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Forensic Medicine

Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
M N Arslan, Ç Kertmen, I Esen Melez, D O Melez
Traumatic asphyxia is a rare clinical syndrome usually caused by sudden and severe thoracic and/or thoracoabdominal compression. It presents with craniofacial cyanosis, petechiae, and subconjunctival haemorrhages. The present study employed a postmortem retrospective methodology to analyse autopsy findings and accompanying injuries in cases of death due to traumatic asphyxia. Four years of case files from a morgue department at a forensic medicine institute were searched and 53 cases of lethal traumatic asphyxia were found...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
J Hiquet, E Christin, F Tovagliaro, J Fougas, O Dubourg, C Chevalier, F Abel, M Ebouat, M-E Ploquin, M Malo, S Gromb-Monnoyeur
BACKGROUND: The Forensic medicine reform in 2011 enabled the development of forensic units specialized in multidisciplinary care of victims of criminal offences. Thanks to an annual budgetary allocation, the Ministry of Justice handles the financing of judicial acts, while the health care facilities assume the medical, psychological and social aspects. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of medical care provided to rape victims (such as defined in the article 222-23 of the Penal Code) in order to see how its funding could be reconsidered to prevent any additional cost that could be caused by non-sufficient medical, psychological and social care...
March 9, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
J Jason Payne-James, Margaret M Stark, Bernadette Butler, Carol Seymour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Philip D Hopkins, Tara Mastren, Justyna Florek, Roy Copping, Mark Brugh, Kevin D John, Meiring F Nortier, Eva R Birnbaum, Freddy Kleitz, Michael E Fassbender
The separation of Th, Pa, and U is of high importance in many applications including nuclear power, nuclear waste, environmental and geochemistry, nuclear forensics and nuclear medicine. Diglycolamide (DGA)-based resins have shown the ability to separate many elements, however, these resins consist of non-covalent impregnation of the DGA molecules on the resin backbone resulting in co-elution of the extraction molecule during separation cycles, therefore limiting their long-term and repeated use. Covalently binding the DGA molecules onto silica is one way to overcome this issue...
March 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Alexia Delbreil, Mélanie Voyer, Michel Sapanet, Laurence Leturmy
Only a physician specialized in forensic medicine is allowed to process a autopsy legal. The 2011 reform of forensic medicine aimed to homogenize and enhance thanatological practices over French state territory. According to the law, biological samples withdrawn during an autopsy can't be given back to the families after analysis(art. 230-30 CPP). Respecting the human body and restoring their physical aspect are mandatory by law (art. 230-29 CPP). After a autopsy legal, dead bodies must be given back to their relatives as soon as possible...
March 8, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Antonios Paraschakis, Ioannis Michopoulos, Vasiliki Efstathiou, Christos Christodoulou, Ilias Boyokas, Athanassios Douzenis
We investigated all cases of completed suicide in the city area of Piraeus -the largest port in Greece- for the years 2006 up to 2015. We searched, among others, parameters regarding the victims' psychiatric medication intake and drug and alcohol use that -to the best of our knowledge- had never been investigated before by a study on suicides in Greece within the crisis' years. We documented variations before (2006-2010) and during (2011-2015) crisis. Information was provided by the victims' forensic records at the Piraeus Department of Forensic Medicine...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
K R Goethals
Personalised medicine promises to provide us with a diagnostic predictive system of stratification that is based on a wide variety of tests; these can include biological, cognitive, demographic, psychopathological tests and other clearly defined tests. The purpose of forensic psychiatry is not only to take care of and treat mentally impaired patients but also to engage in risk assessment and risk management.<br/> AIM: To explain risk assessment in forensic psychiatry as a nomothetic approach to personalised medicine, and also to demonstrate the link with offence paralleling behaviour, which is an illustration of the ideographic approach...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Samuel P Prahlow, Joseph A Prahlow
As forensic scientists and physicians, forensic pathologists are duty-bound to perform their examinations with integrity and professionalism. The practice of medicine requires knowledge regarding the history and presentation of the patient. In forensic pathology, the history includes scene and other investigative information, and the decedent's medical and social history. Such information is important for the correct certification of the cause and manner of death. Herein, the authors present a case originally thought by police and death investigators to represent a sexual-assault-related homicide, as an elderly female's body was found partially nude, and apparently beaten, on the muddy floor of her horse barn...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Tristan Monchal, Amina Ndiaye, Blandine Gadegbeku, Etienne Javouhey, Olivier Monneuse
Objective Road traffic accidents (RTA) are the first cause of abdominopelvic injuries (API). The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and severity of API due to traffic accidents in a large French trauma registry and to identify risk factors for API. Methods All victims from the French Rhône registry of victims of RTA were analyzed from 1996 to 2013. This registry contained data that were issued over a 20-year period from 245 medical departments, from prehospital care until re-adaptation, and forensic medicine departments...
March 6, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
J Adamec, Petra Dorfner, M Graw, S Lochner, S N Kunz
Injuries resulting from blows with beer steins are a frequent occurrence during annual autumn fairs or at beer halls in South Germany and Austria. The majority of these cases are tried in court and thus being assessed by a forensic medicine expert. The article at hand gives a short overview on the injury potential of one-litre beer steins and explains the key variables to consider when analyzing beer stein injuries. On the basis of representative cases, which were assessed by specialists from the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Munich University over the last 5 years, the main biomechanical aspects and resulting injuries of one-litre beer stein assaults are discussed...
March 4, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Matthew Renner, Carol Newark, Bradley J Bartos, Richard McCleary, Nicholas Scurich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Georgios Schoretsanitis, Michael Paulzen, Stefan Unterecker, Markus Schwarz, Andreas Conca, Gerald Zernig, Gerhard Gründer, Ekkerhard Haen, Pierre Baumann, Niels Bergemann, Hans Willi Clement, Katharina Domschke, Gabriel Eckermann, Karin Egberts, Manfred Gerlach, Christine Greiner, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Gudrun Hefner, Renate Helmer, Ger Janssen, Eveline Jaquenoud-Sirot, Gerd Laux, Thomas Messer, Rainald Mössner, Matthias J Müller, Bruno Pfuhlmann, Peter Riederer, Alois Saria, Bernd Schoppek, Margarete Silva Gracia, Benedikt Stegmann, Werner Steimer, Julia C Stingl, Manfred Uhr, Sven Ulrich, Roland Waschgler, Gabriela Zurek, Christoph Hiemke
OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) combines the quantification of drug concentrations in blood, pharmacological interpretation and treatment guidance. TDM introduces a precision medicine tool in times of increasing awareness of the need for personalized treatment. In neurology and psychiatry, TDM can guide pharmacotherapy for patient subgroups such as children, adolescents, pregnant women, elderly patients, patients with intellectual disabilities, patients with substance use disorders, individuals with pharmacokinetic peculiarities and forensic patients...
March 1, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Annamaria Govi, Federica Fersini, Saskia Etzold, Michael Tsokos
The distinction between self-inflicted injuries and other types of injuries is crucial in forensic medicine, and relevant features of wounds should be identified by pathologists, even when they are observed at atypical sites. Herein we report two cases of self-inflicted injuries of the neck involving two young women who had reported being attacked by men.
March 1, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Neeraj Sharma, Mohan Bairwa, B Gowthamghosh, S D Gupta, D K Mangal
BACKGROUND: Globally, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. However, road traffic injury research has not received adequate attention from the scientific community in low- and middle-income countries, including India. The present study aims to provide a bibliometric overview of research assessing road traffic injuries in India. METHODS: We used Scopus to extract relevant research in road traffic injuries published from 1991 to 2017...
March 1, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Miranda A H Horvath, Kristina Massey
INTRODUCTION: The coping strategies, resilience and psychological distress of members of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) were measured in an attempt to establish how they are affected by, and accommodate potentially traumatic encounters with patients. Belief in a just world was also measured as it was deemed to be a mediating factor in the psychological distress exhibited in the medical practitioners who participated in this study. METHODS: 120 members of the FFLM (65 females, 54 males and 1 undisclosed) volunteered to complete an online survey...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Olumayowa O Igado
Understanding skull anatomy and morphometry is crucial to the diagnosis and treatment of some osteology disorders. This study investigated the morphometry and skull typology of the skull of the Nigerian local dog as a skull prototype for the dolichocephalic breed of dogs. A total of sixteen adult dogs (7 males, 9 females), of about 2 years were used. A total of 20 parameters were measured on each skull, and two indices (cephalic and orbital) calculated. The males had higher values for nine parameters (two of which were calculated indices), including the maximum width of the skull, length of the mandibular symphysis, height of the tympanic bulla and height of the external auditory opening, although no statistically significant difference was observed (p > 0...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Reinhard Dettmeyer, Juliane Lang, Rainer Amberg, Barbara Zedler, Ronald Schulz, Christoph Birngruber
Background: Pregnancy-associated deaths are extremely rare in Germany. Most deaths are from natural causes, and a range of causes are possible. Method: The deaths of 22 women who died of pregnancy-associated causes and who were autopsied in the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Justus-Liebig University Gießen between 1992 and 2016 were analyzed. Results: The autopsy results and histological examinations for the majority of women who died of pregnancy-associated causes between 1992 and 2016 showed that they had died of natural causes, although complications of pregnancy were a leading cause of death...
February 2018: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Awatif Shamata, Tim Thompson
Non-contact three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning methods have been applied to forensic medicine to record injuries and to mitigate ordinary photography shortcoming. However, there are no literature concerning practical guidance for 3D surface scanning of live victims. This paper aimed to investigate key 3D scanning issues of the live body to develop a series of scanning principles for future use on injured victims. The Pico Scan 3D surface scanner was used on live test subjects. The work focused on analysing the following concerns: (1) an appropriate 3D scanning technique to scan different body areas, (2) the ideal number of scans, (3) scanning approaches to access various areas of the body and (4) elimination of environmental background noise in the acquired data...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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