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Indirect Aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230426/lateral-patellofemoral-ligament-an-anatomic-study
#1
Kalpit N Shah, Steven F DeFroda, James Kristopher Ware, Sarath C Koruprolu, Brett D Owens
Background: Medial instability of the patellofemoral joint is a rare but known phenomenon that may result from an incompetent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL). Surgical reconstruction of the LPFL has been described. However, anatomic details of the ligament have not been the subject of scrutiny. Purpose: To describe the anatomic origin and insertion of the LPFL. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Ten fresh-frozen, unpaired human cadaveric knees (mean age, 57 years) were dissected to identify the LPFL...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226004/understanding-the-context-of-romantic-partner-relational-victimization-links-between-relationship-satisfaction-depressive-symptoms-and-alcohol-related-problems
#2
Angelo M DiBello, Teresa M Preddy, Camilla S Øverup, Clayton Neighbors
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine links across romantic partner relational victimization, depressive symptoms, and drinking problems during young adulthood. We were interested in evaluating depression as a mediator of the association between relational victimization by one's romantic partner, drinking problems, and the conditional indirect effects of relationship satisfaction. Method: 269 individuals aged 18 to 26 years (68% female, Mage = 22.78 years, SD = 4...
October 2017: Psychology of Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224844/social-management-of-laboratory-rhesus-macaques-housed-in-large-groups-using-a-network-approach-a-review
#3
Brenda McCowan, Brianne Beisner, Darcy Hannibal
Biomedical facilities across the nation and worldwide aim to develop cost-effective methods for the reproductive management of macaque breeding groups, typically by housing macaques in large, multi-male multi-female social groups that provide monkey subjects for research as well as appropriate socialization for their psychological well-being. One of the most difficult problems in managing socially housed macaques is their propensity for deleterious aggression. From a management perspective, deleterious aggression (as opposed to less intense aggression that serves to regulate social relationships) is undoubtedly the most problematic behavior observed in group-housed macaques, which can readily escalate to the degree that it causes social instability, increases serious physical trauma leading to group dissolution, and reduces psychological well-being...
December 7, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215055/impairing-the-function-of-mlck-myosin-va-or-myosin-vb-disrupts-rhinovirus-b14-replication
#4
Antonio Real-Hohn, D William Provance, Rafael Braga Gonçalves, Caio Bidueira Denani, Andréa Cheble de Oliveira, Verônica P Salerno, Andre Marco Oliveira Gomes
Together, the three human rhinovirus (RV) species are the most frequent cause of the common cold. Because of their high similarity with other viral species of the genus Enterovirus, within the large family Picornaviridae, studies on RV infectious activities often offer a less pathogenic model for more aggressive enteroviruses, e.g. poliovirus or EV71. Picornaviruses enter via receptor mediated endocytosis and replicate in the cytosol. Most of them depend on functional F-actin, Rab proteins, and probably motor proteins...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181007/interplay-between-natural-killer-cells-and-anti-her2-antibodies-perspectives-for-breast-cancer-immunotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Aura Muntasell, Mariona Cabo, Sonia Servitja, Ignasi Tusquets, María Martínez-García, Ana Rovira, Federico Rojo, Joan Albanell, Miguel López-Botet
Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) defines a subgroup of breast tumors with aggressive behavior. The addition of HER2-targeted antibodies (i.e., trastuzumab, pertuzumab) to chemotherapy significantly improves relapse-free and overall survival in patients with early-stage and advanced disease. Nonetheless, considerable proportions of patients develop resistance to treatment, highlighting the need for additional and co-adjuvant therapeutic strategies. HER2-specific antibodies can trigger natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and indirectly enhance the development of tumor-specific T cell immunity; both mechanisms contributing to their antitumor efficacy in preclinical models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172598/biological-underpinnings-of-an-internalizing-pathway-to-alcohol-cigarette-and-marijuana-use
#6
Elisa M Trucco, Sandra Villafuerte, Andrea Hussong, Margit Burmeister, Robert A Zucker
There is a limited understanding as to how specific genes impact addiction risk. Applying a developmental framework and research domain criteria (RDoC) to identify etiological pathways from genetic markers to addiction may have utility. Prior research has largely focused on externalizing pathways to substance use. Although internalizing mechanisms have received less attention, there is strong support that addiction is a longer term consequence of using substances to cope with internalizing as well as externalizing problems...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169931/aggressive-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#7
Noor Janjua, Volkert B Wreesmann
Differentiated thyroid cancer is characteristically associated with an innocuous clinical course, but a minority of cases may manifest surprisingly aggressive behaviour. Such aggressive DTC are directly responsible for the majority of thyroid cancer related deaths. Moreover, they contribute indirectly to increased DTC-related morbidity, because our inability to differentiate these tumours from innocuous DTC at an early stagefuels a significant degree of DTC overtreatment around the globe. In the present paper we describe how improved understanding of the clinicopathological thyroid tumour progression model and optimization of clinical staging systems continues to improve our ability to diagnose and treat aggressive DTC...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162175/reward-sensitivity-impulse-control-and-social-cognition-as-mediators-of-the-link-between-childhood-family-adversity-and-externalizing-behavior-in-eight-countries
#8
Jennifer E Lansford, Jennifer Godwin, Marc H Bornstein, Lei Chang, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Laura Di Giunta, Kenneth A Dodge, Patrick S Malone, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Ann T Skinner, Emma Sorbring, Laurence Steinberg, Sombat Tapanya, Liane Peña Alampay, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Suha M Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini
Using data from 1,177 families in eight countries (Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States), we tested a conceptual model of direct effects of childhood family adversity on subsequent externalizing behaviors as well as indirect effects through psychological mediators. When children were 9 years old, mothers and fathers reported on financial difficulties and their use of corporal punishment, and children reported perceptions of their parents' rejection. When children were 10 years old, they completed a computerized battery of tasks assessing reward sensitivity and impulse control and responded to questions about hypothetical social provocations to assess their hostile attributions and proclivity for aggressive responding...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156772/stat3-and-stat5a-are-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#9
Sambit K Mohanty, Kader Yagiz, Dinesh Pradhan, Daniel J Luthringer, Mahul B Amin, Serhan Alkan, Bekir Cinar
Mechanisms of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are not well understood, thus hindering rational-based drug design. Activation of STAT3/5A, key components of the JAK/STAT pathway, is implicated in aggressive PC, yet their clinical relevance in CRPC remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the possible role of STAT3/5A in CRPC using immunological, quantitative mRNA expression profiling, and pharmacological methods. We observed a strong nuclear immunoreactivity for STAT3 and STAT5A in 93% (n=14/15) and 80% (n=12/15) of CRPC cases, respectively, compared with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152820/positive-peer-association-among-black-american-youth-and-the-roles-of-ethnic-identity-and-gender
#10
Dakari Quimby, Maryse Richards, Catherine DeCarlo Santiago, Darrick Scott, Dhara Puvar
The study examined whether peer association, a subtype of peer influence that involves the indirect modeling of behaviors, can promote positive development among Black American adolescents living in high-risk neighborhoods. Data were collected during a three-year longitudinal study from a sample of 316 Black American adolescents (M = 11.65 years). As positive peer association increased over time, youth experienced an increase in self-esteem, school connectedness, paternal and maternal closeness, and a decrease in supportive beliefs about aggression...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152204/prozac-in-the-water-chronic-fluoxetine-exposure-and-predation-risk-interact-to-shape-behaviors-in-an-estuarine-crab
#11
Joseph R Peters, Elise F Granek, Catherine E de Rivera, Matthew Rollins
Predators exert considerable top-down pressure on ecosystems by directly consuming prey or indirectly influencing their foraging behaviors and habitat use. Prey is, therefore, forced to balance predation risk with resource reward. A growing list of anthropogenic stressors such as rising temperatures and ocean acidification has been shown to influence prey risk behaviors and subsequently alter important ecosystem processes. Yet, limited attention has been paid to the effects of chronic pharmaceutical exposure on risk behavior or as an ecological stressor, despite widespread detection and persistence of these contaminants in aquatic environments...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149180/roles-of-vegf-flt-1-signaling-in-malignant-behaviors-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Ajiravudh Subarnbhesaj, Mutsumi Miyauchi, Chea Chanbora, Aki Mikuriya, Phuong Thao Nguyen, Hisako Furusho, Nurina Febriyanti Ayuningtyas, Minoru Fujita, Shigeaki Toratani, Masaaki Takechi, Shumpei Niida, Takashi Takata
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific signaling protein for vascular endothelial cells that plays a critical role in tumor growth and invasion through angiogenesis, and may contribute to cell migration and activation of pre-osteoclasts, osteoclasts and some tumor cells. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to clarify the detailed roles of VEGF-Flt-1 signaling in bone invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. RESULTS: Forty-two (42) of 54 cases with gingival SCC (77...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129539/leptospirosis-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Pravin Amin
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by a gram negative aerobic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is acquired by contact with urine or reproductive fluids from infected animals, or by inoculation from contaminated water or soil. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions that have a humid, rainy climate and is also common in travelers returning from these regions. Clinical suspicion is critical for the diagnosis and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a febrile hepatorenal syndrome in, or returning from endemic regions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126881/triple-negative-breast-cancer-key-role-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-regulating-the-activity-of-anti-pd-1-pd-l1-agents
#14
REVIEW
Matteo Santoni, Emanuela Romagnoli, Tiziana Saladino, Laura Foghini, Stefania Guarino, Marco Capponi, Massimo Giannini, Paolo Decembrini Cognigni, Gerardo Ferrara, Nicola Battelli
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a poor prognosis, due to its aggressive behaviour and lack of effective targeted therapies. Immunocheckpoint inhibitors, such as anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and anti-PD-ligand(L)1 agents, are in course of investigation in TNBC, used alone or in combination with other systemic or local approaches. However, the high cost of these drugs and the lack of validated predictive biomarkers support the development of strategies aimed to overcome resistance and optimize the efficacy of these approaches...
November 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105728/tests-for-detecting-strabismus-in-children-aged-1-to-6-years-in-the-community
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Hull, Vijay Tailor, Sara Balduzzi, Jugnoo Rahi, Christine Schmucker, Gianni Virgili, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
BACKGROUND: Strabismus (misalignment of the eyes) is a risk factor for impaired visual development both of visual acuity and of stereopsis. Detection of strabismus in the community by non-expert examiners may be performed using a number of different index tests that include direct measures of misalignment (corneal or fundus reflex tests), or indirect measures such as stereopsis and visual acuity. The reference test to detect strabismus by trained professionals is the cover‒uncover test...
November 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090393/child-sexual-abuse-and-negative-affect-as-shared-risk-factors-for-sexual-aggression-and-sexual-hiv-risk-behavior-in-heterosexual-men
#16
Zoё D Peterson, Erick Janssen, David Goodrich, J Dennis Fortenberry, Devon J Hensel, Julia R Heiman
Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i.e., anxiety, depression, and anger) is a less well-studied risk factor, but it has been theorized to relate to both sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior. Thus, this study sought to (1) confirm the relationship between sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, (2) establish CSA and negative affect as shared risk factors for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, and (3) evaluate whether negative affect mediates the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and HIV sexual risk in a sample of heterosexual men...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081734/different-effects-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-glioblastoma-stem-cells-by-direct-cell-interaction-or-via-released-soluble-factors
#17
Adriana Bajetto, Alessandra Pattarozzi, Alessandro Corsaro, Federica Barbieri, Antonio Daga, Alessia Bosio, Monica Gatti, Valerio Pisaturo, Rodolfo Sirito, Tullio Florio
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is an aggressive, fast-growing and highly vascularized tumor, characterized by extensive invasiveness and local recurrence. In GBM and other malignancies, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to drive invasive tumor growth and recurrence, being responsible for radio- and chemo-therapy resistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that exhibit tropism for tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines, chemokines and growth factors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080969/altruistic-behavior-among-twins-willingness-to-fight-and-self-sacrifice-for-their-closest-relatives
#18
Encarnación Tornero, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, José J Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez, Juan R Ordoñana
According to kin selection theory, indirect reproductive advantages may induce individuals to care for others with whom they share genes by common descent, and the amount of care, including self-sacrifice, will increase with the proportion of genes shared. Twins represent a natural situation in which this hypothesis can be tested. Twin pairs experience the same early environment because they were born and raised at the same time and in the same family but their genetic relatedness differs depending on zygosity...
October 28, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078819/cytokines-associated-with-burkitt-s-lymphoma-in-western-kenya
#19
Isaac Ndede, Simeon K Mining, Kirtika Patel, Fredrick M Wanjala, David Chumba, Constance Tenge
OBJECTIVE: Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a common aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in East and Central Africa among children. Persistent infections with Epstein Barr virus or Plasmodium falciparum are associated with immune hyperstimulation. It is hypothesised that inadvertent cytokine responses to infections indirectly or directly influence B cell neoplastic transformation through c-myelocytomatosis (c-myc) gene translocation. We sought to describe cytokines in children and adolescents with BL...
October 27, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025634/catastrophic-costs-potentially-averted-by-tuberculosis-control-in-india-and-south-africa-a-modelling-study
#20
Stéphane Verguet, Carlos Riumallo-Herl, Gabriela B Gomez, Nicolas A Menzies, Rein M G J Houben, Tom Sumner, Marek Lalli, Richard G White, Joshua A Salomon, Ted Cohen, Nicola Foster, Susmita Chatterjee, Sedona Sweeney, Inés Garcia Baena, Knut Lönnroth, Diana E Weil, Anna Vassall
BACKGROUND: The economic burden on households affected by tuberculosis through costs to patients can be catastrophic. WHO's End TB Strategy recognises and aims to eliminate these potentially devastating economic effects. We assessed whether aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services might reduce catastrophic costs. METHODS: We estimated the reduction in tuberculosis-related catastrophic costs with an aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services in India and South Africa from 2016 to 2035, in line with the End TB Strategy...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
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