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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227083/creating-virtual-ards-patients
#1
Anup Das, Mainul Haque, Marc Chikhani, Wenfei Wang, Jonathan G Hardman, Declan G Bates, Anup Das, Mainul Haque, Marc Chikhani, Wenfei Wang, Jonathan G Hardman, Declan G Bates, Wenfei Wang, Declan G Bates, Anup Das, Mainul Haque, Marc Chikhani, Jonathan G Hardman
This paper presents the methodology used in patient-specific calibration of a novel highly integrated model of the cardiovascular and pulmonary pathophysiology associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). We focus on data from previously published clinical trials on the static and dynamic cardio-pulmonary responses of three ARDS patients to changes in ventilator settings. From this data, the parameters of the integrated model were identified using an optimization-based methodology in multiple stages...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226965/distinguishing-obstructive-from-central-sleep-apneas-and-hypopneas-using-linear-svm-and-acoustic-features
#2
Richard Hummel, T Douglas Bradley, Devin Packer, Hisham Alshaer, Richard Hummel, T Douglas Bradley, Devin Packer, Hisham Alshaer, Devin Packer, T Douglas Bradley, Hisham Alshaer, Richard Hummel
Sleep Apnea (SA) is a very common but underdiagnosed respiratory disorder. SA has 2 main types, obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA and CSA, respectively). The distinction between the 2 types is important for proper clinical management. Our aim in this study was to deploy acoustic analysis of breath sounds to distinguish central from obstructive events. We recorded breath sounds from 29 patients from which 45 segments with obstructive only and 40 segments with central only respiratory events were isolated...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225866/circulating-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-predict-disease-activity-and-treatment-response-in-patients-with-immune-thrombocytopenia
#3
J Zhou, Y Zhou, J Wen, X Sun, X Zhang
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disease characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. Abnormal effector T cell activation is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of ITP. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have a strong immunosuppressive function for T cell activation and their importance in the pathophysiology and clinical treatment of ITP has been confirmed. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are other immunosuppressive cells, which can also suppress T cell activation by secreting arginase, iNOS and ROS, and are essential for Treg cells' differentiation and maturation...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225422/clinical-updates-in-women-s-health-care-summary-structural-heart-disease-primary-and-preventive-care-review
#4
Tiberio Frisoli, Michele Doughty Voeltz
Reproductive-aged women with structural heart disease who become pregnant as well as postreproductive-aged women with this condition represent a significant proportion of patients seen by obstetrician- gynecologists. Usually, their conditions are complex, and a basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the heart is required. Additionally, understanding the effect of pregnancy on women with structural heart disease is critically important to optimizing maternal and fetal outcomes. This monograph addresses the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, basic management, and suggested counseling for an obstetric-gynecologic patient with structural heart disease...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224502/pyoderma-gangrenosum-an-update-on-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Afsaneh Alavi, Lars E French, Mark D Davis, Alain Brassard, Robert S Kirsner
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory neutrophilic disorder with prototypical clinical presentations. Its pathophysiology is complex and not fully explained. Recent information regarding the genetic basis of PG and the role of auto-inflammation provides a better understanding of the disease and new therapeutic targets. PG equally affects patients of both sexes and of any age. Uncontrolled cutaneous neutrophilic inflammation is the cornerstone in a genetically predisposed individual. Multimodality management is often required to reduce inflammation, optimize wound healing, and treat underlying disease...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224082/clinical-characteristics-of-adult-patients-with-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-in-spain-a-review-of-500-cases-from-university-hospitals
#6
J Pérez-López, L Ceberio-Hualde, J S García-Morillo, J M Grau-Junyent, A Hermida Ameijeiras, M López-Rodríguez, J C Milisenda, M Moltó Abad, M Morales-Conejo, J J Nava Mateos
Patients with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) have become an emerging and challenging group in the adult healthcare system whose needs should be known in order to implement appropriate policies and to adapt adult clinical departments. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of adult patients with IEMs who attend the most important Spanish hospitals caring for these conditions. A cohort study was conducted in 500 patients, categorized by metabolic subtype according to pathophysiological classification...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224046/eighth-international-chorea-acanthocytosis-symposium-summary-of-workshop-discussion-and-action-points
#7
Samuel S Pappas, Juan Bonifacino, Adrian Danek, William T Dauer, Mithu De, Lucia De Franceschi, Gilbert DiPaolo, Robert Fuller, Volker Haucke, Andreas Hermann, Benoit Kornmann, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Johannes Levin, Aaron M Neiman, Dobrila D Rudnicki, Ody Sibon, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Jan J Vonk, Ruth H Walker, Lois S Weisman, Roger L Albin
Chorea-Acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements, red blood cell pathology, and progressive neurodegeneration. Little is understood of the pathogenesis of ChAc and related disorders (collectively Neuroacanthocytosis). The Eighth International Chorea-Acanthocytosis Symposium was held in May 2016 in Ann Arbor, MI, USA, and focused on molecular mechanisms driving ChAc pathophysiology. Accompanying the meeting, members of the neuroacanthocytosis research community and other invited scientists met in a workshop to discuss the current understanding and next steps needed to better understand ChAc pathogenesis...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223818/an-evidence-based-review-on-urate-lowering-treatments-implications-for-optimal-treatment-of-chronic-hyperuricemia
#8
REVIEW
Marilisa Bove, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Maddalena Veronesi, Claudio Borghi
Several studies suggest that chronic hyperuricemia, the main precursor of gout, is involved in the pathogenesis of different systemic disorders that affect cardiovascular and renal systems, such as hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, chronic heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Recent epidemiological evidence has shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in the Western world: a number of population-based studies estimate a prevalence of up to 21% for hyperuricemia and 1%-4% for gout...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223728/levothyroxine-therapy-and-impaired-clearance-are-the-strongest-contributors-to-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-results-of-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Thorsten Brechmann, Andre Sperlbaum, Wolff Schmiegel
AIM: To identify a set of contributors, and weight and rank them on a pathophysiological basis. METHODS: Patients who have undergone a lactulose or glucose hydrogen breath test to rule out small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) for various clinical symptoms, including diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cramping or bloating, were seen as eligible for inclusion in a retrospective single-centre study. Clinical data such as co-morbidities, medication, laboratory parameters and other possible risk factors have been identified from the electronic data system...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223398/exertional-dyspnoea-in-interstitial-lung-diseases-the-clinical-utility-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#10
Matteo Bonini, Giuseppe Fiorenzano
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterised by alveolar and interstitial damage, pulmonary inflammation (usually associated with fibrosis), decreased lung function and impaired gas exchange, which can be attributed to either a known or an unknown aetiology. Dyspnoea is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with ILD, significantly impacting quality of life. The mechanisms causing dyspnoea are complex and not yet fully understood. However, it is recognised that dyspnoea occurs when there is an imbalance between the central respiratory efferent drive and the response of the respiratory musculature...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223227/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-asthma
#11
REVIEW
MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Mahsa Eskian, Erwin W Gelfand, Nima Rezaei
Corticosteroid-resistant asthmatics, although comprising only a portion of the asthma population, account for most of the morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with asthma. Moreover, corticosteroids are not effective inhibitors of airway remodeling changes, and their long-term use is associated with debilitating systemic side effects. Therefore, potent and safe novel therapeutic alternatives, targeting basic pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the severe asthmatic phenotype are urgently needed...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223222/disrupting-the-key-circadian-regulator-clock-leads-to-age-dependent-cardiovascular-disease
#12
Faisal J Alibhai, Jonathan LaMarre, Cristine J Reitz, Elena V Tsimakouridze, Jeffrey T Kroetsch, Steffen-Sebastian Bolz, Alex Shulman, Samantha Steinberg, Thomas P Burris, Gavin Y Oudit, Tami A Martino
The circadian mechanism underlies daily rhythms in cardiovascular physiology and rhythm disruption is a major risk factor for heart disease and worse outcomes. However, the role of circadian rhythms is generally clinically unappreciated. Clock is a core component of the circadian mechanism and here we examine the role of Clock as a vital determinant of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology in aging. Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mice develop age-dependent increases in heart weight, hypertrophy, dilation, impaired contractility, and reduced myogenic responsiveness...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223096/the-habenula-in-psychiatric-disorders-more-than-three-decades-of-translational-investigation
#13
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The habenula is an epithalamic structure located at the center of the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, a pathway involved in linking forebrain to midbrain regions. Composed of a medial and lateral subdivisions, the habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia mainly through the stria medullaris (SM), and projects to midbrain regions through the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). An increasing number of studies have also implicated this structure in psychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated reward circuitry function, notably mood disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223003/treatment-of-metformin-intoxication-complicated-by-lactic-acidosis-and-acute-kidney-injury-the-role-of-prolonged-intermittent-hemodialysis
#14
Giuseppe Regolisti, Riccardo Antoniotti, Filippo Fani, Paolo Greco, Enrico Fiaccadori
Metformin intoxication with lactic acidosis, a potentially lethal condition, may develop in diabetic patients when the drug dose is inappropriate and/or its clearance is reduced. Diagnosis and therapy may be delayed due to nonspecific symptoms at presentation, with severe anion gap metabolic acidosis and elevated serum creatinine values being the most prominent laboratory findings. Confirmation requires measurement of serum metformin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, but this technique is available only at specialized institutions and cannot be relied on as a guide to immediate treatment...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222972/the-neurologic-control-of-arousal-and-orgasm-with-specific-attention-to-spinal-cord-lesions-integrating-preclinical-and-clinical-sciences
#15
Marcalee Sipski Alexander, Lesley Marson
Preclinical research in animal models is important for understanding the neural pathways and pathophysiology underlying changes in sexual function after SCI. In vivo animal models, primarily rodents, have provided valuable information on the central pathways regulating sexual arousal and orgasm; however, further research is required in females and preclinical modeling of SCI that can be better translated to men and women. Translation of the autonomic and somatic regulation of sexual responses from preclinical models through clinical research correlates well with respect to the peripheral-spinal systems involved...
January 25, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222145/cataract-surgery-causes-biomechanical-alterations-to-the-eye-detectable-by-corvis-st-tonometry
#16
Yoshitake Kato, Shunsuke Nakakura, Ryo Asaoka, Kanae Matsuya, Yuki Fujio, Yoshiaki Kiuchi
PURPOSE: Modern cataract surgery is generally considered to bring about modest and sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. However, the pathophysiological mechanism for this remains unclear. Moreover, a change in ocular biomechanical properties after surgery can affect the measurement of IOP. The aim of the study is to investigate ocular biomechanics, before and following cataract surgery, using Corvis ST tonometry (CST). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine eyes of 59 patients with cataract were analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221312/what-s-in-the-literature
#17
David Lacomis, Nicholas J Silvestri, Edward J Fine, Gil I Wolfe
In this edition of this column, we review new studies concerning the pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of patients with necrotizing myopathy, genetic testing in congenital myopathies, and limb girdle muscular dystrophies, and the incidence of polyneuropathy in the myotonic dystrophies. Various studies in myasthenia gravis, including those concerning antibody testing, clinical features, and quality of life are also reviewed as are recent findings in congenital myasthenic syndromes. Finally, 2 studies concerning polyneuropathy are discussed, including one on the association of polyneuropathy in patients with the metabolic syndrome and one on laboratory testing in patients with otherwise idiopathic small fiber polyneuropathy...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221173/new-developments-in-transplant-proteomics
#18
Julie Ho, Patricia Hirt-Minkowski, John A Wilkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite modern immunosuppression, renal allograft rejection remains a major contributor to graft loss. Novel biomarkers may help improve posttransplant outcomes through the early detection and treatment of rejection. Our objective is to provide an overview of proteomics, review recent discovery-based rejection studies, and explore innovative approaches in biomarker development. RECENT FINDINGS: Urine MMP7 was identified as a biomarker of subclinical and clinical rejection using two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and improved the overall diagnostic discrimination of urine CXCL10 : Cr alone for renal allograft inflammation...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220607/neurological-and-spinal-manifestations-of-the-ehlers-danlos-syndromes
#19
Fraser C Henderson, Claudiu Austin, Edward Benzel, Paolo Bolognese, Richard Ellenbogen, Clair A Francomano, Candace Ireton, Petra Klinge, Myles Koby, Donlin Long, Sunil Patel, Eric L Singman, Nicol C Voermans
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. This communication briefly reports upon the neurological manifestations that arise including the weakness of the ligaments of the craniocervical junction and spine, early disc degeneration, and the weakness of the epineurium and perineurium surrounding peripheral nerves. Entrapment, deformation, and biophysical deformative stresses exerted upon the nervous system may alter gene expression, neuronal function and phenotypic expression...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220549/somatic-psychological-and-sexual-triggers-for-overactive-bladder-syndrome-in-women
#20
Ariel Zilberlicht, Nir Haya, Ido Feferkorn, Eyal Goldschmidt, Anis Kaldawy, Yoram Abramov
AIMS: Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) often describe somatic, psychological, and sexual triggers for their symptoms. The aim of this study was to characterize these triggers and assess their impact on patients' symptoms and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Patients who visited our urogynecologic clinic between August 2015 and March 2016 and diagnosed with OAB syndrome were asked to fill a questionnaire comprising 34 statements regarding SOmatic, Psychological, and Sexual Triggers for OAB (SOPSETO)...
February 21, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
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