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Forensic Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645062/acute-and-chronic-alcohol-use-correlated-with-methods-of-suicide-in-a-swiss-national-sample
#1
P Pfeifer, C Bartsch, A Hemmer, T Reisch
OBJECTIVES: Chronic and acute alcohol use are highly associated risk factors for suicides worldwide. Therefore, we examined suicide cases with and without alcohol use disorder (AUD) using data from the SNSF project "Suicide in Switzerland: A detailed national survey". Our investigations focus on correlations between acute and chronic alcohol use with reference to suicide and potential interactions with the methods of suicide. METHODS: We used data from the SNSF project in which all cases of registered completed suicide in Switzerland reported to any of the seven Swiss institutes of legal and forensic medicine between 2000 and 2010 were collected...
June 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639299/understanding-suicide-across-the-lifespan-a-united-states-perspective-of-suicide-risk-factors-assessment-management
#2
Ian H Steele, Natasha Thrower, Paul Noroian, Fabian M Saleh
Suicide is a troubling, preventable phenomenon. Prior to attempts, individuals often seek help, prompting practitioners to perform risk assessments that ideally use evidence-based risk management strategies. A literature review was performed using Harvard Countway Library of Medicine, Google Scholar, PubMed. Key words used were "Forensic Science," "Suicide Risk Management," "Pediatric Suicide Risk Factors," "Adult Suicide Risk Factors," "Geriatric Suicide Risk Factors," "Suicide Risk Assessment." Parameters limited articles to studies/reviews completed in the past twenty years in the United States...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635867/-the-investigations-into-the-amino-acid-composition-of-the-tooth-for-the-purpose-of-forensic-medical-personality-identification
#3
Yu I Pigolkin, G V Zolotenkova, P S Velenko, B N Izotov
The increasingly greater requirements for the new approaches to the forensic medical personality identification necessitate the extensive search for and the development of the precise methods enabling the experts to determine the general personality signs in the cases of mass mortality and the large number of victims with the conspicuous post-mortem changes in their appearance including those associated with putrefaction and strong fragmentation of the bodies. This article presents the analytical review demonstrating that determination of the victims' age in the combination with the analysis of the amino acid composition of dental tissues provides a promising tool for the investigations not only in the fields of archeology and anthropology but also for the purpose of personality identification in forensic medicine...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634679/establishment-of-two-forensic-medicine-osce-stations-on-the-subject-of-external-post-mortem-examination
#4
S Heide, R Lessig, V Hachmann, D Stiller, M Rönsch, D Stoevesandt, A Biolik, S Watzke, J Kellner
An improvement in quality of medical external post-mortem examinations among others can be achieved by more intensive training of medical students. Modern learning and teaching methods such as e-learning modules and SkillsLab stations should be used for this. The introduction of corresponding methods of assessment such as the OSCE procedure is necessary to test the success of learning. In Halle (Germany), two OSCE stations on the subject of external post-mortem examinations were introduced in 2016. The 'practical external post-mortem examination' station test skills and abilities students have learned during practical external post-mortem examination in small group classes on a simulation doll...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621276/association-of-palatal-rugae-pattern-in-gender-identification-an-exploratory-study
#5
Nitin Gautam, Suneel G Patil, R Gopi Krishna, Hemalatha Agastya, Lubna Mushtaq, K Vijay Kumar
AIM: The present study's aim was to assess the pattern of palatine ridges/rugae to identify gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study consists of a total of 50 participants (25 males and 25 females). Participants of the age range of 20 to 50 years were selected from the outpatient department. According to the shape and size of the patient's arches, maxillary impression trays were selected using alginate, and casts were poured subsequently. With the help of a sharp graphite pencil, the palatine ridges were delineated to make it prominent, and on either side of the midline, the number of rugae was counted and the length measured...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619861/geriatrics-and-the-legal-system
#6
Stephanie C Yarnell, Paul D Kirwin, Howard V Zonana
Correctional systems, already struggling to meet the basic and functional requirements of older prisoners, will be further challenged by the increasing medical and psychiatric needs of this population. Mental health and general medical care for older adults requires specific on-site or consultation expertise in geriatric medicine and psychiatry, as well as potential changes in infrastructure, both of which may be prohibitively expensive. However, compassionate and effective treatment of older prisoners requires that prison and legal systems facilitate this expert care...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619856/childhood-trauma-ptsd-and-the-cautious-forensic-expert
#7
Lance Amols, Spencer Eth
For centuries, medicine and psychiatry mirrored society's equivocations regarding childhood trauma. Those conflicts have mostly resolved, with widespread agreement that children are commonly exposed to traumatic events that may lead to PTSD and other mental conditions. The psychiatric and legal arguments should no longer be about the reality of childhood trauma in general; instead, experts should focus on the methodology of translating a particular child's narrative truth of maltreatment into a historical account, so that the expert can be qualified to offer criminal or civil court testimony after examining the child...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617565/psychotropic-medications-in-swedish-homicide-victims-and-offenders-a-forensic-toxicological-case-control-study-of-adherence-and-recreational-use
#8
Jonatan Hedlund, Jonas Forsman, Joakim Sturup, Thomas Masterman
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the extent to which adherence to, and recreational use of, psychotropic medications influence the risk of homicide offending and victimization. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study by way of linking a nationwide registry of dispensed prescriptions with a forensic-toxicological database. Homicide victims (n = 200) and offenders (n = 105) were identified for the years 2007-2009 and vehicle-accident controls (n = 1,643) for the years 2006-2013...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613037/results-of-a-collaborative-study-on-dna-identification-of-aged-bone-samples
#9
Daniel Vanek, Bruce Budowle, Jitka Dubska-Votrubova, Angie Ambers, Jan Frolik, Martin Pospisek, Ahmed Anwar Al Afeefi, Khalid Ismaeil Al Hosani, Marie Allen, Khudooma Saeed Al Naimi, Dina Al Salafi, Wafa Ali Rashid Al Tayyari, Wendy Arguetaa, Michel Bottinelli, Magdalena M Bus, Jan Cemper-Kiesslich, Olivier Cepil, Greet De Cock, Stijn Desmyter, Hamid El Amri, Hicham El Ossmani, Ruth Galdies, Sebastian Grün, Francois Guidet, Anna Hoefges, Cristian Bogdan Iancu, Petra Lotz, Alessandro Maresca, Marion Nagy, Jindrich Novotny, Hajar Rachid, Jessica Rothe, Marguerethe Stenersen, Mishel Stephenson, Alain Stevanovitch, Juliane Strien, Denilce R Sumita, Joanna Vella, Judith Zander
AIM: A collaborative exercise with several institutes was organized by the Forensic DNA Service (FDNAS) and the Institute of the Legal Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, with the aim to test performance of different laboratories carrying out DNA analysis of relatively old bone samples. METHODS: Eighteen laboratories participating in the collaborative exercise were asked to perform DNA typing of two samples of bone powder...
June 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610598/forensic-toxicology-analysis-of-self-poisoning-suicidal-deaths-in-tehran-iran-trends-between-2011-2015
#10
Roya Kordrostami, Maryam Akhgari, Maryam Ameri, Masoud Ghadipasha, Kamran Aghakhani
BACKGROUND: Suicide ranks among the top ten causes of death in all age groups all over the world. There are many methods for committing suicide including self-poisoning, firearm and hanging. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of self-poisoning related suicidal deaths with special focus on forensic toxicology analysis results in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: All suspicious cases with the the history of self-poisoning were investigated to define the cause and manner of death under the supervision of forensic medicine practitioners...
June 13, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597948/identification-of-a-carbonized-body-using-implanted-surgical-plates-the-importance-of-computed-tomography
#11
Vanessa Moreira Andrade, Christian Abreu Stibich, Paulo Maurício de Santa Martha, Casimiro Abreu Possante de Almeida, Andrea de Castro Domingos Vieira
In addition to clinical examination, forensic odontologists can use diagnostic imaging as an auxiliary method for identification. This paper reports a case where forensic odontologists from the Afrânio Peixoto Legal Medicine Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) positively identified a carbonized and partially calcined body using oral and maxillofacial imaging. The cadaver showed several metallic plates fixed with metallic screws on bones of the neurocranium and viscerocranium. Family members provided spiral computed tomography scans of the skull and a panoramic radiograph that were acquired after an accident that required surgical procedures...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597664/-addictive-substances-in-fatal-cases-of-fall-jump-from-height
#12
Martin Zdarílek, Peter Očko, Ján Šikuta, Ľuboš Nižnanský, Jozef Šidlo
The aim of the study is to analyse causes of fatal cases of falls from height focusing on the occurrence of addictive substances. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of cases dealing with falls/jumps autopsied at the Institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bratislava in the years 2005-2014 accounting for a catchment area with approximately 1.2 m population. Selection criteria were met in 360 cases, i.e. approximately 4 % of all cases autopsied. There were 68 % of men and 32 % of women involved. The age interval ranged from 10 up to 93 years (mean age 50 years)...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589832/improving-medicines-management
#13
Kirsty Killiard
While on placement on a forensic learning disability ward in my third year as a mental health nursing student, I noticed that patients sometimes needed 'as required' (PRN) medication for distress associated with their mental health.
June 7, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589188/editorial-comment-on-analysis-of-the-%C3%A4-stanbul-forensic-medicine-institute-expert-decisions-on-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-injuries-due-to-thyroidectomy-between-2008-2012
#14
COMMENT
Mehmet Hacıyanlı, Erdinç Kamer, Emine Özlem Gür
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Turk J Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588157/an-evaluation-of-faculty-wise-teaching-performance-in-a-public-medical-college-of-bangladesh
#15
M K Khan, M R Hassan, S K Saha, M S Basher, S Kabir, A N Naushad
Teaching is a complex and demanding activity that involves Mastery of content, classroom control and techniques of organization and command of teaching skills. Teachers' continuous engagement in learning, skill acquisition and refinement to practice is essential for meeting student learning needs. Medical education is principally centered on the transmission of medical knowledge and assisting medical students to acquire the necessary skills and attitudes associated with medical practice. Evaluation of teaching is important in the teaching-learning process...
April 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584475/virtopsy-touch-free-autopsy
#16
REVIEW
Raj Kumar Badam, Triekan Sownetha, D B Gandhi Babu, Shefali Waghray, Lavanya Reddy, Komali Garlapati, Sunanda Chavva
The word "autopsy" denotes "to see with own eyes." Autopsy (postmortem) is a process that includes a thorough examination of a corpse noting everything related to anatomization, surface wounds, histological and culture studies. Virtopsy is a term extracted from two words "virtual" and "autopsy." It employs imaging methods that are routinely used in clinical medicine such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the field of autopsy, to find the reason for death. Virtopsy is a multi-disciplinary technology that combines forensic medicine and pathology, roentgenology, computer graphics, biomechanics, and physics...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560543/bone-and-soft-tissue-histology-a-new-approach-to-determine-characteristics-of-offending-instrument-in-sharp-force-injuries
#17
Tania Delabarde, Catherine Cannet, Jean Sébastien Raul, Annie Géraut, Marc Taccoen, Bertrand Ludes
This paper describes a new approach to determine characteristics of the implement used to inflict trauma which involves the histological analysis of exogenous particles. Based on Locard's principle "every contact leaves a trace," we decided to assess whether histological examination of bone and soft tissue around a penetrating injury (sharp force trauma) could provide evidence of the offending implement. Case reports and experimental studies have demonstrated the potential of cut mark features in bone to identify the causative implement and potentially assist in identifying the perpetrator...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552305/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometric-imaging-for-the-rapid-segmental-analysis-of-methamphetamine-in-a-single-hair-using-umbelliferone-as-a-matrix
#18
Hang Wang, Ying Wang
Segmental hair analysis offers a longer period for retrospective drug detection than blood or urine. Hair is a keratinous fiber and is strongly hydrophobic. The embedding of drugs in hydrophobic hair at low concentrations makes it difficult for extraction and detection with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled with mass spectrometric imaging (MSI). In this study, a single scalp hair was longitudinally cut with a cryostat section to a length of 4 mm and fixed onto a stainless steel MALDI plate...
July 4, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549545/developmental-and-internal-validation-of-a-novel-13-loci-str-multiplex-method-for-cannabis-sativa-dna-profiling
#19
Rachel Houston, Matthew Birck, Sheree Hughes-Stamm, David Gangitano
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is a plant cultivated and trafficked worldwide as a source of fiber (hemp), medicine, and intoxicant. The development of a validated method using molecular techniques such as short tandem repeats (STRs) could serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases by means of genetic individualization or association of cannabis samples. For this purpose, a 13 loci STR multiplex method was developed, optimized, and validated according to relevant ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. The STR multiplex consists of 13 previously described C...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549543/paternity-testing-at-the-department-of-forensic-medicine-of-wroclaw-medical-university-poland
#20
Anna Karpiewska, Elżbieta Kowalczyk, Tadeusz Dobosz
Evidentiary materials in court cases comprise the testimony of all relevant parties and witnesses, physical and biological evidence, and the stage of child's development at the moment of birth. In this study, an analysis was made of results obtained between 1966 and 2014 from paternity testing capable of providing biological evidence for court cases. During this time, 16,508 opinions were released, with exclusion of paternity in 4182 cases. The analysis of the total percentage of exclusions in individual years over the entire period of 49years turned out to be very interesting...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
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