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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238984/race-racism-and-access-to-renal-transplantation-among-african-americans
#1
Kimberly Jacob Arriola
There are clear and compelling racial disparities in access to renal transplant, which is the therapy of choice for many patients with end stage renal disease. This paper conceptualizes the role of racism (i.e., internalized, personally-mediated, and institutionalized) in creating and perpetuating these disparities at multiple levels of the social ecology by integrating two often-cited theories in the literature. Internalized racism is manifested at the intrapersonal level when, for example, African American patients devalue their self-worth, thereby not pursuing the most aggressive treatment available...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237550/of-fish-and-mirrors-fluoxetine-disrupts-aggression-and-learning-for-social-rewards
#2
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Susan Greene, Allen Szalda-Petree
Aggressive signaling is a key social behavior of male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Successfully establishing a territory and defending it from intruders has direct fitness effects, making Betta splendens a prime model for studies examining the biological underpinnings of aggressive behavior. Current research has outlined serotonin transporter pathways as one key component for the engagement and coordination of aggressive behavior in Betta splendens. Using the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, we examined the impact of 10μmol exposures on associative learning and aggression between mirror and conspecific social reinforcers...
February 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236710/an-evaluation-of-behavioural-endpoints-the-pharmaceutical-pollutant-fluoxetine-decreases-aggression-across-multiple-contexts-in-round-goby-neogobius-melanostomus
#3
Erin S McCallum, Aneesh P H Bose, Theresa R Warriner, Sigal Balshine
Fluoxetine (Prozac™) is designed to alter human behaviour; however, because many physiological pathways are conserved across vertebrates, this drug may affect the behaviour of fish living in fluoxetine-polluted environments. Although a number of studies have used behaviour to document the sub-lethal effects of fluoxetine, the repeatability of these effects across experiments, across behavioural contexts, and over different exposure durations are rarely considered. Here, we conducted two experiments and assessed how fluoxetine exposure affected a range of fitness-related behaviours in wild round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)...
February 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235795/a-support-program-for-somali-born-parents-on-children-s-behavioral-problems
#4
Fatumo Osman, Renée Flacking, Ulla-Karin Schön, Marie Klingberg-Allvin
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a culturally tailored parenting support program (Ladnaan) for Somali-born parents and to determine its effectiveness on children's emotional and behavioral problems. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included 120 Somali-born parents with children aged 11 to 16 years. The parents reported self-perceived stress in relation to parenting practices. The intervention consisted of culturally tailored societal information combined with the parenting program Connect...
February 24, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230800/mutilating-procedures-management-practices-and-housing-conditions-that-may-affect-the-welfare-of-farm-animals-implications-for-welfare-research
#5
Rebecca E Nordquist, Franz Josef van der Staay, Frank J C M van Eerdenburg, Francisca C Velkers, Lisa Fijn, Saskia S Arndt
A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e...
February 21, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221830/from-individual-to-group-territoriality-competitive-environments-promote-the-evolution-of-sociality
#6
Markus Port, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
In many animal species individuals compete for the sole possession of a breeding territory, whereas in other species communal territories are shared among same-sex conspecifics. Under what conditions does natural selection favor the evolution of individual territoriality, and under what conditions does it favor the evolution of sociality? We develop a self-consistent game-theoretic model that allows for feedbacks between evolutionary and population dynamics. In this model, nonresident floaters can chose between three strategies: they can wait for a territory vacancy to arise, they can try to forcefully take over an already-occupied territory, or they can share a territory with an established resident...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220086/students-wearing-police-uniforms-exhibit-biased-attention-toward-individuals-wearing-hoodies
#7
Ciro Civile, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Police provide an essential public service and they often operate in difficult circumstances, requiring high-speed cognition. Recent incidents involving apparent profiling and aggressive behavior have led to accusations that the police are sometimes biased. Given that previous research has shown a link between clothing and cognition, we investigated the question of whether the police uniform itself might induce a bias in social attention. To address this question, and using a Canadian university student sample, we assessed whether wearing a police uniform biases attention toward black faces compared to white faces, and low-status individuals compared to high-status individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220025/management-of-cancer-in-the-older-age-person-an-approach-to-complex-medical-decisions
#8
Maria Vallet-Regí, Miguel Manzano, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Marta Checa López, Matti Aapro, Lodovico Balducci
The management of cancer in older aged people is becoming a common problem due to the aging of the population. There are many variables determining the complex situation that are interconnected. Some of them can be assessed, such as risk of mortality and risk of treatment complications, but many others are still unknown, such as the course of disease, the host-related factors that influence cancer aggressiveness, and the phenotype heralding risk of permanent treatment-related damage.This article presents a dynamic and personalized approach to older people with cancer based on our experience on aging, cancer, and their biological interactions...
February 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219802/marijuana-use-trajectories-among-drug-using-youth-presenting-to-an-urban-emergency-department-violence-and-social-influences
#9
Maureen A Walton, Quyen Epstein-Ngo, Patrick M Carter, Marc A Zimmerman, Frederic C Blow, Anne Buu, Jason Goldstick, Rebecca M Cunningham
AIMS: This paper examined longitudinal marijuana use trajectories among drug-using youth presenting to the ED to inform intervention development. METHODS: Given interest in substance use and violence, this study oversampled those presenting with assault injuries. Assault-injured youth (ages 14-24) endorsing past 6-month drug use (n=349), and a sex and age proportionally-sampled comparison group (n=250) endorsing drug use, completed a baseline assessment and follow-ups at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months...
February 3, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219403/the-kiva-antibullying-program-in-primary-schools-in-chile-with-and-without-the-digital-game-component-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Jorge Gaete, Daniela Valenzuela, Cristian Rojas-Barahona, Eduardo Valenzuela, Ricardo Araya, Christina Salmivalli
BACKGROUND: Bullying is a major problem worldwide and Chile is no exception. Bullying is defined as a systematic aggressive behavior against a victim who cannot defend him or herself. Victims suffer social isolation and psychological maladjustment, while bullies have a higher risk for conduct problems and substance use disorders. These problems appear to last over time. The KiVa antibullying program has been evaluated in Finland and other European countries, showing preventive effects on victimization and self-reported bullying...
February 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219026/cognitive-remediation-and-social-cognitive-training-for-violence-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
: A significant correlation exists between violence and schizophrenia (SCZ). Recent studies matched some cognitive deficits like strong risk factors for violence with interesting applications in terms of treatment. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of cognitive remediation (CR) and social cognitive training (SCT) in the management of violent and aggressive behaviors in SCZ. METHODS: The electronic databases Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect were searched in, using combinations of terms relating to SCZ, CR and violence...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217970/anxiety-symptoms-as-a-moderator-of-the-reciprocal-links-between-forms-of-aggression-and-peer-victimization-in-middle-childhood
#12
John L Cooley, Andrew L Frazer, Paula J Fite, Shaquanna Brown, Moneika DiPierro
The current short-term longitudinal study evaluated whether anxiety symptoms moderated the bidirectional associations between forms (i.e., physical and relational) of aggression and peer victimization over a 1-year period during middle childhood. Participants were 228 predominantly Caucasian children (50.4% boys; M = 8.32 years, SD = .95 years) in the second through fourth grades and their homeroom teachers. Children completed a self-report measure of anxiety symptoms at Time 1. Peer victimization was assessed using self-reports at Time 1 and approximately 1 year later (Time 2), and teachers provided ratings of children's aggressive behavior at both time points...
February 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217944/longitudinal-relations-between-children-s-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-with-reactive-and-proactive-aggression
#13
Gina Austin, Rebecca Bondü, Birgit Elsner
Aggression may be performed for different reasons, such as defending oneself (reactive aggression) or to reach egoistic aims (proactive aggression). It is a widely accepted notion that a lack of theory of mind (ToM) as a basic social competence should be linked to higher aggression, but findings on the developmental links between ToM and different functions of aggression have been inconsistent. One reason for this may be the failure of taking the bi-dimensionality of both ToM (cognitive vs. affective) and aggression (reactive vs...
February 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212816/social-science-s-curious-war-with-pop-culture-and-how-it-was-lost-the-media-violence-debate-and-the-risks-it-holds-for-social-science
#14
REVIEW
Christopher J Ferguson, Eugene Beresin
For nearly half a century, psychologists, pediatricians and psychiatrists have studied the potential impact of media violence on aggression and societal violence, particularly among youth. Despite hundreds of studies, scholars have failed to find consensus on potential effects. Nonetheless, professional organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Psychological Association have released policy statements conclusively linking violent media to societal concerns. In reaction, some scholars have accused these professional groups of distorting evidence and failing to inform the public of the inconsistent nature of studies in this field...
February 14, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212501/dream-content-of-canadian-males-from-adolescence-to-old-age-an-exploration-of-ontogenetic-patterns
#15
Allyson Dale, Alexandre Lafrenière, Joseph De Koninck
The present study was a first look at the ontogenetic pattern of dream content across the lifespan for men. The participants included 50 Canadian men in each of 5 age groups, from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85. The last age group included 31 participants, totaling 231 males. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the lifespan-developmental pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated a predominance of aggressive dream imagery in the adolescent age group in line with social-developmental research...
February 14, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212067/the-treatment-of-severe-childhood-aggression-study-12-weeks-of-extended-blinded-treatment-in-clinical-responders
#16
Robert L Findling, Lisa Townsend, Nicole V Brown, L Eugene Arnold, Kenneth D Gadow, David J Kolko, Nora K McNamara, Devin S Gary, Dana B Kaplin, Cristan A Farmer, Heidi Kipp, Craig Williams, Eric M Butter, Oscar G Bukstein, Robert Rice, Kristin Buchan-Page, Brooke S G Molina, Michael G Aman
OBJECTIVES: Previous "Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression" (TOSCA) reports demonstrated that many children with severe physical aggression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) responded well to two randomized treatments (parent training [PT]+stimulant+placebo = Basic vs. PT+stimulant+risperidone = Augmented) for 9 weeks. An important clinical question is whether these favorable outcomes are maintained over longer times. METHODS: Clinical responders to the 9-week trial (n = 103/168), defined as Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Improvement of much/very much improved plus substantial reduction in parent ratings of disruptiveness, were followed another 12 weeks (21 weeks total) while remaining on blinded treatment...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209282/intimate-partner-violence-screening-in-the-veterans-health-administration-demographic-and-military-service-characteristics
#17
Melissa E Dichter, Terri N Haywood, Anneliese E Butler, Scarlett L Bellamy, Katherine M Iverson
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) includes psychological, physical, or sexual aggression by a current or former intimate partner and is associated with a wide range of health and social impacts, especially for women. Women veterans may be at increased risk for experiencing IPV, and some Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities have initiated routine screening of female patients for past-year IPV. This study presents the first examination of clinical IPV screening responses recorded from female VHA patients across 13 facilities nationwide, and identifies associations with patient demographic and military service characteristics...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202354/non-invasive-monitoring-of-physiological-markers-in-primates
#18
REVIEW
V Behringer, T Deschner
The monitoring of endocrine markers that inform about an animal's physiological state has become an invaluable tool for studying the behavioral ecology of primates. While the collection of blood samples usually requires the animal to be caught and immobilized, non-invasively collected samples of saliva, urine, feces or hair can be obtained without any major disturbance of the subject of interest. Such samples enable repeated collection which is required for matching behavioral information over long time periods with detailed information on endocrine markers...
February 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194041/initial-development-and-validation-of-the-bullyharm-the-bullying-harassment-and-aggression-receipt-measure
#19
William J Hall
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the BullyHARM, which consists of 22 items and 6 subscales: physical bullying, verbal bullying, social/relational bullying, cyber-bullying, property bullying, and sexual bullying...
November 2016: Psychology in the Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193480/mice-increased-target-biting-behaviors-24-hours-after-co-administration-of-alcohol-and-fluoxetine
#20
Ping Chao Mamiya, Judith Matray-Devoti, Hans Fisher, George C Wagner
Increased alcohol consumption has been linked to social isolation. Individuals showed heightened aggression following social isolation. Animals treated with alcohol following social separation showed higher aggression and lower serotonin transmission. Although reduced serotonin transmission in the brain may be related to alcohol induced heightened aggression, it remains unclear whether there are specific brain regions where changes in serotonin transmission are critical for animal aggression following alcohol treatment...
February 10, 2017: Brain Research
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