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Social Aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904806/dominance-relationships-in-a-family-pack-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos-the-influence-of-competition-for-food-age-and-sex
#1
Simona Cafazzo, Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
BACKGROUND: Dominance is one of the most pervasive concepts in the study of wolf social behaviour but recently its validity has been questioned. For some authors, the bonds between members of wolf families are better described as parent-offspring relationships and the concept of dominance should be used just to evaluate the social dynamics of non-familial captive pack members (e.g., Mech & Cluff, 2010). However, there is a dearth of studies investigating dominance relationships and its correlates in wolf family packs...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904561/analysis-of-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-patients-treated-by-mcp841-protocol-a-regional-cancer-center-experience
#2
Akhil Kapoor, Ashok Kalwar, Narender Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Singhal, Surender Beniwal, Harvindra Singh Kumar
BACKGROUND: A dramatic improvement in the survival of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients in the last three decades has been observed. MCP 841 protocol is an old but effective tool with tolerable toxicities. The objective of this study was to estimate the relapse-free survival of ALL patients treated uniformly with MCP 841 protocol on the basis of various prognostic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design was retrospective and it was conducted in a regional cancer center of Northwest India...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900556/an-investigation-of-relational-risk-and-promotive-factors-associated-with-adolescent-female-aggression
#3
Katie L Cotter, Paul R Smokowski
Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580)...
November 29, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896644/the-effects-of-musical-training-on-child-development-a-randomized-trial-of-el-sistema-in-venezuela
#4
Xiomara Alemán, Suzanne Duryea, Nancy G Guerra, Patrick J McEwan, Rodrigo Muñoz, Marco Stampini, Ariel A Williamson
: Many studies have explored the links between music and children's outcomes; however, study designs have not been sufficiently rigorous to support causal findings. This study aims to assess the effects of a large-scale music program on children's developmental functioning in the context of high rates of exposure to violence. The paper describes the results of an experimental evaluation of Venezuela's National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras. The curriculum of the program, better known as "El Sistema," emphasizes social interactions through group instruction and group performances...
November 28, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895485/adhd-and-present-hedonism-time-perspective-as-a-potential-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-tool
#5
REVIEW
S Weissenberger, M Klicperova-Baker, P Zimbardo, K Schonova, D Akotia, J Kostal, M Goetz, J Raboch, R Ptacek
The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888967/effects-of-aggression-replacement-training-on-problem-solving-anger-and-aggressive-behaviour-among-adolescents-with-criminal-attempts-in-turkey-a-quasi-experimental-study
#6
Fadime Kaya, Sevim Buzlu
The research was conducted by a pretest and post-test conducted in a quasi-experimental design which aimed to determine effectiveness of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) on problem solving, anger and aggressive behaviour among adolescents with criminal attempts in Turkey. The study included 65 adolescents with criminal attempts (32 intervention, 33 control). There was no difference between the groups in terms of average age (16.13±1.10 in the experimental group and 16.21±0.89 in the control group). After the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly decreased Trait Anger levels (t=1...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888021/heightened-aggressive-behavior-in-mice-deficient-in-aldo-keto-reductase-1a-akr1a
#7
Takujiro Homma, Ryusuke Akihara, Satoshi Okano, Mototada Shichiri, Yasukazu Yoshida, Ken-Ichi Yamada, Satoshi Miyata, Osamu Nakajima, Junichi Fujii
Aldehyde reductase (Akr1a) is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) which may play a role in social behavior. In the current study, we performed analyses on Akr1a-deficient (Akr1a(-/-)) mice that synthesize about 10% as much AsA as wild-type mice from the viewpoint of intermale aggression. The use of the resident-intruder test revealed that the Akr1a(-/-) mice exhibited more aggressive phenotypes than wild-type control mice. Unexpectedly, however, the oral administration of additional AsA failed to reduce the aggressive behavior of Akr1a(-/-) mice, suggesting that the heightened aggression was independent of AsA biosynthesis...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888019/ifenprodil-infusion-in-agranular-insular-cortex-alters-social-behavior-and-vocalizations-in-rats-exposed-to-moderate-levels-of-ethanol-during-prenatal-development
#8
Clark W Bird, Daniel Barto, Christy M Magcalas, Carlos I Rodriguez, Tia Donaldson, Suzy Davies, Daniel D Savage, Derek A Hamilton
Moderate exposure to alcohol during development leads to subtle neurobiological and behavioral effects classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Alterations in social behaviors are a frequently observed consequence of maternal drinking, as children with FASDs display inappropriate aggressive behaviors and altered responses to social cues. Rodent models of FASDs mimic the behavioral alterations seen in humans, with rats exposed to ethanol during development displaying increased aggressive behaviors, decreased social investigation, and altered play behavior...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885946/epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-autism
#9
Malgosia A Kokoszka, Patricia E McGoldrick, Maite La Vega-Talbott, Hillary Raynes, Christina A Palmese, Steven M Wolf, Cynthia L Harden, Saadi Ghatan
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to report outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 56 consecutive patients with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS Medical records of 56 consecutive patients with autism who underwent epilepsy surgery were reviewed with regard to clinical characteristics, surgical management, postoperative seizure control, and behavioral changes. RESULTS Of the 56 patients with autism, 39 were male, 45 were severely autistic, 27 had a history of clinically significant levels of aggression and other disruptive behaviors, and 30 were considered nonverbal at baseline...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884401/the-make-love-not-war-ape-bonobos-and-late-twentieth-century-explanations-for-war-and-peace
#10
Deborah Weinstein
Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare...
November 21, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881895/state-dependent-behavior-and-alternative-behavioral-strategies-in-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-l-fry
#11
Joacim Näslund, Jörgen I Johnsson
ABSTRACT: Animals generally adjust their behavior in response to bodily state (e.g., size and energy reserves) to optimize energy intake in relation to mortality risk, weighing predation probability against the risk of starvation. Here, we investigated whether brown trout Salmo trutta adjust their behavior in relation to energetic status and body size during a major early-life selection bottleneck, when fast growth is important. Over two consecutive time periods (P1 and P2; 12 and 23 days, respectively), food availability was manipulated, using four different combinations of high (H) and low (L) rations (i...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881752/female-monkeys-use-both-the-carrot-and-the-stick-to-promote-male-participation-in-intergroup-fights
#12
T Jean Marie Arseneau-Robar, Anouk Lisa Taucher, Eliane Müller, Carel van Schaik, Redouan Bshary, Erik P Willems
Group-level cooperation often poses a social dilemma in which joint action may be difficult to achieve. Theoretical models and experimental work on humans show that social incentives, such as punishment of defectors and rewarding of cooperators, can promote cooperation in groups of unrelated individuals. Here, we demonstrate that these processes can operate in a non-human animal species, and be used to effectively promote the production of a public good. We took advantage of the fact that intergroup fights in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus) are characterized by episodes of intergroup aggression with pauses in-between...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881080/genotypic-differences-in-intruder-evoked-immediate-early-gene-activation-in-male-but-not-female-vasopressin-1b-receptor-knockout-mice
#13
Shannah K Witchey, Erica L Stevenson, Heather K Caldwell
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (Avp) modulates social behaviors via its two centrally expressed receptors, the Avp 1a receptor and the Avp 1b receptor (Avpr1b). Recent work suggests that, at least in mice, Avp signaling through Avpr1b within the CA2 region of the hippocampus is critical for normal aggressive behaviors and social recognition memory. However, this brain area is just one part of a larger neural circuit that is likely to be impacted in Avpr1b knockout (-/-) mice...
November 24, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878376/amygdala-structure-and-aggressiveness-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
Falk Mancke, Sabine C Herpertz, Dusan Hirjak, Rebekka Knies, Katja Bertsch
Aggressiveness is considered an important clinical feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and has been associated with alterations of the amygdala. However, studies that analyzed the exact location of amygdala alterations associated with aggressiveness in BPD or that systematically compared female and male BPD patients are missing. In the current study, we therefore investigated a sex-mixed sample of BPD patients and healthy volunteers and applied an automated segmentation method that allows the study of both, alterations of amygdala volume and localized amygdala shape...
November 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875379/the-decision-neuroscience-perspective-on-suicidal-behavior-evidence-and-hypotheses
#15
Alexandre Y Dombrovski, Michael N Hallquist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide attempts are usually regretted by people who survive them. Furthermore, addiction and gambling are over-represented among people who attempt or die by suicide, raising the question whether their decision-making is impaired. Advances in decision neuroscience have enabled us to investigate decision processes in suicidal people and to elucidate putative neural substrates of disadvantageous decision-making. RECENT FINDINGS: Early studies have linked attempted suicide to poor performance on gambling tasks...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875070/competitive-funding-strategies-for-the-conquer-cancer-foundation-of-asco
#16
Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Sanjay Goel, Adrien Dickerson, Jamie Von Roenn, Michael A Thompson, Anne S Tsao
PURPOSE: The Conquer Cancer Foundation (CCF), the philanthropic arm of ASCO, is responsible for funding innovative clinical research. CCF wants to broaden its donor base instead of relying predominantly on health-care companies. Our Leadership Development Program (LDP) group was tasked with identifying potential donor sources and making recommendations to increase funding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected three sources to research: the general public, crowdsourcing/social media, and ASCO members...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871995/outbred-cd1-mice-are-as-suitable-as-inbred-c57bl-6j-mice-in-performing-social-tasks
#17
Lawrence S Hsieh, John H Wen, Laura Miyares, Paul J Lombroso, Angélique Bordey
Inbred mouse strains have been used preferentially for behavioral testing over outbred counterparts, even though outbred mice reflect the genetic diversity in the human population better. Here, we compare the sociability of widely available outbred CD1 mice with the commonly used inbred C57BL/6J (C57) mice in the one-chamber social interaction test and the three-chamber sociability test. In the one-chamber task, intra-strain pairs of juvenile, non-littermate, male CD1 or C57 mice display a series of social and aggressive behaviors...
November 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870445/evaluating-social-defeat-as-a-model-for-psychopathology-in-adult-female-rodents
#18
REVIEW
Matia B Solomon
Social conflict is a predominant stressor in humans and is associated with increased risk for developing psychological illnesses including depression and anxiety. Overwhelmingly, more women suffer from these disorders, which may be due to increased stress sensitivity. Like humans, rodents experience a myriad of physiological and behavioral sequelae due to prolonged stress exposure. Although the motivation for social conflict may differ between humans and rodents, female rodents may provide an opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms by which stress confers risk for psychopathology in women...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869047/children-s-exposure-to-violent-political-conflict-stimulates-aggression-at-peers-by-increasing-emotional-distress-aggressive-script-rehearsal-and-normative-beliefs-favoring-aggression
#19
L Rowell Huesmann, Eric F Dubow, Paul Boxer, Simha F Landau, Shira Dvir Gvirsman, Khalil Shikaki
We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868163/parents-perceive-improvements-in-socio-emotional-functioning-in-adolescents-with-asd-following-social-skills-treatment
#20
Danielle N Lordo, Madison Bertolin, Eliana L Sudikoff, Cierra Keith, Barbara Braddock, David A S Kaufman
The current study examined the effectiveness of a social skills treatment (PEERS) for improving socio-emotional competencies in a sample of high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Neuropsychological and self- and parent-report measures assessing social, emotional, and behavioral functioning were administered before and after treatment. Following social skills treatment, adolescents with ASD exhibited decreased aggression, anxiety, and withdrawal, as well as improvements in emotional responsiveness, adaptability, leadership, and participation in activities of daily living, though no change was found in affect recognition abilities...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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