aggrey Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, Bernard S Bagaya, Noah Kiwanuka, Carolyn Williamson, Rupert Kaul, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Aftab Ansari, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Lyle R McKinnon
The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is central to HIV pathogenesis, and the integrin α4β7promotes the homing of immune cells to this site, including those that serve as viral targets. Data from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) animal models suggest that α4β7blockade provides prophylactic and therapeutic benefits. We show that pre-HIV infection frequencies of α4β7+peripheral blood CD4+T cells, independent of other T cell phenotypes and genital inflammation, were associated with increased rates of HIV acquisition in South African women...
January 24, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351288/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-pathways-and-child-stunting-a-systematic-review
#5
Kaitlyn M Harper, Maxine Mutasa, Andrew J Prendergast, Jean Humphrey, Amee R Manges
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is commonly defined as an acquired subclinical disorder of the small intestine, characterized by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. EED has been proposed to underlie stunted growth among children in developing countries. A collection of biomarkers, organized into distinct domains, has been used to measure different aspects of EED. Here, we examine whether these hypothesized relationships, among EED domains and between each domain and stunting, are supported by data from recent studies...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350898/identification-of-individual-bacterial-cells-through-the-intermolecular-interactions-with-peptide-functionalized-solid-state-pores
#6
Makusu Tsutsui, Masayoshi Tanaka, Takahiro Marui, Kazumichi Yokota, Takeshi Yoshida, Akihide Arima, Wataru Tonomura, Masateru Taniguchi, Takashi Washio, Mina Okochi, Tomoji Kawai
Bioinspired pore sensing for selective detection of flagellated bacteria was investigated. The Au micropore wall surface was modified with a synthetic peptide designed from toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) to mimic the pathogen-recognition capability. We found that intermolecular interactions between the TLR5-derived recognition peptides and flagella induce ligand-specific perturbations in the translocation dynamics of Escherichia coli, which facilitated the discrimination between the wild-type and flagellin-deletion mutant (ΔfliC) by the resistive pulse patterns thereby demonstrating the sensing of bacteria at a single-cell level...
January 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343555/antagonism-of-integrin-cd11b-affords-protection-against-endotoxin-shock-and-polymicrobial-sepsis-via-attenuation-of-hmgb1-nucleocytoplasmic-translocation-and-extracellular-release
#7
Huiting Zhou, Yanhong Li, Huan Gui, He Zhao, Ming Wu, Gang Li, Yiping Li, Zhenjiang Bai, Zhimin Yin, H Paul Redmond, Jian Wang, Jiang Huai Wang, Zhihui Zhao
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-binding nuclear protein, plays a critical role in sepsis by acting as a key "late-phase" inflammatory mediator. Integrin CD11b is essential for inflammatory cell activation and migration, thus mediating inflammatory responses. However, it is unclear whether CD11b participates in the development of sepsis. In this study, we report that CD11b contributes to LPS-induced endotoxin shock and microbial sepsis, as antagonism of CD11b with the CD11b blocking Ab or CD11b inhibitor Gu-4 protects mice against LPS- and microbial sepsis-related lethality, which is associated with significantly diminished serum HMGB1 levels...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336147/urolithins-attenuate-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv2microglia-via-mapk-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#8
Jialin Xu, Chunhui Yuan, Guihua Wang, Jiaming Luo, Hang Ma, Li Xu, Yu Mu, Yuanyuan Li, Navindra P Seeram, Xueshi Huang, Liya Li
Emerging data suggest that urolithins, gut microbiota metabolites of ellagitannins, contribute toward multiple health benefits attributed to ellagitannin-rich foods, including walnuts, red raspberry, strawberry, and pomegranate. However, there is limited data on whether the potential neuroprotective effects of these ellagitannin-rich foods are mediated by urolithins. Herein, we evaluated the potential mechanisms of antineuroinflammatory effects of urolithins (urolithins A, B, and C; 8-methyl-O-urolithin A; and 8,9-dimethyl-O-urolithin C) in BV2 murine microglia in vitro...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330443/an-insight-into-intestinal-mucosal-microbiota-disruption-after-stroke
#9
Dragana Stanley, Robert J Moore, Connie H Y Wong
Recent work from our laboratory has provided evidence that indicates selective bacterial translocation from the host gut microbiota to peripheral tissues (i.e. lung) plays a key role in the development of post-stroke infections. Despite this, it is currently unknown whether mucosal bacteria that live on and interact closely with the host intestinal epithelium contribute in regulating bacterial translocation after stroke. Here, we found that the microbial communities within the mucosa of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were significantly different between sham-operated and post-stroke mice at 24 h following surgery...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321484/loss-of-tolerance-to-gut-immunity-protein-glycoprotein-2-gp2-is-associated-with-progressive-disease-course-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#10
Tamas Tornai, David Tornai, Nora Sipeki, Istvan Tornai, Rayan Alsulaimani, Kai Fechner, Dirk Roggenbuck, Gary L Norman, Gabor Veres, Gabriella Par, Alajos Par, Ferenc Szalay, Peter Laszlo Lakatos, Peter Antal-Szalmas, Maria Papp
Glycoprotein 2[GP2] is a specific target of pancreatic autoantibodies[PAbs] in Crohn's disease(CD) and is involved in gut innate immunity processes. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic potential of PAbs in primary sclerosing cholangitis(PSC). Sixty-five PSC patients were tested for PAbs by indirect immunofluorescence and compared with healthy (n = 100) and chronic liver disease controls(CLD, n = 488). Additionally, a panel of anti-microbial antibodies and secretory (s)IgA levels were measured, as markers of bacterial translocation and immune dysregulation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315893/mechanisms-regulating-expansion-of-cd8-t-cells-during-hiv-1-infection
#11
REVIEW
A Nasi, F Chiodi
Abnormal immune activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells, especially of memory and effector phenotypes, take place during HIV-1 infection, and these abnormal features persist during administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to infected patients. The molecular mechanisms for CD8+ T-cell expansion remain poorly characterized. In this article, we review the literature addressing features of CD8+ T-cell immune pathology and present an integrated view on the mechanisms leading to abnormal CD8+ T-cell expansion during HIV-1 infection...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304776/is-weak-cd4-gain-in-the-course-of-suppressive-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-infection-a-current-clinical-challenge-a-case-report-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#12
Camilla Tincati, Esther Merlini, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti
BACKGROUND: Individuals lacking immune recovery during suppressive cART will still represent a clinical issue in the years to come, given the high proportion of HIV-infected subjects introducing therapy late in the course of disease. Understanding the mechanisms underlying poor CD4+ T-cell gain is crucial for the correct clinical management of individuals in this context. CASE PRESENTATION: An HIV-infected subject with poor CD4+ T-cell gain in the course of suppressive antiretroviral therapy was extensively investigated to identify the mechanisms behind inadequate CD4+ reconstitution...
January 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304196/contribution-of-liver-fibrosis-and-microbial-translocation-to-immune-activation-in-hiv-and-hcv
#13
Michael Reid, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Jennifer C Price, Audrey L French, Gregory D Huhn, Michael W Plankey, Marion Peters, Carl Grunfeld, Phyllis C Tien
Background: The independent contribution of microbial translocation and liver fibrosis to immune activation in HIV and/or HCV-infected persons is unclear. Methods: Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate whether intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP, a marker of gut epithelial integrity) and transient elastography-measured liver fibrosis might mediate the association of HIV and HCV with sCD14 in 120 HIV+/HCV+,262 HIV+/HCV-,72 HIV/HCV+, and 170 HIV-/HCV-...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243310/coriolus-versicolor-aqueous-extract-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-with-pi3k-akt-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways-involved-in-diabetic-skeletal-muscle
#14
Hui-Min Xian, Hui Che, Ying Qin, Fan Yang, Song-Yan Meng, Xiao-Guang Li, Yun-Long Bai, Li-Hong Wang
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are usually with poor immunity and easier to suffer from cancer and microbial infections. Herein, we report an efficient anti-diabetic medicinal mushroom, Coriolus versicolor (CV). This study aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-insulin-resistance effects of CV aqueous extract in myoblasts (L6 cells) and skeletal muscle of T2DM rat. Our results showed that CV extract treatment significantly reduced blood glucose levels of T2DM rats, whereas CV extract increased glucose consumption in insulin resistant L6 cells...
December 15, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238341/dm9-domain-containing-protein-functions-as-a-pattern-recognition-receptor-with-broad-microbial-recognition-spectrum
#15
Shuai Jiang, Lingling Wang, Mengmeng Huang, Zhihao Jia, Tobias Weinert, Eberhard Warkentin, Conghui Liu, Xiaorui Song, Haixia Zhang, Jennifer Witt, Limei Qiu, Guohong Peng, Linsheng Song
DM9 domain was first identified in Drosophila melanogaster, and it was subsequently found to integrate with or without other protein domains across a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates. In the present study, a member of DM9 domain containing protein (DM9CP) family from marine invertebrate Crassostrea gigas (designated CgDM9CP-1), which was only composed of two DM9 domains, was taken as a protein model to study the biological functions of DM9 domain and its molecular determinants. CgDM9CP-1 was found to exhibit high binding specificity and avidity toward d-mannose residue...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235260/functional-polymorphisms-of-innate-immunity-receptors-are-not-risk-factors-for-the-non-sbp-type-bacterial-infections-in-cirrhosis
#16
Tamas Dinya, Tamas Tornai, Zsuzsanna Vitalis, Istvan Tornai, Boglárka Balogh, David Tornai, Peter Antal-Szalmas, Andrea Sumegi, Hajnalka Andrikovics, Andras Bors, Attila Tordai, Maria Papp
BACKGROUND&AIMS: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have a key role in the innate host defense. Functional polymorphisms of various PRRs have been established to contribute to an increased susceptibility to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Their role in the development of cirrhosis-associated bacterial infections (BI), beyond SBP or progressive disease course related to pathological bacterial translocation (BT) remains unknown. METHODS: 349 patients with cirrhosis were genotyped for common NOD2 (R702W, G908R and L1007PfsinsC), TLR2 (-16934T>A), and TLR4 (D299G) variants...
December 13, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210899/distinct-microbial-populations-exist-in-the-mucosa-associated-microbiota-of-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-ulcerative-colitis
#17
Wenting Zhong, Xiaolan Lu, Haitao Shi, Gang Zhao, Yahua Song, Yonghua Wang, Jing Zhang, Yaofeng Jin, Shenhao Wang
GOALS: The goal of this study was to observe the bacterial colonization in the intestinal mucosa in the patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and ulcerative colitis (UC), and compare the mucosa-associated microbiota among the IBS-D patients, UC patients and the healthy control, and explore the correlation of the mucosa-associated microbiota with clinical manifestations. STUDY: A total of 20 IBS-D patients, 28 patients with UC (16 active, 12 inactive) and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197988/impact-of-circulating-bacterial-dna-in-long-term-glucose-homeostasis-in-non-diabetic-patients-with-hiv-infection-cohort-study
#18
Ó Moreno-Pérez, L Giner, S Reus, V Boix, R Alfayate, R Frances, E Merino, A Pico, J Portilla
In HIV-infected patients, the damage in the gut mucosal immune system is not completely restored after antiretroviral therapy (ART). It results in microbial translocation, which could influence the immune and inflammatory response. We aimed at investigating the long-term impact of bacterial-DNA translocation (bactDNA) on glucose homeostasis in an HIV population. This was a cohort study in HIV-infected patients whereby inclusion criteria were: patients with age >18 years, ART-naïve or on effective ART (<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and without diabetes or chronic hepatitis C...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179013/increased-systemic-microbial-translocation-is-associated-with-depression-during-early-pregnancy
#19
Zejun Zhou, Constance Guille, Elizabeth Ogunrinde, Renyu Liu, Zhenwu Luo, Anna Powell, Wei Jiang
Plasma level of microbial translocation is a marker of mucosal permeability. Increased mucosal permeability ignites elevated microbial translocation and as a consequence of systemic inflammation. Pregnant women with depression have higher levels of inflammatory markers relative to pregnant women without depression, however, no studies have reported whether systemic microbial translocation will change in depressed women during pregnancy. In this study, we examined the plasma LPS level of depressed women during pregnancy...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177856/measurement-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-tlr-activated-macrophages
#20
Orna Ernst, Sharat J Vayttaden, Iain D C Fraser
Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) is a key transcription factor in the regulation of the innate immune inflammatory response in activated macrophages. NF-κB functions as a homo- or hetero-dimer derived from one or more of the five members of the NF-κB family, and is activated through a well-studied process of stimulus-dependent inhibitor degradation, post-translational modification, nuclear translocation, and chromatin binding. Its activity is subject to multiple levels of feedback control through both inhibitor protein activity and direct regulation of NF-κB components...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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