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Indirect Aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794215/male-relatedness-and-familiarity-are-required-to-modulate-male-induced-harm-to-females-in-drosophila
#1
Sally Le Page, Irem Sepil, Ewan Flintham, Tommaso Pizzari, Pau Carazo, Stuart Wigby
Males compete over mating and fertilization, and often harm females in the process. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that increasing relatedness within groups of males may relax competition and discourage male harm of females as males gain indirect benefits. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster are consistent with these predictions, and have found that within-group male relatedness increases female fitness, though others have found no effects. Importantly, these studies did not fully disentangle male genetic relatedness from larval familiarity, so the extent to which modulation of harm to females is explained by male familiarity remains unclear...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789687/long-non-coding-rna-and-tumor-hypoxia-new-players-ushered-toward-an-old-arena
#2
REVIEW
Jing-Wen Shih, Hsing-Jien Kung
Hypoxia is a classic feature of the tumor microenvironment with a profound impact on cancer progression and therapeutic response. Activation of complex hypoxia pathways orchestrated by the transcription factor HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) contributes to aggressive phenotypes and metastasis in numerous cancers. Over the past few decades, exponentially growing research indicated the importance of the non-coding genome in hypoxic tumor regions. Recently, key roles of long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in hypoxia-driven cancer progression have begun to emerge...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771222/microrna-519a-3p-mediates-apoptosis-resistance-in-breast-cancer-cells-and-their-escape-from-recognition-by-natural-killer-cells
#3
Christian Breunig, Jens Pahl, Moritz Küblbeck, Matthias Miller, Daniela Antonelli, Nese Erdem, Cornelia Wirth, Rainer Will, Alexander Bott, Adelheid Cerwenka, Stefan Wiemann
Aggressive breast cancer is associated with poor patient outcome and characterized by the development of tumor cell variants that are able to escape from control of the immune system or are resistant to targeted therapies. The complex molecular mechanisms leading to immune escape and therapy resistance are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that high miR-519a-3p levels are associated with poor survival in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that miR-519a-3p confers resistance to apoptosis induced by TRAIL, FasL and granzyme B/perforin by interfering with apoptosis signaling in breast cancer cells...
August 3, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760762/sex-roles-and-adult-sex-ratios-insights-from-mammalian-biology-and-consequences-for-primate-behaviour
#4
REVIEW
Peter M Kappeler
Theoretical models and empirical studies in various taxa have identified important links between variation in sex roles and the number of adult males and females (adult sex ratio (ASR)) in a population. In this review, I examine these relationships in non-human primates. Because most existing theoretical models of the evolution of sex roles focus on the evolutionary origins of sex-biased behaviour, they offer only a general scaffold for predicting variation in sex roles among and within species. I argue that studies examining sex role variation at these more specific levels need to take social organization into account to identify meaningful levels for the measurement of ASR and to account for the fact that ASR and sex roles mutually influence each other...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758354/an-examination-of-correlates-for-adolescent-engagement-in-nonsuicidal-self-injury-suicidal-self-injury-and-substance-use
#5
Janell A Klassen, Chloe A Hamza, Shannon L Stewart
Little research has examined potential risk factors for direct versus indirect self-injury among adolescents. To address this limitation, 541 clinically referred adolescents were assessed using the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health Assessment. Logistic regression analyses revealed that older females who experienced heightened depressive symptoms and neighborhood violence were at increased risk for direct self-injury, specifically nonsuicidal and suicidal self-injury. Additionally, adolescents who experienced higher levels of caregiver distress were at greater risk of suicidal self-injury...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747532/negative-phenotypic-and-genetic-correlation-between-natal-dispersal-propensity-and-nest-defence-behaviour-in-a-wild-bird
#6
Pierre Bize, Grégory Daniel, Vincent A Viblanc, Julien G A Martin, Blandine Doligez
Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift (Apus melba), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710021/identification-of-tumor-autonomous-and-indirect-effects-of-vitamin-d-action-that-inhibit-breast-cancer-growth-and-tumor-progression
#7
REVIEW
Abhishek Aggarwal, David Feldman, Brian J Feldman
Several epidemiological studies have found that low vitamin D levels are associated with worse prognosis and poorer outcomes in patients with breast cancer (BCa), although some studies have failed to find this association. In addition, prior research has found that BCa patients with vitamin D deficiency have a more aggressive molecular phenotype and worse prognostic biomarkers. As vitamin D deficiency is common in patients diagnosed with BCa, elucidating the cause of the association between poor outcomes and vitamin D deficiency promises to have a significant impact on improving care for patients with BCa including enabling the development of novel therapeutic approaches...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679470/partner-abuse-and-its-association-with-emotional-distress-a-study-exploring-lgbti-relationships
#8
Jane L Ireland, Philip Birch, Johann Kolstee, Alison Ritchie
This study examines partner abuse in LBGTI relationships, with focus on the associations with emotional distress and protective factors. Two hundred and eighty-seven participants took part. Partner abuse (victimisation) comprised three factors; conflict orientated aggression; hostile ignorance and control of communication; and social control and possessiveness (including threats to possessions). Perpetration factors were similar. Significant differences across sexuality or gender were limited to the perpetration of abuse relating to suspicion and possessiveness, where men were more likely to report this than the other gender groups, and women were less likely to report this...
July 2, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675687/disruptive-physiology-olfaction-and-the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis
#9
John Bienenstock, Wolfgang A Kunze, Paul Forsythe
This review covers the field of olfaction and chemosensation of odorants and puts this information into the context of interactions between microbes and behaviour; the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Recent emphasis has also been placed on the concept of the holobiome which states that no single aspect of an organism should be viewed separately and thus must include examination of their associated microbial populations and their influence. While it is known that the microbiome may be involved in the modulation of animal behaviour, there has been little systematized effort to incorporate into such studies the rapidly developing knowledge of the wide range of olfactory systems...
July 4, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672216/cumulative-contextual-risk-at-birth-and-adolescent-substance-initiation-peer-mediation-tests
#10
W Alex Mason, Irina Patwardhan, Gail L Smith, Mary B Chmelka, Jukka Savolainen, Stacy-Ann A January, Jouko Miettunen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
BACKGROUND: Children who experience multiple adversities, such as prenatal exposure to drugs and poverty, early in development are at increased risk for the early initiation of alcohol and cigarette use. However, studies that examine potentially malleable processes associated with substance use initiation in the context of exposure to cumulative stressors are scant. This study examined associations between cumulative contextual risk at birth and initiation of alcohol and cigarette use in adolescence, testing childhood peer marginalization and peer aggression and behavior problems as mediating mechanisms...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666699/perioperative-pain-management-an-update-for-obstetrician-gynecologists
#11
REVIEW
Georgine Lamvu, Jessica Feranec, Emily Blanton
The opioid epidemic in the United States is unprecedented and continues to worsen. Many opioid abusers obtain their pills through legitimate prescriptions, directly or indirectly, from a medical provider. While practitioners have a responsibility to treat pain, it is now becoming clear that aggressive opioid prescription practices contribute to an epidemic of abuse. The medical community has to balance the unintended consequences of opioid misuse and abuse with the need to provide adequate pain control. Additionally, providers are being held accountable by the legal system and professional organizations for their prescribing practices...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660251/avoidant-responses-to-interpersonal-provocation-are-associated-with-increased-amygdala-and-decreased-mentalizing-network-activity
#12
Macià Buades-Rotger, Frederike Beyer, Ulrike M Krämer
When intentionally pushed or insulted, one can either flee from the provoker or retaliate. The implementation of such fight-or-flight decisions is a central aspect in the genesis and evolution of aggression episodes, yet it is usually investigated only indirectly or in nonsocial situations. In the present fMRI study, we aimed to distinguish brain regions associated with aggressive and avoidant responses to interpersonal provocation in humans. Participants (thirty-six healthy young women) could either avoid or face a highly (HP) and a lowly (LP) provoking opponent in a competitive reaction time task: the fight-or-escape (FOE) paradigm...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655520/the-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-cancer-and-immune-surveillance
#13
REVIEW
Luca Simula, Francesca Nazio, Silvia Campello
Mitochondria-shaping proteins control the dynamic equilibrium between fusion and fission of the mitochondrial network. Their balance is strictly required to regulate various processes, including the quality of mitochondria, cell metabolism, cell death, proliferation and cell migration. Alterations in these processes are frequently encountered in cancer, during both its onset and later progression, as evidence emerge connecting alterations in mitochondrial dynamics with cancer development. In recent years, novel therapeutic approaches to fight against different human tumors aim at exploiting the immune system's ability to specifically recognize tumor antigens, thus killing malignant cells in a process named immune-surveillance...
June 24, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654192/problematic-drinking-mediates-the-association-between-urgency-and-intimate-partner-aggression-during-acute-intoxication
#14
Olivia S Subramani, Dominic J Parrott, Christopher I Eckhardt
BACKGROUND: This study tested a moderated-mediational model whereby dimensions of impulsivity (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance) differentially predict perpetration of physical intimate partner aggression through problematic drinking in intoxicated and non-intoxicated heavy drinkers. METHODS: Participants were 249 heavy drinkers (148 men and 101 women) with a recent history of psychological and/or physical intimate partner aggression perpetration toward their current partner recruited from two metropolitan U...
June 27, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648816/how-light-affects-the-life-of-botrytis
#15
REVIEW
Julia Schumacher
Fungi, like other organisms, actively sense the environmental light conditions in order to drive adaptive responses, including protective mechanisms against the light-associated stresses, and to regulate development. Ecological niches are characterized by different light regimes, for instance light is absent underground, and light spectra from the sunlight are changed underwater or under the canopy of foliage due to the absorption of distinct wavelengths by bacterial, algal and plant pigments. Considering the fact that fungi have evolved to adapt to their habitats, the complexities of their 'visual' systems may vary significantly...
June 23, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646545/disruptions-in-emotion-regulation-as-a-mechanism-linking-community-violence-exposure-to-adolescent-internalizing-problems
#16
Charlotte Heleniak, Kevin M King, Kathryn C Monahan, Katie A McLaughlin
Although community violence is an established risk factor for youth aggression, less research has examined its relation with internalizing psychopathology. This study examined associations of community violence exposure with internalizing symptoms, and state and trait emotion dysregulation as mechanisms underlying these associations, in 287 adolescents aged 16-17 (45.6% male; 40.8% White). Community violence exposure was associated with internalizing symptoms, negative affect during peer evaluation, trait emotional reactivity, and infrequent problem solving...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620333/the-role-of-perceived-in-group-moral-superiority-in-reparative-intentions-and-approach-motivation
#17
Zsolt P Szabó, Noémi Z Mészáros, István Csertő
Three studies examined how members of a national group react to in-group wrongdoings. We expected that perceived in-group moral superiority would lead to unwillingness to repair the aggression. We also expected that internal-focused emotions such as group-based guilt and group-based shame would predict specific, misdeed-related reparative intentions but not general approach motivation toward the victim groups. In Study 1, facing the in-group's recent aggression, participants who believed that the Hungarians have been more moral throughout their history than members of other nations, used more exonerating cognitions, experienced less in-group critical emotions and showed less willingness to provide reparations for the members of the victim group...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603851/effortful-control-exposure-to-community-violence-and-aggressive-behavior-exploring-cross-lagged-relations-in-adolescence
#18
Concetta Esposito, Dario Bacchini, Nancy Eisenberg, Gaetana Affuso
Self-regulation processes and violent contexts play an important role in predicting adolescents' aggressive behavior; less clear is how all three constructs are linked to each other over time. The present study examined the longitudinal relations among adolescents' self-reported effortful control (EC), exposure to community violence, both as a witness and as a victim, and aggressive behavior. Participants were 768 Italian adolescents (358 males) living in a high-risk context, with a mean age at T1 of 11 years in the younger cohort and 14 years in the older cohort...
June 11, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597509/child-and-adolescent-risk-factors-that-differentially-predict-violent-versus-nonviolent-crime
#19
Carla B Kalvin, Karen L Bierman
While most research on the development of antisocial and criminal behavior has considered nonviolent and violent crime together, some evidence points to differential risk factors for these separate types of crime. The present study explored differential risk for nonviolent and violent crime by investigating the longitudinal associations between three key child risk factors (aggression, emotion dysregulation, and social isolation) and two key adolescent risk factors (parent detachment and deviant peer affiliation) predicting violent and nonviolent crime outcomes in early adulthood...
June 8, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596204/malignant-hypertension-as-a-rare-cause-of-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#20
Guramrinder Thind, Karthik Kailasam
Malignant hypertension can occasionally be associated with microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. A 38-year-old male presented with nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and oliguria for 2 weeks. He was diagnosed with hypertensive emergency with cardiac and renal dysfunction. Interestingly, further workup was diagnostic for the presence of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA): haemoglobin =12.7 g/dL, indirect bilirubin =2.0 mg/dL, haptoglobin ≤6 mg/dL, platelet count =121 000/μL and schistocytes on peripheral smear...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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