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Social Aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457871/a-qtl-on-chromosome-1-modulates-inter-male-aggression-in-mice
#1
Anna Delprato, Brice Bonheur, Marie-Paule Algéo, Alba Murillo, Esha Dhawan, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams, Wim E Crusio
Aggression between male conspecifics is a complex social behavior that is likely modulated by multiple gene variants. In this study the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains (RIS) were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors associated with intermale aggression. Four hundred and fifty-seven males from 55 strains (including the parentals) were observed at an age of 13 +/- 1 week in a resident-intruder test following 10 days of isolation. Attack latency was measured directly within a 10 minute time period and the test was repeated 24 hours later...
February 19, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455081/quality-of-life-and-level-of-burden-in-primary-caregivers-of-patients-with-epilepsy-effect-of-neuropsychiatric-comorbidity
#2
Ana Maria Gutierrez-Angel, Iris Enriqueta Martinez-Juarez, Laura Elena Hernandez-Vanegas, Daniel Crail-Melendez
BACKGROUND: Few studies are focused on the quality of life (QOL) of primary caregivers and the effects of the clinical variables of epilepsy and patient psychiatric comorbidity on primary caregivers. PURPOSE: Our main objective was to describe QOL and level of burden (LB) in caregivers of people with epilepsy (PWE) at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. A secondary purpose was to determine if LB and QOL were different between caregivers of patients with neuropsychiatric comorbidity and caregivers of patients without neuropsychiatric comorbidity...
February 15, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454342/social-support-for-patients-undergoing-liver-transplantation-in-a-public-university-hospital
#3
Clerison Stelvio Garcia, Agnaldo Soares Lima, Ehideé Isabel Gómez La-Rotta, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira Boin
BACKGROUND: Several diseases may lead to the need for liver transplantation due to progressive organ damage until the onset of cirrhosis, resulting in changes in interpersonal relationships. Social Support for transplant candidates is an important variable, providing them with psychological and social well-being. This study aims to assess social support in chronic hepatic patients, waiting for liver transplantation. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 119 patients, for convenience sampling, from the liver transplant waiting list at a Brazilian University Hospital Outpatients...
February 17, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453997/effects-of-para-methoxyamphetamine-pma-on-agonistic-encounters-between-male-mice
#4
Mercedes Martín-López, Ana T Muela, María Cavas, José Francisco Navarro
Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) is a synthetic drug chemically similar to the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and often replaces MDMA in tablets that show an "ecstasy" logo. PMA displays a higher toxic potential than MDMA, but the behavioral profile of PMA has been scarcely studied in animal models. Here we evaluated the effects of PMA (2, 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) on agonist encounters between male mice using an ethopharmacological approach, the isolation-induced aggression model...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448863/mental-health-literacy-sub-clinical-personality-disorders-and-job-fit
#5
Adrian Furnham, Kelly Petropoulou
BACKGROUND: This study looked at lay theories of how people with sub-clinical personality disorders experience the world of work. AIMS: The aim was to investigate the paradox that subclinical and clinical personality disorders are seen as beneficial for success, rather than a handicap in certain jobs. METHODS: In all, 230 participants read 14 vignettes derived from Oldham and Morris's book describing DSMIII personality disorders for a popular audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447048/social-media-cyber-aggression-and-student-mental-health-on-a-university-campus
#6
Faye Mishna, Cheryl Regehr, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Joanne Daciuk, Gwendolyn Fearing, Melissa Van Wert
AIM: Information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer immense benefits for university students including enhancing engagement and connections with others and promoting self-directed and interactive learning. Perceived anonymity and the absence of social cues, however, may contribute to risk of interpersonal aggression. While extensive research examines bullying in child and adolescent educational settings, this study addresses a gap regarding post-secondary environments. METHODS: An internet-based survey was provided to 5004 university students to examine the nature, extent and consequences of cyber-aggression...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441797/animal-assisted-intervention-and-dementia-a-systematic-review
#7
Michelle L Yakimicki, Nancy E Edwards, Elizabeth Richards, Alan M Beck
This review discusses the relationship between animal-assisted interventions (AAI) and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). A systematic search was conducted within CINAHL, Web of Science CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Abstracts in Social Gerontology, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO for primary research articles. A total of 32 studies were included in the final review. Variation was noted in study designs and in study setting. Twenty-seven of 32 studies used dogs as the intervention. Agitation/aggression showed a significant decrease in nine of 15 studies...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441356/persistent-producer-scrounger-relationships-in-bats
#8
Lee Harten, Yasmin Matalon, Naama Galli, Hagit Navon, Roi Dor, Yossi Yovel
Social foraging theory suggests that group-living animals gain from persistent social bonds, which lead to increased tolerance in competitive foraging and information sharing. Bats are among the most social mammals, often living in colonies of tens to thousands of individuals for dozens of years, yet little is known about their social foraging dynamics. We observed three captive bat colonies for over a year, quantifying >13,000 social foraging interactions. We found that individuals consistently used one of two foraging strategies, either producing (collecting) food themselves or scrounging it directly from the mouth of other individuals...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436288/psychological-interventions-for-treating-neuropsychiatric-consequences-of-acquired-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#9
Daan P J Verberne, Peggy J J Spauwen, Caroline M van Heugten
Anxiety, aggression/agitation, apathy and disinhibition are common neuropsychiatric consequences of acquired brain injury (ABI); these consequences can cause functional impairment and lead to reduced social integration. This systematic review aims to provide an examination of the current evidence on psychological interventions for treating these consequences. Two reviewers selected potential relevant articles, retrieved from five literature databases; methodological quality was assessed and appraised. A total of 5207 studies were found, of which 43 were included: 21 studies for anxiety, 18 for aggression, two studies for apathy, and six for disinhibition...
February 13, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433588/ontogeny-of-behavioral-traits-in-commercial-sows
#10
K M Horback, T D Parsons
As the number of gestating sows reared in group housing increases, a better understanding of behavioral traits needed to negotiate these more complex social interactions promises to increase animal welfare and productivity. However, little is known about different behavioral strategies or coping styles in sows, and even less is understood about their ontogeny. To study the development of coping styles in adult gestating sows, 36 sows from the same sire line and same commercial maternal genetics were followed from birth through their second parity...
February 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427583/a-gut-feeling-microbiome-brain-immune-interactions-modulate-social-and-affective-behaviors
#11
REVIEW
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425751/aggression-using-a-knife-or-other-sharp-instruments-and-oral-maxillofacial-traumas-incidence-risk-factors-and-epidemiologic-trends
#12
Luzia Michelle Santos, Italo M Bernardino, Alysson Vinicius Ferreira Porto, Kevan Guilherme Nórbrega Barbosa, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Sérgio d'Avila
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to characterize the profile of victims of interpersonal physical violence (IPV) caused by a knife or other sharp instrument, identify the factors associated with maxillofacial trauma, and examine the incidence of maxillofacial trauma over time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 569 medicolegal and social records of IPV victims by knife or other sharp instruments treated at a forensic medicine and dentistry center in Brazil during a 4-year consecutive period...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421591/voluntary-exercise-increases-resilience-to-social-defeat-stress-in-syrian-hamsters
#13
Rody C Kingston, Michael Smith, Tiara Lacey, Malcolm Edwards, Janae N Best, Chris M Markham
Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects...
February 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421457/political-economy-of-hope-as-a-cultural-facet-of-biomedicalization-a-qualitative-examination-of-constraints-to-hospice-utilization-among-u-s-end-stage-cancer-patients
#14
Emily Hammad Mrig, Karen Lutfey Spencer
A growing body of social science literature is devoted to describing processes of biomedicalization. The issue of biomedicalization is especially relevant for individuals suffering from end-stage cancer and hoping that aggressive end-of-life interventions, which are riddled with uncertainty around quantity or quality of life, will produce a 'cure'. To examine hospice underutilization among end-stage cancer patients, we apply the anthropological concept 'political economy of hope,' which describes how personal and collective 'hope' is associated with the political and economic structures that produce biomedicalization processes...
January 27, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419883/trauma-rates-and-patterns-in-specific-pathogen-free-spf-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-groups
#15
Ronda C Stavisky, Jacklyn K Ramsey, Tracy Meeker, Melissa Stovall, Maria M Crane
There are some predictable patterns of trauma in captive rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social groups. Several factors have been documented to contribute to these patterns, including group formation of unrelated animals, and the establishment of dominance ranks. Here, we report on how socially induced trauma in groups of rhesus monkeys is influenced by the breeding season, numbers of matrilines per group and matriline size. We analyzed 3 years of data collected from veterinary admittance logs for four groups in our specific pathogen free (SPF) breeding colony...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415604/long-term-programing-of-psychopathology-like-behaviors-in-male-rats-by-peripubertal-stress-depends-on-individual-s-glucocorticoid-responsiveness-to-stress
#16
Sophie E Walker, Carmen Sandi
Experience of adversity early in life and dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity are risk factors often independently associated with the development of psychopathological disorders, including depression, PTSD and pathological aggression. Additional evidence suggests that in combination these factors may interact to shape the development and expression of psychopathology differentially, though little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we studied the long-term consequences of early life stress exposure on individuals with differential constitutive glucocorticoid (GR) responsiveness to repeated stressor exposure, assessing both socio-affective behaviors and brain activity in regions sensitive to pathological alterations following stress...
February 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413070/an-analysis-of-the-correlates-of-aggression-in-a-social-learning-program-for-severely-and-persistently-mentally-ill-inpatients
#17
Susan Oehler, Ashleigh Berman, Cecilia Gay, Rose Manguso, Jessica Espinoza
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the relationship between behavioral variables and aggression among severely and chronically mentally ill inpatients in a Social Learning Program (SLP) at a state psychiatric facility. METHODS: Using archival data over a 24-month period, a total of 23 severely and chronically mentally ill inpatients comprised the sample in this study. The predictor variables included length of current hospitalization; length of stay on SLP; basic activities of daily living (ADLs); instrumental ADLs; attendance in programming; participation in programming; and the number of minor, major, and intolerable infractions received...
February 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410619/implicit-and-explicit-motivational-tendencies-to-faces-varying-in-trustworthiness-and-dominance-in-men
#18
Sina Radke, Theresa Kalt, Lisa Wagels, Birgit Derntl
Motivational tendencies to happy and angry faces are well-established, e.g., in the form of aggression. Approach-avoidance reactions are not only elicited by emotional expressions, but also linked to the evaluation of stable, social characteristics of faces. Grounded in the two fundamental dimensions of face-based evaluations proposed by Oosterhof and Todorov (2008), the current study tested whether emotionally neutral faces varying in trustworthiness and dominance potentiate approach-avoidance in 50 healthy male participants...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410618/biological-clocks-and-rhythms-of-anger-and-aggression
#19
REVIEW
Suzanne Hood, Shimon Amir
The body's internal timekeeping system is an under-recognized but highly influential force in behaviors and emotions including anger and reactive aggression. Predictable cycles or rhythms in behavior are expressed on several different time scales such as circadian (circa diem, or approximately 24-h rhythms) and infradian (exceeding 24 h, such as monthly or seasonal cycles). The circadian timekeeping system underlying rhythmic behaviors in mammals is constituted by a network of clocks distributed throughout the brain and body, the activity of which synchronizes to a central pacemaker, or master clock...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409748/lower-light-intensity-reduces-larval-aggression-in-matrinx%C3%A3-brycon-amazonicus
#20
Ana Caroliny C Lopes, Marle Angélica Villacorta-Correa, Thaís B Carvalho
Brycon amazonicus shows a high frequency of aggressive behavior, which can be a limiting factor in intensive farming systems. Environmental changes can modulate the social interactions of fish and reduce aggression during the different stages of production. Groups of three larvae at 12 h after hatching (HAH) were subjected to different levels of light intensity: low (17 ± 3 lx), intermediate (204 ± 12.17 lx) and high (1,613.33 ± 499.03 lx), with eight replicates for each level. The lower light intensity reduced the frequency of aggressive interactions and locomotor activity exhibited by the animals...
January 31, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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