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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671212/fungal-suppurative-otitis-media-histopathology-among-patients-in-north-india
#1
Rajpal Singh Punia, Surinder K Singhal, Reetu Kundu, Arjun Das, Jagdish Chander
Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) has a substantial worldwide prevalence and is a major cause of hearing impairment. In cases of CSOM unresponsive to local antibiotics, superimposed fungal infection should be suspected. The aim of the present study was to study the spectrum of cases with fungal otitis media. The study was conducted over a period of 12 years (2006-2017). Fifteen cases of CSOM clinically not suspected to be of fungal etiology that underwent surgery with identification of fungal organisms on histopathology were included in the study...
April 18, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655603/new-technologies-to-uncover-the-molecular-basis-of-disorders-of-sex-development
#2
REVIEW
Hayk Barseghyan, Emmanuèle C Délot, Eric Vilain
The elegant developmental biology experiments conducted in the 1940s by French physiologist Alfred Jost demonstrated that the sexual phenotype of a mammalian embryo depended whether the embryonic gonad develops into a testis or not. In humans, anomalies in the processes that regulate development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex result in a spectrum of conditions termed Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD). Each of these conditions is rare, and understanding of their genetic etiology is still incomplete...
April 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649263/validation-of-czecanca-czech-cancer-panel-for-clinical-application-for-targeted-ngs-based-analysis-of-hereditary-cancer-syndromes
#3
Jana Soukupova, Petra Zemankova, Klara Lhotova, Marketa Janatova, Marianna Borecka, Lenka Stolarova, Filip Lhota, Lenka Foretova, Eva Machackova, Viktor Stranecky, Spiros Tavandzis, Petra Kleiblova, Michal Vocka, Hana Hartmannova, Katerina Hodanova, Stanislav Kmoch, Zdenek Kleibl
BACKGROUND: Carriers of mutations in hereditary cancer predisposition genes represent a small but clinically important subgroup of oncology patients. The identification of causal germline mutations determines follow-up management, treatment options and genetic counselling in patients' families. Targeted next-generation sequencing-based analyses using cancer-specific panels in high-risk individuals have been rapidly adopted by diagnostic laboratories. While the use of diagnosis-specific panels is straightforward in typical cases, individuals with unusual phenotypes from families with overlapping criteria require multiple panel testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642909/clinical-implementation-of-rapid-cyp2c19-genotyping-to-guide-antiplatelet-therapy-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#4
Larisa H Cavallari, Francesco Franchi, Fabiana Rollini, Latonya Been, Andrea Rivas, Malhar Agarwal, D Max Smith, Kimberly Newsom, Yan Gong, Amanda R Elsey, Petr Starostik, Julie A Johnson, Dominick J Angiolillo
BACKGROUND: The CYP2C19 nonfunctional genotype reduces clopidogrel effectiveness after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Following clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotyping at University Florida (UF) Health Shands Hospital in 2012, where genotype results are available approximately 3 days after PCI, testing was expanded to UF Health Jacksonville in 2016 utilizing a rapid genotyping approach. We describe metrics with this latter implementation. METHODS: Patients at UF Health Jacksonville undergoing left heart catheterization with intent to undergo PCI were targeted for genotyping using the Spartan RX™ system...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630047/simple-and-rapid-method-to-obtain-high-quality-tumor-dna-from-clinical-pathological-specimens-using-touch-imprint-cytology
#5
Kenji Amemiya, Yosuke Hirotsu, Toshio Oyama, Masao Omata
It is critical to determine the mutational status in cancer before administration and treatment of specific molecular targeted drugs for cancer patients. In the clinical setting, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are widely used for genetic testing. However, FFPE DNA is generally damaged and fragmented during the fixation process with formalin. Therefore, FFPE DNA is sometimes not adequate for genetic testing because of low quality and quantity of DNA. Here we present a method of touch imprint cytology (TIC) to obtain genomic DNA from cancer cells, which can be observed under a microscope...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605563/rapid-phenotypic-methods-to-improve-the-diagnosis-of-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-meeting-the-challenge-to-reduce-the-time-to-result
#6
REVIEW
Grégory Dubourg, Brigitte Lamy, Raymond Ruimy
BACKGROUND: Administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is one of the key factors in surviving bloodstream infections. Blood culture (BC) is currently the gold standard for diagnosis, but conventional practices have long turnaround times while diagnosis need to be faster to improve patient care. Phenotypic methods offer an advantage over genotypic methods in that they can identify a wide range of taxa, detect the resistance currently expressed, and resist genetic variability in resistance detection...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596815/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-piperacillin-and-tazobactam-by-rp-hplc-of-residual-blood-specimens
#7
Sylvia M Verhoven, Joseph J Groszek, William H Fissell, Adam Seegmiller, Jennifer Colby, Pratish Patel, Alain Verstraete, Matthew Shotwell
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a common diagnosis in critical care with inpatient mortality rates up to 50%. Sepsis care is organized around source control, antibiotics, and supportive care. Drug disposition is deranged by changes in volume of distribution and regional blood flow, as well as multiple organ failure. Thus, assuring that each patient with sepsis attains pharmacokinetic targets is challenging. There is currently no commercially available FDA-approved assay to measure piperacillin-tazobactam, very commonly used as a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic in the intensive care unit (ICU)...
March 26, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569269/detection-of-borrelia-in-ixodes-scapularis-ticks-by-silver-stain-immunohistochemical-and-direct-immunofluorescent-methods
#8
Anjela Galan, Paul Kupernik, Shawn E Cowper
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease (LD) is one of the most common tick-borne diseases caused by several Borrelia species of spirochetes. Ixodes scapularis is responsible for the transmission of LD in the northeastern United States. The rate of infection varies with the duration of tick attachment to the host, however this information may be unknown. In skin biopsies it is often difficult to identify spirochetes. Testing of ticks is not routinely performed. Treatment is established by clinical presentation...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563674/advantages-of-type-and-screen-policy-perspective-from-a-developing-country
#9
Geet Aggarwal, Aseem K Tiwari, Dinesh Arora, Ravi C Dara, Devi P Acharya, Gunjan Bhardwaj, Jyoti Sharma
INTRODUCTION: The authors' center recently changed their pretransfusion testing protocol from "conventional" type and screen (TS) with anti-human globulin (AHG) crossmatch (Policy A) to TS with immediate-spin (IS) crossmatch (Policy B). Red blood cell (RBC) units were issued after compatible IS crossmatch as and when required instead of AHG crossmatch. This study was conducted to compare the effects of change of policy from A to B over 1-year period on crossmatch-to-transfusion (C/T) ratio, RBC issue turnaround time (TAT), outdating of RBC, man-hours consumption, and monetary savings...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558274/evaluation-of-a-streamlined-oncologist-led-brca-mutation-testing-and-counseling-model-for-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#10
Nicoletta Colombo, Gloria Huang, Giovanni Scambia, Eva Chalas, Sandro Pignata, James Fiorica, Linda Van Le, Sharad Ghamande, Santiago González-Santiago, Isabel Bover, Begoña Graña Suárez, Andrew Green, Philippe Huot-Marchand, Yann Bourhis, Sudeep Karve, Christopher Blakeley
Purpose There is a growing demand for BRCA1/ 2 mutation ( BRCAm) testing in patients with ovarian cancer; however, the limited number of genetic counselors presents a potential barrier. To facilitate more widespread BRCAm testing in ovarian cancer, pretest counseling by the oncology team could shorten testing turnaround times and ease the pressure on genetic counselors. Patients and Methods The prospective, observational Evaluating a Streamlined Onco-genetic BRCA Testing and Counseling Model Among Patients With Ovarian Cancer (ENGAGE) study evaluated a streamlined, oncologist-led BRCAm testing pathway...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527202/comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-mbt-star-bl-module-for-simultaneous-bacterial-identification-and-%C3%AE-lactamase-mediated-resistance-detection-in-gram-negative-rods-from-cultured-isolates-and-positive-blood-cultures
#11
Annie W T Lee, Johnson K S Lam, Ricky K W Lam, Wan H Ng, Ella N L Lee, Vicky T Y Lee, Po P Sze, Rahim Rajwani, Kitty S C Fung, Wing K To, Rodney A Lee, Dominic N C Tsang, Gilman K H Siu
Objective: This study evaluated the capability of a MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the newly introduced MBT STAR-BL module to simultaneously perform species identification and β-lactamase-mediated resistance detection in bacteremia -causing bacteria isolated from cultured isolates and patient-derived blood cultures (BCs). Methods: Two hundred retrospective cultured isolates and 153 prospective BCs containing Gram-negative rods (GNR) were collected and subjected to direct bacterial identification, followed by the measurement of β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and meropenem using the MBT STAR-BL module...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520446/when-to-stop-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#12
REVIEW
Pierre Laneuville
Strict criteria for when to stop tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in clinical practice are not easily defined without an agreement on what probability of achieving a treatment-free remission (TFR) constitutes a medically acceptable standard and consideration of the potential medical risks of continued TKI therapy and/or patient preferences. Patients in sustained deep molecular response (DMR) have no significant chronic myelogenous leukemia-related risk of progression and death, and thus, safety is of paramount importance...
March 8, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499042/multidisease-testing-for-hiv-and-tb-using-the-genexpert-platform-a-feasibility-study-in-rural-zimbabwe
#13
Zibusiso Ndlovu, Emmanuel Fajardo, Elton Mbofana, Tatenda Maparo, Daniela Garone, Carol Metcalf, Helen Bygrave, Kekeletso Kao, Sekesai Zinyowera
BACKGROUND: HIV Viral Load and Early Infant Diagnosis technologies in many high burden settings are restricted to centralized laboratory testing, leading to long result turnaround times and patient attrition. GeneXpert (Cepheid, CA, USA) is a polyvalent near point-of-care platform and is widely implemented for Xpert MTB/RIF diagnosis. This study sought to evaluate the operational feasibility of integrated HIV VL, EID and MTB/RIF testing in new GeneXpert platforms. METHODS: Whole blood samples were collected from consenting patients due for routine HIV VL testing and DBS samples from infants due for EID testing, at three rural health facilities in Zimbabwe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490026/significant-patient-impact-observed-upon-implementation-of-point-of-care-early-infant-diagnosis-technologies-in-an-observational-study-in-malawi
#14
Reuben Mwenda, Youyi Fong, Termson Magombo, Emmanuel Saka, Dalitso Midian, Christopher Mwase, James Kandulu, Melody Wang, Rachel Thomas, Judith Sherman, Lara Vojnov
Background: In Malawi in 2014, less than 20% of HIV-exposed infants received an EID test in the first two months of life and only 30% of HIV-infected children were on ART. We, therefore, sought to understand the potential patient impact of improving timely infant diagnosis and treatment initiation through implementation of POC EID technologies in Malawi. Methods: In this observational study POC EID technologies were introduced into routine services at seven health facilities across Malawi in September 2015...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489887/accelerating-access-to-quality-tb-care-for-pediatric-tb-cases-through-better-diagnostic-strategy-in-four-major-cities-of-india
#15
Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Virender Singh Salhotra, Raghuram Rao, Aakshi Kalra, Soumya Swaminathan, Ashwani Khanna, Kamal Kishore Chopra, M Hanif, Varinder Singh, K R Umadevi, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Sophie Huddart, C H Surya Prakash, Shalini Mall, Pooja Singh, B K Saha, Claudia M Denkinger, Catharina Boehme, Sanjay Sarin
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of TB in children is challenging, and is largely based on positive history of contact with a TB case, clinical and radiological findings, often without microbiological confirmation. Diagnostic efforts are also undermined by challenges in specimen collection and the limited availability of high sensitivity, rapid diagnostic tests that can be applied with a quick turnaround time. The current project was undertaken in four major cities of India to address TB diagnostic challenges in pediatric population, by offering free of cost Xpert testing to pediatric presumptive TB cases, thereby paving the way for better TB care...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477653/the-diagnosis-of-chronic-endometritis-in-infertile-asymptomatic-women-a-comparative-study-of-histology-microbial-cultures-hysteroscopy-and-molecular-microbiology
#16
Inmaculada Moreno, Ettore Cicinelli, Iolanda Garcia-Grau, Marta Gonzalez, Davide Bau, Felipe Vilella, Dominique DE Ziegler, Leonardo Resta, Diana Valbuena, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Chronic endometritis is a persistent inflammation of the endometrial mucosa caused by bacterial pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Although chronic endometritis can be asymptomatic, it is found in up to 40% of infertile patients and is responsible for repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage. Diagnosis of chronic endometritis is based on hysteroscopy of the uterine cavity, endometrial biopsy with plasma cells being identified histologically, while specific treatment is determined based on microbial culture...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458688/implementation-of-a-rapid-influenza-a-b-and-rsv-direct-molecular-assay-improves-emergency-department-oseltamivir-use-in-paediatric-patients
#17
Stephanie L Mitchell, Yeh-Chung Chang, Kristen Feemster, Ana María Cárdenas
PURPOSE: Influenza A virus (FluA), influenza B virus (FluB) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illnesses increase hospitalizations during seasonal epidemics. METHODOLOGY: To determine the utility of the Simplexa FluA/B & RSV Direct Assay (Direct Flu/RSV) and its impact on oseltamivir use, we offered this assay to emergency department (ED) patients with influenza-like illness. RESULTS: Utilization of the Direct Flu/RSV provided a turnaround time (TAT) of 2 hours...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455911/trauma-theatre-productivity-does-the-individual-surgeon-anaesthetist-or-consultant-presence-matter
#18
Gareth S Turnbull, Mounir Hakimi, George J McLauchlan
INTRODUCTION: With rising NHS clinical and financial demands, improving theatre efficiency is essential to maintain quality of patient care. Consistent teams and consultant presence have been shown to improve outcomes and productivity in elective orthopaedic surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact on trauma theatre productivity of different surgeons and anaesthetists working together in a Major Trauma Centre. The influence of consultant presence and weekend operating on productivity was also considered...
February 12, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444723/evaluation-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-performance-on-tissues-potential-impact-on-airborne-infection-isolation-at-a-tertiary-cancer-care-center
#19
Tracy McMillen, Shauna C Usiak, Liang Hua Chen, Luz Gomez, Peter Ntiamoah, Meera R Hameed, Indre Budvytiene, Niaz Banaei, Mini Kamboj, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES In this study, we sought to evaluate the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid) assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex DNA on fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens from oncology patients in an area with a low prevalence of tuberculosis. We also aimed to retrospectively assess the potential impact of Xpert MTB/RIF on the duration of airborne infection isolation (AII). SETTING A 473-bed, tertiary-care cancer center in New York City. DESIGN A total of 203 tissue samples (101 FFPE and 102 fresh) were tested using Xpert MTB/RIF, including 133 pulmonary tissue samples (65...
February 15, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436417/the-slow-march-toward-rapid-phenotypic-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-are-we-there-yet
#20
Christopher D Doern
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) provides critical information for the management of patients with infection. Gold standard methods for assessing organism susceptibility are still growth based and require incubation over relatively long periods of time. Until now, little progress has been made in developing rapid, growth based, phenotypic AST systems. This commentary puts the recently FDA-cleared Accelerate PhenoTest™ in context by providing a historical perspective on attempts to accelerate phenotypic susceptibility results (J Clin Microbiol XX, 2018, https://doi:10...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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