Read by QxMD icon Read

microbial translocation

Matthew Gordon Varga, Maria Blanca Piazuelo, Judith Romero-Gallo, Alberto G Delgado, Giovanni Suarez, Morgan E Whitaker, Uma S Krishna, Rachna V Patel, Eric P Skaar, Keith T Wilson, Holly M Scott Algood, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori induces chronic gastritis in humans and infection can persist for decades. One H. pylori strain-specific constituent that augments disease risk is the cag pathogenicity island. The cag island encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that translocates DNA into host cells. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an innate immune receptor that detects hypo-methylated CpG DNA motifs. In this study, we sought to define the role of the H. pylori cag T4SS on TLR9-mediated responses in vivo H. pylori strain PMSS1 or its cagE(-) mutant, which fails to assemble a T4SS, were used to infect wild-type or Tlr9(-/-) C57BL/6 mice...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Grzegorz Majka, Grażyna Więcek, Małgorzata Śróttek, Klaudyna Śpiewak, Małgorzata Brindell, Joanna Koziel, Janusz Marcinkiewicz, Magdalena Strus
Translocation of bacteria, primarily Gram-negative pathogenic flora, from the intestinal lumen into the circulatory system leads to sepsis. In newborns, and especially very low birth weight infants, sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The results of recently conducted clinical trials suggest that lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein that is abundant in mammalian colostrum and milk, may be an effective agent in preventing sepsis in newborns. However, despite numerous basic studies on lactoferrin, very little is known about how metal saturation of this protein affects a host's health...
October 18, 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Martin Hoenigl, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Masato Nakazawa, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm A Finkelman, Scott Letendre, Davey Smith, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The extent of gut microbial translocation, which plays roles in HIV disease progression and non-AIDS comorbidities, appears to vary with the composition of the gut microbiome, particularly the presence of Lactobacillales, which reduce mucosal injury. While low proportions of Lactobacillales in the distal gut microbiome are a very promising indicator of microbial translocation, measurement is expensive and complicated and not feasible for clinical routine. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan (BDG) is a component of most fungal cell walls and might be a surrogate marker for Lactobacillales proportion in the gut and a useful indicator of HIV-associated gut injury...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Dragana Stanley, Linda J Mason, Kate E Mackin, Yogitha N Srikhanta, Dena Lyras, Monica D Prakash, Kulmira Nurgali, Andres Venegas, Michael D Hill, Robert J Moore, Connie H Y Wong
Bacterial infection is highly prevalent in patients who have had a stroke. Despite the potential contribution of micro-aspiration in post-stroke pneumonia, we found that the majority of the microorganisms detected in the patients who developed infections after having a stroke were common commensal bacteria that normally reside in the intestinal tracts. In a mouse model of ischemic stroke, post-stroke infection was only observed in mice that were born and raised in specific-pathogen-free facilities; this was not seen in mice that were born and raised in germ-free facilities...
October 3, 2016: Nature Medicine
Carolina Scagnolari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Carla Selvaggi, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Andrea Mastrangelo, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Claudia Pinacchio, Paolo Pavone, Gianfranco Fanello, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
Recently the tryptophan pathway has been considered an important determinant of HIV-1 infected patients' quality of life, due to the toxic effects of its metabolites on the central nervous system (CNS). Since the dysbiosis described in HIV-1 patients might be responsible for the microbial translocation, the chronic immune activation, and the altered utilization of tryptophan observed in these individuals, we speculated a correlation between high levels of immune activation markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-1 infected patients and the over-expression of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) at the gut mucosal surface...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shelby R Hayes, Ashley J Vargas
: Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora...
August 26, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Birgitte Stiksrud, Kristina Berg Lorvik, Dag Kvale, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Per Magne Ueland, Marius Trøseid, Kjetil Taskén, Anne M Dyrhol-Riise
OBJECTIVE: To explore immune mechanisms and identify biomarkers associated with an inadequate immune recovery in patients with HIV with efficient antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 67 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy for ≥24 months with HIV RNA ≤20 copies per milliliter; 41 were defined as immunological nonresponders (INR) (CD4 < 400 cells per microliter) and 26 as immunological responders (CD4 > 600 cells per microliter)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Xin Wang, Tanmay Majumdar, Patricia Kessler, Evgeny Ozhegov, Ying Zhang, Saurabh Chattopadhyay, Sailen Barik, Ganes C Sen
The intracellular microbial nucleic acid sensors, TLR3 and STING, recognize pathogen molecules and signal to activate the interferon pathway. The TIR-domain containing protein TRIF is the sole adaptor of TLR3. Here, we report an essential role for TRIF in STING signaling: various activators of STING could not induce genes in the absence of TRIF. TRIF and STING interacted directly, through their carboxy-terminal domains, to promote STING dimerization, intermembrane translocation, and signaling. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), which triggers the STING signaling pathway and is controlled by it, replicated more efficiently in the absence of TRIF, and HSV-infected TRIF(-/-) mice displayed pronounced pathology...
September 14, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Ana Lokmer, M Anouk Goedknegt, David W Thieltges, Dario Fiorentino, Sven Kuenzel, John F Baines, K Mathias Wegner
Unveiling the factors and processes that shape the dynamics of host associated microbial communities (microbiota) under natural conditions is an important part of understanding and predicting an organism's response to a changing environment. The microbiota is shaped by host (i.e., genetic) factors as well as by the biotic and abiotic environment. Studying natural variation of microbial community composition in multiple host genetic backgrounds across spatial as well as temporal scales represents a means to untangle this complex interplay...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
AbdelRahman Mahmoud Aly, AbdelReheem Adel, Ahmed Osama El-Gendy, Tamer M Essam, Ramy K Aziz
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes debilitating liver diseases, which may progress to cirrhosis and cancer, and claims 500,000 annual lives worldwide. While HCV epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy are being deeply studied, rare attention is given to reciprocal interactions between HCV infection , HCV-induced chronic liver diseases, and the human gut microbiome. As Egypt has the world's highest prevalence of HCV infections, we launched this study to monitor differences in the gut microbial community composition of Egyptian HCV patients that may affect, or result from, the patients' liver state...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Joseph C Mudd, Jason M Brenchley
Distinct pathological events occur within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Asian macaques with progressive simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and humans with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection that are critical in shaping disease course. These events include depletion and functional alteration of GI-resident CD4(+) T cells, loss of antigen-presenting cells, loss of innate lymphocytes, and possible alterations to the composition of the gut microbiota. These contribute to structural damage to the GI tract and systemic translocation of GI tract microbial products...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stavros Bashiardes, Hagit Shapiro, Shachar Rozin, Oren Shibolet, Eran Elinav
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a common, multi-factorial, and poorly understood liver disease whose incidence is globally rising. NAFLD is generally asymptomatic and associated with other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Yet, up to 25% of NAFLD patients develop a progressive inflammatory liver disease termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that may progress towards cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the need for liver transplantation. In recent years, several lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and its progression into NASH...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Torsten P M Scheithauer, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: The twin pandemics of obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are a global challenge for health care systems. Changes in the environment, behavior, diet, and lifestyle during the last decades are considered the major causes. A Western diet, which is rich in saturated fat and simple sugars, may lead to changes in gut microbial composition and physiology, which have recently been linked to the development of metabolic diseases. METHODS: We will discuss evidence that demonstrates the influence of the small and large intestinal microbiota on weight regulation and the development of insulin resistance, based on literature search...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, Marco Solmi, Krista L Lanctôt, André F Carvalho
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive disorder manifested by gradual memory loss and subsequent impairment in mental and behavioral functions. Though the primary risk factor for AD is advancing age, other factors such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, vascular factors and depression play a role in its pathogenesis. The human gastrointestinal tract has a diverse commensal microbial population, which has bidirectional interactions with the human host that are symbiotic in health, and in addition to nutrition, digestion, plays major roles in inflammation and immunity...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Fengshan Pan, Qian Meng, Sha Luo, Jing Shen, Bao Chen, Kiran Yasmin Khan, Jan Japenga, Xiaoxiao Ma, Xiaoe Yang, Ying Feng
Four plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were used as materials, among them two heavy metal tolerant rhizosphere strains SrN1 (Arthrobacter sp.) and SrN9 (Bacillus altitudinis) were isolated from rhizosphere soil, while two endophytic strains SaN1 (Bacillus megatherium) and SaMR12 (Sphingomonas) were identified from roots of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of these PGPB on plant growth and Cd accumulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants grown on aged Cd-spiked soil...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Vishal Shah, Todd Peter Luxton, Virginia K Walker, Terrell Brumfield, Jerry Yost, Shreya Shah, Jeremy E Wilkinson, Murty Kambhampati
The fate of engineered zero-valent copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) in soils collected from geographically-distinct regions of the continental United States and incubated under controlled conditions was investigated with respect to NP affinity for soil surfaces and changes in speciation, as well as their impact on bacterial communities. Soil geochemical properties had a great influence on Cu NP migration and transformation. Translocation of Cu NPs was low in soils enriched in organic matter and high in clay and sandy soils...
August 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Maarten F de Jong, Zixu Liu, Didi Chen, Neal M Alto
The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is a multimeric E3 ligase that catalyses M1 or linear ubiquitination of activated immune receptor signalling complexes (RSCs). Mutations that disrupt linear ubiquitin assembly lead to complex disease pathologies including immunodeficiency and autoinflammation in both humans and mice, but microbial toxins that target LUBAC function have not yet been discovered. Here, we report the identification of two homologous Shigella flexneri type III secretion system effector E3 ligases IpaH1...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"