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Social Aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666571/pleiotropic-contribution-of-mecom-and-avpr1a-to-aggression-and-subcortical-brain-volumes
#1
Marjolein M J van Donkelaar, Martine Hoogman, Irene Pappa, Henning Tiemeier, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Janita Bralten
Reactive and proactive subtypes of aggression have been recognized to help parse etiological heterogeneity of this complex phenotype. With a heritability of about 50%, genetic factors play a role in the development of aggressive behavior. Imaging studies implicate brain structures related to social behavior in aggression etiology, most notably the amygdala and striatum. This study aimed to gain more insight into the pathways from genetic risk factors for aggression to aggression phenotypes. To this end, we conducted genome-wide gene-based cross-trait meta-analyses of aggression with the volumes of amygdala, nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus to identify genes influencing both aggression and aggression-related brain volumes...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659142/an-uneasy-alliance-a-nesting-association-between-aggressive-ants-and-equally-fierce-social-wasps
#2
Pablo Servigne, Jérôme Orivel, Frédéric Azémar, James Carpenter, Alain Dejean, Bruno Corbara
Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659017/experiences-of-physical-and-relational-victimization-in-children-with-adhd-the-role-of-social-problems-and-aggression
#3
Julia D McQuade, Nicole L Breslend, Destin Groff
The social risk factors for physical and relational peer victimization were examined within a mixed-gender sample of children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 124 children (ages 8-12 years; 48% boys), with 47% exhibiting sub-clinical or clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms. ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom counts were assessed based on parent- and teacher-reports; parents rated children's social problems and teachers rated children's use of physical and relational aggression and experiences of physical and relational victimization...
April 16, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652937/trajectories-of-maternal-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy-and-the-first-12-months-postpartum-and-child-externalizing-and-internalizing-behavior-at-three-years
#4
Dawn Kingston, Heather Kehler, Marie-Paule Austin, Muhammad Kashif Mughal, Abdul Wajid, Lydia Vermeyden, Karen Benzies, Stephanie Brown, Scott Stuart, Rebecca Giallo
BACKGROUND: Most evidence of the association between maternal depression and children's development is limited by being cross-sectional. To date, few studies have modelled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from pregnancy through the early postpartum years and examined their association with social emotional and behavior functioning in preschool children. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify distinct groups of women defined by their trajectories of depressive symptoms across four time points from mid-pregnancy to one year postpartum; and 2) examine the associations between these trajectories and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652600/social-network-analysis-for-assessing-college-aged-adults-health-a-systematic-review
#5
Megan S Patterson, Patricia Go Odson
OBJECTIVE: Social network analysis (SNA) is a useful, emerging method for studying health. College students are especially prone to social influence when it comes to health. This review aimed to identify network variables related to college student health and determine how SNA was used in the literature. PARTICIPANTS: A systematic review of relevant literature was conducted in October 2015. METHODS: Studies employing egocentric or whole network analysis to study college student health were included...
April 13, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649467/monosodium-glutamate-ingestion-during-the-development-period-reduces-aggression-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-a-rat-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Ruriko Nishigaki, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Yuko Shimizu, Ryosuke Marumoto, Sachiyo Misumi, Yoshitomo Ueda, Akimasa Ishida, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Hideki Hida
We used an umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG), as a simple stimulant to clarify the mechanism of the formation of emotional behavior. A 60 mM MSG solution was fed to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), used as a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, from postnatal day 25 for 5 weeks kept in isolation. Emotional behaviors (anxiety and aggression) were then assessed by the open-field test, cylinder test and social interaction test. MSG ingestion during the developmental period resulted in a significant reduction in aggressive behavior but had few effects on anxiety-like behavior...
April 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627676/perceived-attachment-security-to-parents-and-peer-victimization-does-adolescent-s-aggressive-behaviour-make-a-difference
#7
Maryse Guedes, António J Santos, Olívia Ribeiro, Miguel Freitas, Kenneth H Rubin, Manuela Veríssimo
Peer victimization is one of the most prominent problems during adolescence. Research has distinguished aggressive and non-aggressive victims; however, there are still significant drawbacks in understanding the social and family functioning of these different groups of victimized adolescents. This study aimed to compare social behavior and perceived attachment security to parents of Portuguese adolescents, classified as aggressive victims, non-aggressive victims and non-victims. The sample consisted of 222 adolescents (115 boys, 107 girls) who completed the Kerns Security Scale and the Extended Class Play, to assess perceived attachment security and social behavior, respectively...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625804/-use-of-the-2d-4d-digit-ratio-as-a-biological-marker-of-specific-language-disorders
#8
Antònia Font-Jordà, Antoni Gamundí, María Cristina Nicolau Llobera, Eva Aguilar-Mediavilla
INTRODUCTION: The finding of biological markers of specific language impairment would facilitate their detection and early intervention. In this sense, the 2D:4D finger ratio is considered an indirect indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone. Previous studies have related it to linguistic competence and aggressive behaviour, and could be a candidate for a biological marker of language impairment. The aim was to compare the value of the 2D:4D ratio in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) with those of children with typical language development, as well as to establish to what extent this biological index correlates with the behaviour (linguistic, cognitive, social,...
April 3, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624119/how-different-guilt-feelings-can-affect-social-competence-development-in-childhood
#9
Franca Tani, Lucia Ponti
The authors examined how the two different dimensions of guilt feelings, needed for reparation and fear of punishment, could influence social conduct, such as prosocial and aggressive behaviors, and how they are linked to popularity in childhood. The authors hypothesized a theoretical model that they tested, fitting it with empirical data obtained from a sample of 242 Italian children 9-11 years old. Both dimensions of guilt predict prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Specifically, the feeling of guilt linked to the need for reparation tends to negatively predict aggressive behaviors, and positively predict prosocial behaviors...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623780/justification-of-wife-beating-in-adolescents-associated-beliefs-and-behaviors
#10
Bethany Devenish, Merrilyn Hooley, David Mellor
Socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents who are exposed to social norms related to violence against women are more likely to experience or be perpetrators of intimate partner violence. This study evaluated factors hypothesized to be associated with acceptance of wife beating among 240 male and female adolescents aged 10-16 years participating in a World Vision program in Armenia. Acceptance of wife beating was associated with relational victimization, perceived social support, and parent and community boundaries and expectations, but was not associated with overt victimization or aggression...
April 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623033/aggression-social-stress-and-the-immune-system-in-humans-and-animal-models
#11
REVIEW
Aki Takahashi, Meghan E Flanigan, Bruce S McEwen, Scott J Russo
Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622929/is-male-rhesus-macaque-facial-coloration-under-intrasexual-selection
#12
Megan Petersdorf, Constance Dubuc, Alexander V Georgiev, Sandra Winters, James P Higham
Exaggerated male traits can evolve under intra- or intersexual selection, but it remains less clear how often both mechanisms act together on trait evolution. While the males of many anthropoid primate species exhibit colorful signals that appear to be badges of status under intrasexual selection, the red facial coloration of male rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) appears to have evolved primarily under intersexual selection and female mate choice. Nonetheless, experiments show that red color is salient to males, raising the question of whether the signal may also be under intrasexual selection...
November 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621775/association-of-polymorphisms-of-serotonin-transporter-5httlpr-and-5-ht2c-receptor-genes-with-criminal-behavior-in-russian-criminal-offenders
#13
Valentina A Toshchakova, Yalda Bakhtiari, Alexander V Kulikov, Sergey I Gusev, Marina V Trofimova, Olga Yu Fedorenko, Ekaterina V Mikhalitskaya, Nina K Popova, Nikolay A Bokhan, Johannes E Hovens, Anton J M Loonen, Bob Wilffert, Svetlana A Ivanova
BACKGROUND: Human aggression is a heterogeneous behavior with biological, psychological, and social backgrounds. As the biological mechanisms that regulate aggression are components of both reward-seeking and adversity-fleeing behavior, these phenomena are difficult to disentangle into separate neurochemical processes. Nevertheless, evidence exists linking some forms of aggression to aberrant serotonergic neurotransmission. We determined possible associations between 6 serotonergic neurotransmission-related gene variants and severe criminal offenses...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619667/food-sharing-across-borders-first-observation-of-intercommunity-meat-sharing-by-bonobos-at-luikotale-drc
#14
Barbara Fruth, Gottfried Hohmann
Evolutionary models consider hunting and food sharing to be milestones that paved the way from primate to human societies. Because fossil evidence is scarce, hominoid primates serve as referential models to assess our common ancestors' capacity in terms of communal use of resources, food sharing, and other forms of cooperation. Whereas chimpanzees form male-male bonds exhibiting resource-defense polygyny with intolerance and aggression toward nonresidents, bonobos form male-female and female-female bonds resulting in relaxed relations with neighboring groups...
April 5, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618118/neural-mechanisms-of-the-rejection-aggression-link
#15
David S Chester, Donald R Lynam, Richard Milich, C Nathan DeWall
Social rejection is a painful event that often increases aggression. However, the neural mechanisms of this rejection-aggression link remain unclear. A potential clue may be that rejected people often recruit the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's (VLPFC) self-regulatory processes to manage the pain of rejection. Using functional MRI, we replicated previous links between rejection and activity in the brain's mentalizing network, social pain network, and VLPFC. VLPFC recruitment during rejection was associated with greater activity in the brain's reward network (i...
March 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617410/how-social-exclusion-modulates-social-information-processing-a-behavioural-dissociation-between-facial-expressions-and-gaze-direction
#16
Francesco Bossi, Marcello Gallucci, Paola Ricciardelli
Social exclusion is a painful experience that is felt as a threat to the human need to belong and can lead to increased aggressive and anti-social behaviours, and results in emotional and cognitive numbness. Excluded individuals also seem to show an automatic tuning to positivity: they tend to increase their selective attention towards social acceptance signals. Despite these effects known in the literature, the consequences of social exclusion on social information processing still need to be explored in depth...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617405/social-network-cohesion-in-school-classes-promotes-prosocial-behavior
#17
Wouter van den Bos, Eveline A Crone, Rosa Meuwese, Berna Güroğlu
Adolescence is a key period of social development at the end of which individuals are expected to take on adult social roles. The school class, as the most salient peer group, becomes the prime environment that impacts social development during adolescence. Using social network analyses, we investigated how individual and group level features are related to prosocial behavior and social capital (generalized trust). We mapped the social networks within 22 classrooms of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (N = 611), and collected data on social behaviors towards peers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616368/beneficial-effect-of-hot-spring-bathing-on-stress-levels-in-japanese-macaques
#18
Rafaela S C Takeshita, Fred B Bercovitch, Kodzue Kinoshita, Michael A Huffman
The ability of animals to survive dramatic climates depends on their physiology, morphology and behaviour, but is often influenced by the configuration of their habitat. Along with autonomic responses, thermoregulatory behaviours, including postural adjustments, social aggregation, and use of trees for shelter, help individuals maintain homeostasis across climate variations. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are the world's most northerly species of nonhuman primates and have adapted to extremely cold environments...
April 3, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610369/towards-legitimacy-of-the-solar-geoengineering-research-enterprise
#19
REVIEW
Peter C Frumhoff, Jennie C Stephens
Mounting evidence that even aggressive reductions in net emissions of greenhouse gases will be insufficient to limit global climate risks is increasing calls for atmospheric experiments to better understand the risks and implications of also deploying solar geoengineering technologies to reflect sunlight and rapidly lower surface temperatures. But solar geoengineering research itself poses significant environmental and geopolitical risks. Given limited societal awareness and public dialogue about this climate response option, conducting such experiments without meaningful societal engagement could galvanize opposition to solar geoengineering research from civil society, including the most climate vulnerable communities who are among its intended beneficiaries...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609676/turkish-version-of-the-multidimensional-measure-of-emotional-abuse-preliminary-psychometrics-in-college-students
#20
Ezgi Toplu Demirtaş, Zeynep Hatipoğlu Sümer, Christopher M Murphy
The aim of the current study was to investigate the basic psychometrics of the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA; Murphy & Hoover, 1999) in a Turkish sample. Two hundred and fifty-four college students participated and completed the Turkish version of the MMEA (MMEA-TR) along with the Physical Assault of Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised, Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory, Relationship Assessment Scale, and Social Desirability Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure of the MMEA-TR for both victimization and perpetration reports...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
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