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Indirect Aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025634/catastrophic-costs-potentially-averted-by-tuberculosis-control-in-india-and-south-africa-a-modelling-study
#1
Stéphane Verguet, Carlos Riumallo-Herl, Gabriela B Gomez, Nicolas A Menzies, Rein M G J Houben, Tom Sumner, Marek Lalli, Richard G White, Joshua A Salomon, Ted Cohen, Nicola Foster, Susmita Chatterjee, Sedona Sweeney, Inés Garcia Baena, Knut Lönnroth, Diana E Weil, Anna Vassall
BACKGROUND: The economic burden on households affected by tuberculosis through costs to patients can be catastrophic. WHO's End TB Strategy recognises and aims to eliminate these potentially devastating economic effects. We assessed whether aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services might reduce catastrophic costs. METHODS: We estimated the reduction in tuberculosis-related catastrophic costs with an aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services in India and South Africa from 2016 to 2035, in line with the End TB Strategy...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971285/the-role-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-in-disruption-of-the-physiological-function-in-discrete-areas-of-the-central-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Giuseppe Bertozzi, Francesco Sessa, Giuseppe Davide Albano, Gabriele Sani, Francesca Maglietta, Mohsin H K Roshan, Giovanni Li Volti, Renato Bernardini, Roberto Avola, Cristoforo Pomara, Monica Salerno
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse is often associated with a wide spectrum of adverse effects. These drugs are frequently abused by adolescents and athletes for esthetic purposes, as well as for improvement of their endurance and performances. In this literature review, we evaluated the correlation between AAS and anxiety or aggression. Two pathways are thought to be involved in AAS-induced behavioral disorders. Direct pathway via the amygdalo-fugal pathway, which connects the central nucleus of the amygdala to the brainstem, is involved in cognitive-emotive and homeostatic processes...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941810/hostile-interpretation-training-for-individuals-with-alcohol-use-disorder-and-elevated-trait-anger-a-controlled-trial-of-a-web-based-intervention
#3
Jesse R Cougle, Berta J Summers, Nicholas P Allan, Kirsten H Dillon, Hillary L Smith, Sarah A Okey, Ashleigh M Harvey
High trait anger is associated with more severe alcohol use problems, and alcohol has been found to facilitate aggressive behavior among individuals with high trait anger. Treatments focused on a sample with alcohol use disorder with elevated anger could reduce alcohol use problems, as well as violence and aggression. We sought to examine the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for hostility (IBM-H) in a sample with high trait anger and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Fifty-eight individuals with AUD and elevated trait anger were randomly assigned to eight web-based sessions (two per week) of IBM-H or a healthy video control condition (HVC)...
September 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931157/is-nocturnal-foraging-in-a-tropical-bee-an-escape-from-interference-competition
#4
Adam R Smith, Shannon M Kitchen, Ryan M Toney, Christian Ziegler
Temporal niche partitioning may result from interference competition if animals shift their activity patterns to avoid aggressive competitors. If doing so also shifts food sources, it is difficult to distinguish the effects of interference and consumptive competition in selecting for temporal niche shift. Bees compete for pollen and nectar from flowers through both interference and consumptive competition, and some species of bees have evolved nocturnality. Here, we use tropical forest canopy towers to observe bees (the night-flying sweat bees Megalopta genalis and M...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900403/-bad-feelings-about-meeting-them-episodic-and-chronic-intergroup-emotions-associated-with-positive-and-negative-intergroup-contact-as-predictors-of-intergroup-behavior
#5
Mathias Kauff, Frank Asbrock, Ulrich Wagner, Thomas F Pettigrew, Miles Hewstone, Sarina J Schäfer, Oliver Christ
Based on two cross-sectional probability samples (Study 1: N = 1,382, Study 2: N = 1,587), we studied the interplay between positive and negative intergroup contact, different types of intergroup emotions (i.e., episodic intergroup emotions encountered during contact and more general chronic intergroup emotions), and outgroup behavior in the context of intergroup relations between non-immigrant Germans and foreigners living in Germany. In Study 1, we showed that positive and negative contact are related to specific episodic intergroup emotions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884193/neurotrophin-trk-receptors-new-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#6
Jacopo Meldolesi
In the last few years, exciting reports have emerged regarding the role of the two types of neurotrophin receptors, p75(NTR) and Trks, not only in neurons, where they were discovered, but also in non-neural cells and, especially, in numerous cancers, including breast, lung, colon-rectum, pancreas, prostate, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, myeloma, and lymphoid tumors. Traditionally, p75(NTR), activated by all neurotrophins and their precursors, is an inhibitor. In various cancers, however, activated p75(NTR) induces variable effects, from inhibition to stimulation of cell proliferation, dependent on their direct or coordinate/indirect mechanism(s) of action...
September 8, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881750/new-in-vivo-avatars-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas-dipg-from-stereotactic-biopsies-performed-at-diagnosis
#7
Alexandre Plessier, Ludivine Le Dret, Pascale Varlet, Kévin Beccaria, Joëlle Lacombe, Sébastien Mériaux, Françoise Geffroy, Laurence Fiette, Patricia Flamant, Fabrice Chrétien, Thomas Blauwblomme, Stéphanie Puget, Jacques Grill, Marie-Anne Debily, David Castel
Diffuse Instrinsic Pontine Glioma is the most aggressive form of High Grade Gliomas in children. The lack of biological material and the absence of relevant models have hampered the development of new therapeutics. Their extensive infiltration of the brainstem renders any surgical resection impossible and until recently biopsies were considered not informative enough and therefore not recommended. Thus, most models were derived from autopsy material. We aimed to develop relevant in vivo DIPG models that mimic this specific disease and its molecular diversity from tumor material obtained at diagnosis...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881049/classical-gonadoblastoma-its-relationship-to-the-dissecting-variant-and-undifferentiated-gonadal-tissue
#8
REVIEW
Lawrence M Roth, Liang Cheng
Classical gonadoblastoma occurs almost entirely in the dysgenetic gonads of an individual who has a disorder of sex development. Approximately 40% of such neoplasms are bilateral. Almost all gonadoblastomas occur in patients who have a Y chromosome or part thereof; testis specific protein Y-encoded 1 (TSPY1) is the putative gene. If a gonad in a patient who has a disorder of sex development contains germ cells with delayed maturation and also harbors the TSPY1 gene, the cells can undergo transformation to classical gonadoblastoma...
September 7, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875567/influence-of-neighboring-plants-on-the-dynamics-of-an-ant-acacia-protection-mutualism
#9
Todd M Palmer, Corinna Riginos, Rachel E Damiani, Natalya Morgan, John S Lemboi, James Lengingiro, Juan Carlos Ruiz-Guajardo, Robert M Pringle
Ant-plant protection symbioses, in which plants provide food and/or shelter for ants in exchange for protection from herbivory, are model systems for understanding the ecology of mutualism. While interactions between ants, host plants, and herbivores have been intensively studied, we know little about how plant-plant interactions influence the dynamics of these mutualisms-despite strong evidence that plants compete for resources, that hosting ants can be costly, and that host-plant provisioning to ants can therefore be constrained by resource availability...
September 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868757/depression-in-early-adolescence-contributions-from-relational-aggression-and-variation-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene
#10
Shauna C Kushner, Kathrin Herzhoff, Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn, Jennifer L Tackett
Interpersonal stress arising from relational aggression (RA)-the intentional effort to harm others via rejection and exclusion-may increase risk for depression in youth. Biological vulnerabilities related to the hormone oxytocin, which affects social behavior and stress responses, may exacerbate this risk. In a community sample of 307 youth (52% female; age range = 10-14 years), we tested whether (1) the association between RA and subsequent depressive symptoms was mediated through social problems and (2) a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) moderated this indirect association between RA and depression, where GG homozygotes are predicted to be more sensitive to the effects of social problems than A-allele carriers...
September 4, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865264/the-association-between-environmental-lead-exposure-with-aggressive-behavior-and-dimensionality-of-direct-and-indirect-aggression-during-mid-adolescence-birth-to-twenty-plus-cohort
#11
Palesa Nkomo, Nisha Naicker, Angela Mathee, Jacky Galpin, Linda M Richter, Shane A Norris
Chronic lead exposure is associated with neurological ill-health including anti-social behavior such as aggressive behavior. The main aim of this study was to examine the association between lead exposure at 13years old and dimensions of aggressive behavior during mid-adolescence. The study sample included 508 males and 578 females in mid-adolescence (age 14 to 15years) from the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort in Johannesburg, South Africa. Blood samples collected at age 13years were used to measure blood lead levels...
August 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860450/indirect-genetic-effects-a-key-component-of-the-genetic-architecture-of-behaviour
#12
Francesca Santostefano, Alastair J Wilson, Petri T Niemelä, Niels J Dingemanse
Behavioural ecology research increasingly focuses on why genetic behavioural variation can persist despite selection. Evolutionary theory predicts that directional selection leads to evolutionary change while depleting standing genetic variation. Nevertheless, evolutionary stasis may occur for traits involved in social interactions. This requires tight negative genetic correlations between direct genetic effects (DGEs) of an individual's genes on its own phenotype and the indirect genetic effects (IGEs) it has on conspecifics, as this could diminish the amount of genetic variation available to selection to act upon...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843258/cd24-and-nanog-expression-in-stem-cells-in-glioblastoma-correlation-with-response-to-chemoradiation-and-overall-survival
#13
Priyanka Soni, Sumaira Qayoom, Nuzhat Husain, Praveen Kumar, Anil Chandra, Bal Krishan Ojha, Rakesh Kumar Gupta
Background and aim: Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and aggressive brain tumors with a median survival of 12-14 months. The aim of present study was to evaluate the gene expression profile of stem cell markers Nanog and CD24 in GBM and to determine its relationship to outcome in terms of treatment response and overall survival. Material and methods: This was a retrospective as well as retrospective study which included 51 histologically confirmed cases of GBM. Expression of CD24, and Nanog was evaluated by RT-PCR...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794215/male-relatedness-and-familiarity-are-required-to-modulate-male-induced-harm-to-females-in-drosophila
#14
Sally Le Page, Irem Sepil, Ewan Flintham, Tommaso Pizzari, Pau Carazo, Stuart Wigby
Males compete over mating and fertilization, and often harm females in the process. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that increasing relatedness within groups of males may relax competition and discourage male harm of females as males gain indirect benefits. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster are consistent with these predictions, and have found that within-group male relatedness increases female fitness, though others have found no effects. Importantly, these studies did not fully disentangle male genetic relatedness from larval familiarity, so the extent to which modulation of harm to females is explained by male familiarity remains unclear...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789687/long-non-coding-rna-and-tumor-hypoxia-new-players-ushered-toward-an-old-arena
#15
REVIEW
Jing-Wen Shih, Hsing-Jien Kung
Hypoxia is a classic feature of the tumor microenvironment with a profound impact on cancer progression and therapeutic response. Activation of complex hypoxia pathways orchestrated by the transcription factor HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) contributes to aggressive phenotypes and metastasis in numerous cancers. Over the past few decades, exponentially growing research indicated the importance of the non-coding genome in hypoxic tumor regions. Recently, key roles of long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in hypoxia-driven cancer progression have begun to emerge...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771222/microrna-519a-3p-mediates-apoptosis-resistance-in-breast-cancer-cells-and-their-escape-from-recognition-by-natural-killer-cells
#16
Christian Breunig, Jens Pahl, Moritz Küblbeck, Matthias Miller, Daniela Antonelli, Nese Erdem, Cornelia Wirth, Rainer Will, Alexander Bott, Adelheid Cerwenka, Stefan Wiemann
Aggressive breast cancer is associated with poor patient outcome and characterized by the development of tumor cell variants that are able to escape from control of the immune system or are resistant to targeted therapies. The complex molecular mechanisms leading to immune escape and therapy resistance are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that high miR-519a-3p levels are associated with poor survival in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that miR-519a-3p confers resistance to apoptosis induced by TRAIL, FasL and granzyme B/perforin by interfering with apoptosis signaling in breast cancer cells...
August 3, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760762/sex-roles-and-adult-sex-ratios-insights-from-mammalian-biology-and-consequences-for-primate-behaviour
#17
REVIEW
Peter M Kappeler
Theoretical models and empirical studies in various taxa have identified important links between variation in sex roles and the number of adult males and females (adult sex ratio (ASR)) in a population. In this review, I examine these relationships in non-human primates. Because most existing theoretical models of the evolution of sex roles focus on the evolutionary origins of sex-biased behaviour, they offer only a general scaffold for predicting variation in sex roles among and within species. I argue that studies examining sex role variation at these more specific levels need to take social organization into account to identify meaningful levels for the measurement of ASR and to account for the fact that ASR and sex roles mutually influence each other...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758354/an-examination-of-correlates-for-adolescent-engagement-in-nonsuicidal-self-injury-suicidal-self-injury-and-substance-use
#18
Janell A Klassen, Chloe A Hamza, Shannon L Stewart
Little research has examined potential risk factors for direct versus indirect self-injury among adolescents. To address this limitation, 541 clinically referred adolescents were assessed using the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health Assessment. Logistic regression analyses revealed that older females who experienced heightened depressive symptoms and neighborhood violence were at increased risk for direct self-injury, specifically nonsuicidal and suicidal self-injury. Additionally, adolescents who experienced higher levels of caregiver distress were at greater risk of suicidal self-injury...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747532/negative-phenotypic-and-genetic-correlation-between-natal-dispersal-propensity-and-nest-defence-behaviour-in-a-wild-bird
#19
Pierre Bize, Grégory Daniel, Vincent A Viblanc, Julien G A Martin, Blandine Doligez
Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift (Apus melba), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710021/identification-of-tumor-autonomous-and-indirect-effects-of-vitamin-d-action-that-inhibit-breast-cancer-growth-and-tumor-progression
#20
REVIEW
Abhishek Aggarwal, David Feldman, Brian J Feldman
Several epidemiological studies have found that low vitamin D levels are associated with worse prognosis and poorer outcomes in patients with breast cancer (BCa), although some studies have failed to find this association. In addition, prior research has found that BCa patients with vitamin D deficiency have a more aggressive molecular phenotype and worse prognostic biomarkers. As vitamin D deficiency is common in patients diagnosed with BCa, elucidating the cause of the association between poor outcomes and vitamin D deficiency promises to have a significant impact on improving care for patients with BCa including enabling the development of novel therapeutic approaches...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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