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Forensic Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908672/forensic-age-estimation-in-anti-piracy-trials-in-seychelles-experiences-and-challenges-faced
#1
S A Gunawardena, U A Liyanage, J B Weeratna, N D N A Mendis, H J M Perera, R W Jayasekara, R Fernando
Forensic age estimation (FAE) was conducted using a multifactorial method on thirteen Somali detainees claiming juvenile status during the anti-piracy trials of the Seychelles Supreme Court in 2014/2015. A multidisciplinary team, comprising of four of the authors covering specialties in forensic medicine, forensic odontology and radiology, conducted the FAE using a five-stage protocol. Each detainee was interviewed with an interpreter and examined for disorders affecting dental/skeletal development and for assessment of genital development through Tanner staging...
November 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907231/use-of-autopsy-to-determine-live-or-stillbirth-new-approaches-in-decision-support-systems
#2
Riza Yilmaz, Okan Erkaymaz, Erdogan Kara, Kivanc Ergen
Fetal deaths are important cases for forensic medicine, as well as for criminal and civil law. From a legal perspective, the determination of whether a deceased infant was stillborn is a difficult process. Such a determination is generally made during autopsy; however, no standardized procedures for this determination exist. Therefore, new facilitative approaches are needed. In this study, three new support systems based on 10 autopsy parameters were tested for their ability to correctly determine whether deceased infants were alive or stillborn...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906701/child-sexual-abuse-confirmed-by-forensic-examination-in-salvador-bahia-brazil
#3
Welington Dos Santos Silva, Ubirajara de Oliveira Barroso-Junior
Child sexual abuse is a worldwide public health issue. The objective of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children in cases of sexual abuse confirmed by material evidence at forensic examination. Cases of children younger than 12 years examined for suspected sexual abuse at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were reviewed retrospectively. The period evaluated was between 2005 and 2010. The inclusion criterion was the coroner's confirmation of sexual abuse based on material evidence...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900264/a-genomic-study-on-distribution-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-a-and-hla-b-alleles-in-lak-population-of-iran
#4
Farhad Shahsavar, Ali-Mohammad Varzi, Seyyed Amir Yasin Ahmadi
Anthropological studies based on the highly polymorphic gene, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as infertility treatment, designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak/lᴂk/individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with that previously described in Iranian population...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893573/suicide-and-fire-a-20-year-study-of-self-immolation-death-in-sousse-tunisia
#5
Maher Jedidi, Mohamed Cherif El Khal, Souheil Mlayeh, Tasnim Masmoudi, Mohamed Mahjoub, Mohamed Yassine Brahem, Mohamed Ben Dhiab, Majed Zemni, Mohamed Kamel Souguir
Self-immolation is a self-destructive conduct described since antiquity. Its frequency is variable from one country to another and it is a real public health problem in parts of the world. In Tunisia, after the 2011 revolution the problem of self-immolation protest has been highly publicized giving the impression of an increase in this phenomenon. This is a retrospective analysis of all fatal self-immolation cases, collected over a 20-year period (1996-2015) at the Forensic Medicine Department of the Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885431/forensic-age-assessment-of-asylum-seekers-in-finland
#6
Mari Metsäniitty, Olli Varkkola, Janna Waltimo-Sirén, Helena Ranta
In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876115/the-first-digit-law-a-hypothesis-on-its-possible-impact-on-medicine-and-development-aid
#7
Gregor Pollach, Frank Brunkhorst, Mwapatsa Mipando, Felix Namboya, Samson Mndolo, Thomas Luiz
The "first digit law" or "Benford's law" is a mathematical distribution discovered by Simon Newcomb and Frank Benford. It states, that the probability of the leading number d (d∈{1,…,9}) in many natural datasets follows: P (d)=log10 (d+1)-log10 (d)=log10 (1+1/d). It was successfully used through tax authorities and "forensic accounting" in order to detect fraud and other irregularities. Benfords law was almost neglected for its use outside financial accounting. The planning for health care systems in developing countries is extremely dependant on good, valid data...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874186/lessons-learned-from-autopsying-an-unidentified-body-with-iodine-125-seeds-implanted-for-prostate-brachytherapy
#8
Nozomi Idota, Mami Nakamura, Koji Masui, Yasuhiro Kakiuchi, Kei Yamada, Hiroshi Ikegaya
We report here lessons learned from an autopsy case involving radioactive materials. We performed an autopsy of an unidentified mummified man with no available medical history whom from imaging findings we suspected had received radioactive seed implants for prostate brachytherapy. We returned the excised prostate and seeds to the body. A few days later, the body was identified by DNA matching and cremated. According to the man's medical record, he had undergone iodine-125 seeds implantation for prostate cancer 11 months earlier...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864961/sexual-dimorphism-of-maxillary-sinus-dimensions-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#9
Maryam Paknahad, Shoaleh Shahidi, Zahra Zarei
Sex determination of unknown persons plays an important role in forensic medicine. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an excellent imaging modality for accurate measurement of maxillary sinus dimensions. This study aimed to evaluate whether maxillary sinus measurements on CBCT scans can be applied for sex determination. The width, length, and height of maxillary sinuses in CBCT images of 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) were measured. Student's t-test and discriminant function analysis were used to compare differences in the measured parameters between males and females...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861910/case-of-fatal-starvation-can-stable-isotope-analysis-serve-to-support-morphological-diagnosis-and-approximate-the-length-of-starvation
#10
Marija Baković, Polona Vreča, Davor Mayer
The diagnosis of death as a result of starvation is established on anthropological measurements, visual appearance of the deceased on external and internal examination, microscopic analysis, laboratory testing, and exclusion of other causes of death. Herein, we present our findings on a case of 95-year-old man who died of starvation. After the diagnosis of starvation was established by traditional forensic medicine methods, we have conducted retrospective segmental analysis of stable carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope ratios in hair sample...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861681/use-of-capture-recapture-method-to-improve-the-notification-of-fatal-occupational-injuries-records-in-belo-horizonte-city-minas-gerais-state-brazil-2011
#11
Polyanna Helena Coelho Bordoni, Leonardo Santos Bordoni, Jussara de Medeiros Silva, Eliane de Freitas Drumond
OBJECTIVE: to measure underreporting of typical fatal occupational injuries (FOI) on the Mortality Information System (SIM) in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. METHODS: the capture-recapture method was used to assess all FOI recorded among city residents and/or occurring in the city, using probabilistic linkage of three data sources: SIM, the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) and the Belo Horizonte Forensic Medicine Institute Autopsy Database...
January 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860446/a-genetic-algorithm-based-framework-for-wavelength-selection-on-sample-categorization
#12
Michel J Anzanello, Gabrielli Yamashita, Marcelo Marcelo, Flavio F Fogliatto, Rafael S Ortiz, Kristiane Mariotti, Marco F Ferrão
In forensic and pharmaceutical scenarios, the application of chemometrics and optimization techniques have unveiled common and peculiar features of seized medicine and drug samples, helping investigative forces towards tracking illegal operations. This paper proposes a novel framework aimed at identifying relevant subsets of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) wavelengths for classifying samples into two classes, e.g. authentic or forged categories in case of medicines, or salt or base form in cocaine analysis...
November 18, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849445/deaths-due-to-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-aydin-western-turkey
#13
Musa Dirlik, Başak Bostancıoğlu
The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate cases of death due to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the province of Aydın in western Turkey. The study investigated the cases of death due to CO poisoning that were autopsied at the Adnan Menderes University Department of Forensic Medicine from 2002 to 2012. The mean age of the 33 autopsied cases of fatal CO poisoning was 60.30 ± 4.082 years, and 75.8% of the cases were men. The highest level of CO in blood was 79.7%. It was found that most of the CO poisoning deaths were related to accidents...
November 16, 2016: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843967/prevalence-of-pulmonary-edema-among-the-deceased-cases-with-acute-methadone-poisoning-a-report-from-iran
#14
Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Seyed Amir Hossein Madani Naeini, Mahrang Hedaiaty, Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee, Maryam Moudi
OBJECTIVE: Methadone poisoning is common in our society, mainly in drug addicts. One of its lethal complications is pulmonary edema. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary edema in the deceased cases with methadone poisoning and its possible relationship with some medical variables. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study which was done in 2014, we have investigated the deceased patients with methadone toxicity who underwent autopsy at Isfahan Forensic Medicine Department (Iran)...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835836/recommendations-for-teaching-upon-sensitive-topics-in-forensic-and-legal-medicine-in-the-context-of-medical-education-pedagogy
#15
Kieran M Kennedy, Stacey Scriver
Undergraduate medical curricula typically include forensic and legal medicine topics that are of a highly sensitive nature. Examples include suicide, child abuse, domestic and sexual violence. It is likely that some students will have direct or indirect experience of these issues which are prevalent in society. Those students are vulnerable to vicarious harm from partaking in their medical education. Even students with no direct or indirect experience of these issues may be vulnerable to vicarious trauma, particularly students who are especially empathetic to cases presented...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819737/human-autosomal-dna-and-x-chromosome-str-profiles-obtained-from-chrysomya-albiceps-diptera-calliphoridae-larvae-used-as-a-biological-trace
#16
T C Oliveira, A B R Santos, K C N Rabelo, C A Souza, S M Santos, S Crovella
The use of insects to answer questions in criminal investigations, as well as a combination of forensic genetic techniques to obtain human DNA from the organisms, especially necrophagous dipterians, have gained ground in recent decades among researchers and professionals in this area. The objective of our study was to evaluate and compare two methods of human DNA extraction, commonly used for forensic samples, to obtain human autosomal DNA and X chromosome short tandem repeat profiles from the digestive tract of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815629/pulmonary-artery-perforation-and-coronary-air-embolism-two-fatal-outcomes-in-percutaneous-left-atrial-appendage-occlusion
#17
J Zwirner, R Bayer, C Hädrich, A Bollmann, N Klein, J Dreßler, B Ondruschka
Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is a routinely performed method to reduce the risk of stroke in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation, when an oral anticoagulation is no longer indicated due to relevant bleeding complications. Currently, the Amplatzer Amulet and the Watchman system are two equally used systems. While there is an acute success rate of more than 95 per cent for this intervention, several minor and major complications such as pericardial effusions, air embolism, vascular lesions in proximity to the heart or even death can occur...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812729/-under-scrutiny-by-the-state-prosecutor-legal-pitfalls-in-emergency-medicine
#18
P Schelling
Physicians who allow a suicide attempt to happen, which from an ex ante viewpoint was completely voluntary, cannot be held punishable for homicide or failing to provide medical assistance when the suicide corresponds to the putative will of the patient according to plausible information supplied by an authorized person with healthcare proxy. Guidelines for resuscitation also play a central role in the forensic practice for assessment of whether and when resuscitation can be terminated; therefore, it is urgently advised to follow and implement these guidelines: deviations are possible if they can be factually justified...
November 3, 2016: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810088/the-promise-and-peril-of-precision-medicine-phenotyping-still-matters-most
#19
REVIEW
Jaeger P Ackerman, Daniel C Bartos, Jamie D Kapplinger, David J Tester, Brian P Delisle, Michael J Ackerman
We illustrate the work necessary to reverse course after identification of a KCNQ1 variant interpreted erroneously as causing long QT syndrome (LQTS) and to identify the true cause of a case of sudden death in the young. Surrogate genetic testing of a decedent's living brother identified a rare KCNQ1-V133I variant, which prompted an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and subsequent diagnosis of LQTS in other family members. Subsequently, this presumed LQT1 family came to our institution for further clinical evaluation and research-based investigations, including KCNQ1-V133I variant-specific analysis of the decedent, heterologous expression studies of KCNQ1-V133I, and a whole-exome molecular autopsy along with genomic triangulation using his unaffected parents' DNA...
October 8, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808033/trends-in-weapon-related-injuries-from-violence-in-odense-municipality-denmark-1991-2009
#20
Stefan Møller Luef, Jens Martin Lauritsen, Christian Faergemann
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the development in incidence rates and the severity of weapon-related physical interpersonal violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark from 1991 to 2009. METHODS: All victims of physical interpersonal violence with weapon-related injuries treated at the Emergency Department in the 1991-2009 period at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and/or subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in the 1991-2009 period at the University of Southern Denmark were included...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
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