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Indirect Aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322873/fortune-favours-the-brave-movement-responses-shape-demographic-dynamics-in-strongly-competing-populations
#1
Jonathan R Potts, Sergei V Petrovskii
Animal movement is a key mechanism for shaping population dynamics. The effect of interactions between competing animals on a population's survival has been studied for many decades. However, interactions also affect an animal's subsequent movement decisions. Despite this, the indirect effect of these decisions on animal survival is much less well-understood. Here, we incorporate movement responses to foreign animals into a model of two competing populations, where inter-specific competition is greater than intra-specific competition...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319067/the-histone-demethylase-kdm3a-and-its-downstream-target-mcam-promote-ewing-sarcoma-cell-migration-and-metastasis
#2
M Sechler, J K Parrish, D K Birks, P Jedlicka
Ewing Sarcoma is the second most common solid pediatric malignant neoplasm of bone and soft tissue. Driven by EWS/Ets, or rarely variant, oncogenic fusions, Ewing Sarcoma is a biologically and clinically aggressive disease with a high propensity for metastasis. However, the mechanisms underpinning Ewing Sarcoma metastasis are currently not well understood. In the present study, we identify and characterize a novel metastasis-promotional pathway in Ewing Sarcoma, involving the histone demethylase KDM3A, previously identified by our laboratory as a new cancer-promoting gene in this disease...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302641/gradual-escalation-of-use-of-force-reduces-police-officer-injury
#3
Katelyn K Jetelina, Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Stephen A Bishopp
OBJECTIVE: To examine how escalation through the force continuum predicts officer injury in the presence of citizen aggression, while controlling for extraneous factors, like citizen and officer characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were extracted from 2244 use-of-force reports from the Dallas Police Department in 2015. Multilevel, mixed logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between use of force and officer injury. Multilevel path analysis tested indirect and direct relationships between citizen aggression and officer injury...
March 16, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302245/amniotic-fluid-embolism
#4
Tayyab Mohyuddin, Shahbaz Sarwar, Dawar Ayyaz
We report a case of 34-year patient who had uncomplicated elective caesarean-section. Postoperatively, she developed sudden hypotension, bradycardia, dyspnea and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), all signs associated with amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). Echocardiogram showed signs of acutely increased right ventricular after load including McConell's sign, i.e. right ventricular dilatation, segmental hypokinesia (mid-right ventricular) and hypercontractile right ventricular apex and overall right ventricular dysfunction...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296207/understanding-the-relationship-between-suicidality-current-depressed-mood-personality-and-cognitive-factors
#5
Shri Cameron, Verity J Brown, Barbara Dritschel, Kevin Power, Malcolm Cook
OBJECTIVES: Links between suicidality and depressed mood are well established. There is, however, little information about the emotional regulation processes that underlie the relationship between suicidality and current low mood, and how these processes differ between groups of never-suicidal (NS), suicidal ideators, and suicide attempters. As suicidality and depression are heterogeneous constructs, this study aimed to conduct within- and between-group comparisons of known suicide risk factors that are associated with emotion regulation (neuroticism, trait aggression, brooding, impulsivity, and overgeneral autobiographical memories)...
March 11, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288796/opposite-effects-of-nonapeptide-antagonists-on-paternal-behavior-in-the-teleost-fish-amphiprion-ocellaris
#6
Ross DeAngelis, Joseph Gogola, Logan Dodd, Justin S Rhodes
The nonapeptides isotocin (IT) and arginine vasotocin (AVT), along with their mammalian homologs oxytocin and arginine vasopressin, are well known regulators of social behaviors across vertebrate taxa. However, little is known about their involvement in paternal care. Here, we measured the effect of an IT and an AVT V1a receptor antagonist on paternal behaviors in the primarily paternal teleost Amphiprion ocellaris. We also measured the effect of the IT receptor antagonist on aggression in dyadic contests between two non-reproductive fish to assess specificity of the effect on paternal behaviors...
March 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285690/the-cell-cell-interaction-between-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-is-involved-in-tumor-progression-via-stat3-activation
#7
Toyohisa Iriki, Koji Ohnishi, Yukio Fujiwara, Hasita Horlad, Yoichi Saito, Cheng Pan, Koei Ikeda, Takeshi Mori, Makoto Suzuki, Hidenori Ichiyasu, Hirotsugu Kohrogi, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
OBJECTIVES: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. It is well known that various stromal cells, including macrophages, play a role in tumor progression in several types of malignant tumors; however, the significance of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in SCLC has not been fully elucidated. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a molecule well-known to be related to tumor progression. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of TAMs and SCLC cells to test the hypothesis that TAMs induce tumor progression in SCLC via STAT3 activation...
April 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282773/association-of-periodontitis-with-preterm-birth-and-low-birth-weight-a-comprehensive-review
#8
Alberto Puertas, Antonio Magan-Fernandez, Vanessa Blanc, Laura Revelles, Francisco O'Valle, Elena Pozo, Ruben León, Francisco Mesa
It is estimated that six million perinatal deaths occur every year worldwide, with premature birth being the main cause. Scientific evidence has shown that there is an association between periodontal health during pregnancy and adverse outcomes of labor, although interventional studies based on the treatment of periodontitis have failed to document an impact on reducing the incidence of preterm birth (PB) or low birth weight (LBW). Two pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. The direct pathway is based on the presence of gram-negative anaerobic bacteremia originating in the gingival biofilm, whereas the indirect pathway involves the production of pro-inflammatory markers which enter the bloodstream from the gingival submucosa...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230773/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-tumor-expression-is-associated-with-a-better-prognosis-and-diabetic-disease-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients
#9
Gerardo Botti, Francesca Collina, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Federica Rao, Valentina Peluso, Rossella De Cecio, Michela Piezzo, Gabriella Landi, Michelino De Laurentiis, Monica Cantile, Maurizio Di Bonito
Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC) subtype is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. The only treatment available is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a trans-membrane protein expressed on a wide variety of cells including immune cells, epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Recently, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway signaling was described as an adaptive immune resistance mechanism enacted by the tumor cells to evade the immune response. Its presence on tumor cell membranes, acquired for this reason, through time, is an important prognostic value...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216563/the-genomic-impact-of-dna-cpg-methylation-on-gene-expression-relationships-in-prostate-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Mark D Long, Dominic J Smiraglia, Moray J Campbell
The process of DNA CpG methylation has been extensively investigated for over 50 years and revealed associations between changing methylation status of CpG islands and gene expression. As a result, DNA CpG methylation is implicated in the control of gene expression in developmental and homeostasis processes, as well as being a cancer-driver mechanism. The development of genome-wide technologies and sophisticated statistical analytical approaches has ushered in an era of widespread analyses, for example in the cancer arena, of the relationships between altered DNA CpG methylation, gene expression, and tumor status...
February 14, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206778/personal-and-cultural-identity-development-in-recently-immigrated-hispanic-adolescents-links-with-psychosocial-functioning
#11
Alan Meca, Raha F Sabet, Colleen M Farrelly, Cynthia G Benitez, Seth J Schwartz, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Jennifer B Unger, Byron L Zamboanga, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Simona Picariello, Sabrina E Des Rosiers, Daniel W Soto, Monica Pattarroyo, Juan A Villamar, Karina M Lizzi
OBJECTIVES: This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. METHOD: The sample consisted of 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Hispanic adolescents (53% boys; Mage = 14.51 years at baseline; SD = .88 years) from Miami and Los Angeles who participated in a longitudinal study...
February 16, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187086/brief-report-flow-rate-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-through-a-spinal-needle-can-accurately-predict-intracranial-pressure-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#12
Tom H Boyles, Elizabeth Gatley, Sean Wasserman, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: Patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) commonly present with raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Aggressive management of raised ICP reduces mortality but requires manometers, which are unavailable in most resource-limited settings. The law of Poiseuille states that the rate of flow of liquid through a tube is directly proportional to the difference in pressure between each end, and it may be possible to indirectly determine ICP by measuring flow of CSF through a spinal needle rather than using a manometer...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178670/new-in-vivo-avatars-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas-dipg-from-stereotactic-biopsies-performed-at-diagnosis
#13
Alexandre Plessier, Ludivine Le Dret, Pascale Varlet, Kévin Beccaria, Joëlle Lacombe, Sébastien Mériaux, Françoise Geffroy, Laurence Fiette, Patricia Flamant, Fabrice Chrétien, Thomas Blauwblomme, Stéphanie Puget, Jacques Grill, Marie-Anne Debily, David Castel
Diffuse Instrinsic Pontine Glioma is the most aggressive form of High Grade Gliomas in children. The lack of biological material and the absence of relevant models have hampered the development of new therapeutics. Their extensive infiltration of the brainstem renders any surgical resection impossible and until recently biopsies were considered not informative enough and therefore not recommended. Thus, most models were derived from autopsy material. We aimed to develop relevant in vivo DIPG models that mimic this specific disease and its molecular diversity from tumor material obtained at diagnosis...
February 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150983/a-self-regulatory-perspective-of-work-to-home-undermining-spillover-crossover-examining-the-roles-of-sleep-and-exercise
#14
Larissa K Barber, Shannon G Taylor, James P Burton, Sarah F Bailey
Research demonstrating that employees who are undermined at work engage in similar behavior at home suggests this connection reflects displaced aggression. In contrast, the present study draws on self-regulation theory to examine the work-home undermining spillover/crossover process. We propose that poor sleep quality transmits the influence of workplace undermining to home undermining per self-regulatory impairment, and exercise moderates this indirect effect per self-regulatory improvement. Using matched data from 118 employees and a member of their household to test our model, results demonstrated that undermining experienced from supervisors increased subjective (i...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141864/green-tea-polyphenol-induces-changes-in-cancer-related-factors-in-an-animal-model-of-bladder-cancer
#15
Tomohiro Matsuo, Yasuyoshi Miyata, Akihiro Asai, Yuji Sagara, Bungo Furusato, Junya Fukuoka, Hideki Sakai
Green tea polyphenol (GTP) suppresses carcinogenesis and aggressiveness in many types of malignancies including bladder cancer. However, the mechanistic basis of these effects is not well understood. This was investigated in the present study using a mouse model of chemically induced bladder cancer. C3H/He mice (8 weeks old; n = 46) were treated with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) solution for 14-24 weeks. Mice in the BBN + GTP group (n = 47) were also treated with 0.5% GTP solution over the same period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134495/pathways-from-witnessing-parental-violence-during-childhood-to-involvement-in-intimate-partner-violence-in-adult-life-the-roles-of-depression-and-substance-use
#16
Clarice S Madruga, Maria Carmen Viana, Renata Rigacci Abdalla, Raul Caetano, Ronaldo Laranjeira
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of witnessing parental violence (WPV) during childhood and of current intimate partner violence (IPV) victimisation and aggression in a Brazilian sample, in order to verify pathways between WPV and involvement in IPV as an adult. DESIGN AND METHODS: The mediating roles of substance use and depression were investigated. Data came from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey, a multi-cluster probabilistic household survey, which gathered information on the use of psychoactive substances, current depressive disorder, history of childhood direct and indirect exposure to domestic violence and IPV in a nationally representative sample...
January 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127778/maternal-depression-and-intimate-partner-violence-exposure-longitudinal-analyses-of-the-development-of-aggressive-behavior-in-an-at-risk-sample
#17
Megan R Holmes, Susan Yoon, Kristen A Berg
A substantial body of literature has documented the negative effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on a wide range of children's developmental outcomes. However, whether a child's exposure to IPV leads to increased adjustment difficulties is likely to depend on a variety of factors, including the caregiver's mental health and the developmental time period when IPV exposure occurs. The present study seeks to improve our understanding of the long-term effects of IPV exposure and maternal depression on the development of children's overt aggressive behavior...
January 27, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122113/social-buffering-in-a-eusocial-invertebrate-termite-soldiers-reduce-the-lethal-impact-of-competitor-cues-on-workers
#18
Li Tian, Evan L Preisser, Kenneth F Haynes, Xuguo Zhou
While the impact of predator-induced stress on prey has received considerable attention, there has been far less research into the effect of competitors. Cues from aggressive competitors should be particularly likely to evoke behavioral and/or physiological responses, since they may be indicative of both direct (interference) and indirect (exploitative) threats. The danger posed by such competitors, and the "fear" they evoke, should be reduced at lower competitor densities and by the presence of individual conspecifics specialized for defense...
January 25, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113062/implicit-aggressiveness-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-as-assessed-by-an-implicit-association-test
#19
Barbara Cludius, Alexander F Schmidt, Steffen Moritz, Rainer Banse, Lena Jelinek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) highlight the role of cognitive biases for the development of the disorder. One of these biases, an inflated sense of responsibility has been associated with higher anger scores and latent aggression on self-report scales, especially in patients with compulsive checking. Validity of self-report assessment is, however, compromised by inaccuracy, social desirability, and low metacognitive awareness of traits and behaviors in patients...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073033/situating-violent-ideations-within-the-landscape-of-mental-health-associations-between-violent-ideations-and-dimensions-of-mental-health
#20
Aja Louise Murray, Manuel Eisner, Ingrid Obsuth, Denis Ribeaud
Violent ideations occur more frequently in individuals with mental health problems. They may be of interest in clinical contexts as possible indicators of dangerousness, as corollaries of mental health problems, as candidate treatment targets and as potentially playing a role in perpetuation or onset of symptoms. In spite of their relevance to mental health, some fundamental questions about their place within the broader landscape of mental health problems remain unanswered. To provide a basic characterisation of the relations between violent ideations and dimensions of mental health and provide a foundation for future research in this area we factor analysed a measure of violent ideations and an omnibus measure of mental health dimensions in a normative sample of 1306 youth (at age 17)...
March 2017: Psychiatry Research
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