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Indirect Aggression

Dulce Alfaiate, Julie Lucifora, Natali Abeywickrama-Samarakoon, Maud Michelet, Barbara Testoni, Jean-Claude Cortay, Camille Sureau, Fabien Zoulim, Paul Dény, David Durantel
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) super-infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients is the most aggressive form of viral hepatitis. HDV infection is not susceptible to direct anti-HBV drugs, and only suboptimal antiviral responses are obtained with interferon (IFN)-alpha-based therapy. To get insights on HDV replication and interplay with HBV in physiologically relevant hepatocytes, differentiated HepaRG (dHepaRG) cells, previously infected or not with HBV, were infected with HDV, and viral markers were extensively analyzed...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
Barbara Krahé, Anja Berger
This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2...
October 19, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Yuhei Kawano
The relationship between salt and hypertension is well established, and salt restriction is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. However, people living in northeast Asia have consumed large amount of salt, and the prevalence of hypertension and the incidence of stroke have been high in that area. Mechanisms of salt-induced hypertension may be complex, but volume expansion in the presence of impaired natriuretic capacity of the kidney and action on the central nervous system and neurohormoral pathways seem to be important...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Dinh Minh Tran, André Clément-Demange, Marine Déon, Dominique Garcia, Vincent Le Guen, Anne Clément-Vidal, Mouman Soumahoro, Aurélien Masson, Philippe Label, Mau Tuy Le, Valérie Pujade-Renaud
An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP...
2016: PloS One
Cixin Wang, Ji Hoon Ryoo, Susan M Swearer, Rhonda Turner, Taryn S Goldberg
Moral disengagement is a series of cognitive processes used to disengage moral standards to achieve absolved guilt and permit immoral conduct and has been found to be an important connection to bullying and aggressive behaviors among adolescents. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between moral disengagement and bullying behavior among a group of adolescents from fifth grade to ninth grade (n = 1180, mean age = 12.2, SD = 1.29, 46.5 % female, 80.2 % Caucasian/White, 7.1 % Black/African American, 5...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Terri N Sullivan, Rachel C Garthe, Elizabeth A Goncy, Megan M Carlson, Kathryn L Behrhorst
Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Julajak Limsrivilai, Ryan W Stidham, Shail M Govani, Akbar K Waljee, Wen Huang, Peter D R Higgins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A subset of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have continuously active inflammation, leading to a high number of complications and high direct healthcare costs (diagnostic tests, medications, and surgeries) and indirect costs (reduced employment and productivity and fewer opportunities for activities). Identifying these high-risk patients and providing effective interventions could produce better outcomes and reduce costs. We used prior year data to create IBD risk models to predict IBD-related hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and high treatment charges (>$30,000/year) in the subsequent year...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yuhei Kawano
The relationship between salt and hypertension is well established, and salt restriction is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. However, people living in northeast Asia have consumed large amount of salt, and the prevalence of hypertension and the incidence of stroke have been high in that area. Mechanisms of salt-induced hypertension may be complex, but volume expansion in the presence of impaired natriuretic capacity of the kidney and action on the central nervous system and neurohormoral pathways seem to be important...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Amanda J Nguyen, Catherine Bradshaw, Lisa Townsend, Alden L Gross, Judith Bass
BACKGROUND: Peer victimization is a common form of aggression among school-aged youth, but research is sparse regarding victimization dynamics in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Person-centered approaches have demonstrated utility in understanding patterns of victimization in the USA. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to empirically identify classes of youth with unique victimization patterns in four LMIC settings using latent class analysis (LCA). METHODS: We used data on past-year exposure to nine forms of victimization reported by 3536 youth (aged 15 years) from the Young Lives (YL) study in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states), Peru, and Vietnam...
August 17, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Mehdi Damaghi, Robert Gillies
The inter- and intra-tumoral metabolic phenotypes of tumors are heterogeneous, and this is related to microenvironments that select for increased glycolysis. Increased glycolysis leads to decreased pH, and these local microenvironment effects lead to further selection. Hence, heterogeneity of phenotypes is an indirect consequence of altering microenvironments during carcinogenesis. In early stages of growth, tumors are stratified, with the most aggressive cells developing within the acidic interior of the tumor...
September 16, 2016: Cell Cycle
Lukas Perkhofer, Karolin Walter, Ivan G Costa, Maria C Romero Carrasco, Tim Eiseler, Susanne Hafner, Felicitas Genze, Martin Zenke, Wendy Bergmann, Anett Illing, Meike Hohwieler, Ralf Köhntop, Qiong Lin, Karl-Heinz Holzmann, Thomas Seufferlein, Martin Wagner, Stefan Liebau, Patrick C Hermann, Alexander Kleger, Martin Müller
Cell fate decisions and pluripotency, but also malignancy depend on networks of key transcriptional regulators. The T-box transcription factor TBX3 has been implicated in the regulation of embryonic stem cell self-renewal and cardiogenesis. We have recently discovered that forced TBX3 expression in embryonic stem cells promotes mesendoderm specification directly by activating key lineage specification factors and indirectly by enhancing paracrine NODAL signalling. Interestingly, aberrant TBX3 expression is associated with breast cancer and melanoma formation...
August 10, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Yuval Itescu, Rachel Schwarz, Shai Meiri, Panayiotis Pafilis
Tail autotomy is mainly considered an antipredator mechanism. Theory suggests that predation pressure relaxes on islands, subsequently reducing autotomy rates. Intraspecific aggression, which may also cause tail loss, probably intensifies on islands due to the higher abundance. We studied whether tail autotomy is mostly affected by predation pressure or by intraspecific competition. We further studied whether predator abundance or predator richness is more important in this context. To test our predictions, we examined multiple populations of two gecko species: Kotschy's gecko (Mediodactylus kotschyi; mainland and 41 islands) and the Mediterranean house gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus; mainland and 17 islands), and estimated their abundance together with five indices of predation...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Manar Mahmoud El-Tonsy, Hesham Mohammed Hussein, Thanaa El-Sayed Helal, Rania Ayman Tawfik, Khalid Mohamed Koriem, Hend Mohamed Hussein
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It was reported to account for about 4.7 % of chronic liver disease in Egyptian patients. The present study aimed at studying the different factors that may be implicated in the relationship of schistosomiasis mansoni with HCC in Egypt. A total of 75 Egyptian patients with primary liver tumours (HCC) were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to full history taking and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Kyle Deane, Maryse Richards, Michaela Mozley, Darrick Scott, Catherine Rice, James Garbarino
Exposure to community violence disproportionately impacts low-income, minority youth and is associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms and maladaptive adjustment. This study investigates whether posttraumatic stress mediates the relation between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms and the moderating role of family cohesion and daily family support in buffering these effects on later externalizing. Low-income, African American 7th-grade students (M age = 12.57 years; N = 254) from high-crime neighborhoods participated in a 2-year longitudinal study measuring the effects of community violence exposure...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Mahdy Ranjbar, Armin Mohi, Claudia Pföhler, Salvatore Grisanti, Martin Rudolf
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is an aggressive skin cancer entity, causing most skin cancer-related deaths. Autoimmune disorders have been described as potential paraneoplastic complications. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the possibility of a combinatory paraneoplastic affection of the retina and cochlea in patients with CM. METHODS: Sera samples from CM patients were used for indirect immunofluorescence on histological retinal and cochlear sections...
September 1, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
Aja Louise Murray, Ingrid Obsuth, Jan Zirk-Sadowski, Denis Ribeaud, Manuel Eisner
OBJECTIVE: Past research has provided some preliminary evidence that ADHD and reactive aggression have overlapping neurocognitive bases. Based on this, we tested the hypothesis that ADHD symptoms are closely coupled in developmental terms with reactive aggression, more so than with proactive aggression with which it has been postulated to be only indirectly linked. METHOD: We used latent growth curve analysis to estimate the developmental relations between ADHD symptoms and subtypes of aggressive behavior in a normative sample of 1,571 youth (761 female, 810 male) measured from ages 7 to 15...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Paul A Dennis, Nora M Dennis, Elizabeth E Van Voorhees, Patrick S Calhoun, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Involvement in wartime combat often conveys a number of deleterious outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, hostility aggression, and suicidal ideation. Less studied is the effect of engagement in wartime atrocities, including witnessing and perpetrating abusive violence. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed path analysis to examine the direct effects of involvement in wartime atrocities on hostility, aggression, depression, and suicidal ideation independent of combat exposure, as well as the indirect effects via guilt and PTSD symptom severity among 603 help-seeking male Vietnam War veterans...
August 31, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Meagan J Brem, Alexander Khaddouma, Joanna Elmquist, Autumn Rae Florimbio, Ryan C Shorey, Gregory L Stuart
Scant research examined mechanisms underlying the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and dating violence (DV) perpetration. Using a cross-sectional design with 203 college women, we examined whether distress tolerance mediated the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and DV perpetration (i.e., psychological aggression and physical assault). Path analyses results revealed indirect effects of mindfulness facets nonjudging of inner experiences and nonreactivity to inner experiences on both psychological aggression and physical assault through distress tolerance...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Yoichi Kondo, Ian D Duncan
Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), or Krabbe disease, is a devastating demyelinating disease that affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is caused by genetic deficiency in the activity of a lysosomal enzyme, galactocerebrosidase (GALC), which is necessary for the maintenance of myelin. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) including umbilical cord stem cell transplantation is the only effective therapy available to date. HSCT significantly prolongs the life span of patients with GLD when performed before disease onset, although it is not curative...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Andrea Di Cesare, Diego Fontaneto, Julia Doppelbauer, Gianluca Corno
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are increasingly appreciated to be important as micropollutants. Indirectly produced by human activities, they are released into the environment, as they are untargeted by conventional wastewater treatments. In order to understand the fate of ARGs and of other resistant forms (e.g., phenotypical adaptations) in urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), we monitored three WWTPs with different disinfection processes (chlorine, peracetic acid (PAA), and ultraviolet light (UV))...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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