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Social Aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437731/children-and-adolescents-facing-a-continuous-security-threat-aggressive-behavior-and-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#1
Orit Nuttman-Shwartz
There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza...
April 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431190/higher-levels-of-submissive-behaviors-at-the-onset-of-the-pairing-process-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-are-associated-with-lower-risk-of-wounding-following-introduction
#2
Ori Pomerantz, Kate C Baker
Social housing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is considered to be the cornerstone of behavioral management programs in biomedical facilities. However, it also involves the risk of socially inflicted trauma. The ability to avoid such trauma would contribute to the animals' well-being and alleviate staff's concerns, thus paving the path for more introductions. Here, we sought to address the conflict between the need to socially house rhesus macaques and the need to bring social wounding to a minimum by identifying behaviors expressed early in social introductions, that may serve as predictors of later wounding events...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428813/perinatal-depression-in-nigeria-perspectives-of-women-family-caregivers-and-health-care-providers
#3
Ademola Adeponle, Danielle Groleau, Lola Kola, Laurence J Kirmayer, Oye Gureje
BACKGROUND: Perinatal maternal depression is common and undertreated in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Nigeria. While culture shapes the social determinants and expression of depressive symptoms, there is a dearth of research investigating these processes in African contexts. METHODS: To address this gap, we conducted in-depth interviews with 14 women with perinatal depression, 14 of their family caregivers and 11 health providers, using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview as part of a larger trial of a stepped-care intervention...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428767/social-cognitive-training-improves-emotional-processing-and-reduces-aggressive-attitudes-in-ex-combatants
#4
Sandra Trujillo, Natalia Trujillo, Jose D Lopez, Diana Gomez, Stella Valencia, Jorge Rendon, David A Pineda, Mario A Parra
Emotional processing (EP) is a complex cognitive function necessary to successfully adjust to social environments where we need to interpret and respond to cues that convey threat or reward signals. Ex-combatants have consistently shown atypical EP as well as poor social interactions. Available reintegration programs aim to facilitate the re-adaptation of ex-combatants to their communities. However, they do not incorporate actions to improve EP and to enhance cognitive-emotional regulation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an intervention focused on Social Cognitive Training (SCT), which was designed to equip ex-combatants enrolled in the Social Reintegration Route with EP and social cognition skills...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428145/prior-treadmill-exercise-promotes-resilience-to-vicarious-trauma-in-rats
#5
Camila Kochi, Hesong Liu, Safiyya Zaidi, Fatin Atrooz, Phoebe Dantoin, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychological condition, which can develop both from physically experiencing and also from witnessing traumatic events. There is evidence that physical exercise can have a positive impact on the symptoms of PTSD. Relevant to this, in our previous pre-clinical work, beneficial effects of treadmill exercise were reported on PTSD-like behaviors in a social defeat paradigm, a rat model of direct physical trauma. However, the role of exercise on vicariously acquired PTSD-like phenotype was not examined...
April 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#6
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421298/dog-rivalry-impacts-following-behavior-in-a-decision-making-task-involving-food
#7
Christy L Hoffman, Malini Suchak
Dogs learn a great deal from humans and other dogs. Previous studies of socially influenced learning between dogs have typically used a highly trained demonstrator dog who is unfamiliar to the observer. Because of this, it is unknown how dynamics between familiar dogs may influence their likelihood of learning from each other. In this study, we tested dogs living together in two-dog households on whether individual dogs' rivalry scores were associated with performance on a local enhancement task. Specifically, we wanted to know whether dog rivalry impacted whether an observer dog would approach a plate from which a demonstrator dog had eaten all available food, or whether the observer dog would approach the adjacent plate that still contained food...
April 18, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421008/understanding-rejection-between-first-and-second-grade-elementary-students-through-reasons-expressed-by-rejecters
#8
Francisco J García Bacete, Virginia E Carrero Planes, Ghislaine Marande Perrin, Gonzalo Musitu Ochoa
Objective: The aim of this research was to obtain the views of young children regarding their reasons for rejecting a peer. Method: To achieve this goal, we conducted a qualitative study in the context of theory building research using an analysis methodology based on Grounded Theory. The collected information was extracted through semi-structured individual interviews from a sample of 853 children aged 6 from 13 urban public schools in Spain. Results: The children provided 3,009 rejection nominations and 2,934 reasons for disliking the rejected peers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411473/adaptive-attunement-of-selective-covert-attention-to-evolutionary-relevant-emotional-visual-scenes
#9
Andrés Fernández-Martín, Aída Gutiérrez-García, Juan Capafons, Manuel G Calvo
We investigated selective attention to emotional scenes in peripheral vision, as a function of adaptive relevance of scene affective content for male and female observers. Pairs of emotional-neutral images appeared peripherally-with perceptual stimulus differences controlled-while viewers were fixating on a different stimulus in central vision. Early selective orienting was assessed by the probability of directing the first fixation towards either scene, and the time until first fixation. Emotional scenes selectively captured covert attention even when they were task-irrelevant, thus revealing involuntary, automatic processing...
April 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409549/elo-rating-for-tracking-rank-fluctuations-after-demographic-changes-involving-semi-free-ranging-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#10
Lauren J Wooddell Stefano Sk Kaburu Stephen J Suomi And Amanda M Dettmer
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are gregarious primates that form despotic societies characterized by frequent andintense aggression. Within long-term social groups, demographic changes may influence hierarchical stability, potentiallyresulting in conflict and violently abrupt hierarchical changes. This conflict can result in serious implications for animalwelfare, and thus, predictive tools would be invaluable to captive managers in determining social instabilities. Using themethod Elo-rating to track rank changes and dominance stability, we predicted that demographic changes to a populationof semi-free ranging rhesus macaques would result in changes in hierarchical stability...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407557/temperament-traits-in-suicidal-and-non-suicidal-mood-disorder-patients-in-taiwan
#11
Shen-Ing Liu, Yu-Hsin Huang, Ying-Hui Wu, Kuo-Yang Huang, Hui-Chun Huang, Fang-Ju Sun, Chiu-Ron Huang, Ming-Ru Sung, Yo-Ping Huang
Suicide is a major social and clinical problem in Asia. Although studies have suggested that personality traits are possible risk factors for suicide, no study has been conducted among Chinese to compare the temperament traits of suicidal and non-suicidal mood disorder patients with those of healthy controls. This study compared temperament traits of two patient groups, those with a mood disorder who have attempted suicide (n=204), and those with a mood disorder who have not attempted suicide (n=160), and compared the traits of these patients to those of healthy controls (n=178), assessed by Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory...
April 4, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406655/heterogeneity-in-externalizing-problems-at-age-3-association-with-age-15-biological-and-environmental-outcomes
#12
Kostas A Fanti, Eva Kimonis
Investigating heterogeneity in antisocial behavior early in life is essential for understanding the etiology, development, prognosis, and treatment of these problems. Data from the longitudinal National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) study of Early Child Care were used to identify homogeneous groups of young antisocial children differentiated on externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and callous-unemotional (CU) traits using latent profile analysis (LPA). We examined how identified subgroups were differentiated on adolescent social, biological, cognitive, and environmental outcomes, controlling for dispositional and contextual antecedents during the first 2 years of life...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405376/a-test-of-male-infanticide-as-a-reproductive-tactic-in-a-cichlid-fish
#13
Shagun Jindal, Aneesh P H Bose, Constance M O'Connor, Sigal Balshine
Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether new unrelated males entering the dominant position in a social group were more likely to cannibalize eggs, and whether such cannibalism would shorten the interval until the female's next spawning...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404474/does-having-a-difficult-child-lead-to-poor-maternal-mental-health
#14
Ann M Kingsbury, Alexandra Clavarino, Abdullah Mamun, Nargess Saiepour, J M Najman
OBJECTIVES: Considerable evidence suggests maternal psychopathology influences that of their offspring. The probability of a reverse causal pathway has been only rarely considered but is a concern, given around 10% of children manifest mental impairment during their early years. This study determines the extent to which child behavior problems at ages 5 and 14 years are associated with mothers' mental health at 21 years post birth. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study...
February 7, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402982/delayed-dispersal-and-immigration-in-equatorial-sakis-pithecia-aequatorialis-factors-in-the-transition-from-pair-to-group-living
#15
Amy M Porter, Mark N Grote, Lynne A Isbell, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Anthony Di Fiore
Saki monkeys (Pithecia spp.) live in pairs and small groups, sometimes with more than 1 same-sex adult. Previous studies have not been able to distinguish additional, unrelated adults from adult-sized offspring, but both can influence social relationships and mating strategies, albeit in different ways. In this study, we documented the immigration of an adult male equatorial saki (P. aequatorialis) into a group following the departure of the previous resident male. At immigration, the group contained an adult female, her 5-year-old (adult age) and 1...
April 13, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402336/lock-picks-fungal-infection-facilitates-the-intrusion-of-strangers-into-ant-colonies
#16
Enikő Csata, Natalia Timuş, Magdalena Witek, Luca Pietro Casacci, Christophe Lucas, Anne-Geneviève Bagnères, Anna Sztencel-Jabłonka, Francesca Barbero, Simona Bonelli, László Rákosy, Bálint Markó
Studies investigating host-parasite systems rarely deal with multispecies interactions, and mostly explore impacts on hosts as individuals. Much less is known about the effects at colony level, when parasitism involves host organisms that form societies. We surveyed the effect of an ectoparasitic fungus, Rickia wasmannii, on kin-discrimination abilities of its host ant, Myrmica scabrinodis, identifying potential consequences at social level and subsequent changes in colony infiltration success of other organisms...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401324/testing-a-higher-order-model-of-internalizing-and-externalizing-behavior-the-role-of-aggression-subtypes
#17
Kristin J Perry, Jamie M Ostrov
This study assessed how the forms and functions of aggression fit into a higher order model of internalizing and externalizing behavior, for children in early childhood (N = 332, M age = 47.11 months, SD = 7.32). The lower order internalizing factors were depressed affect, anxious-fearfulness, and asocial behavior (i.e., social withdrawal) and the lower order externalizing factors were deception and hyperactivity. The forms and functions of aggression were crossed to create four factors: reactive relational, reactive physical, proactive relational, and proactive physical aggression...
April 11, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399150/determinants-of-aggressive-behavior-interactive-effects-of-emotional-regulation-and-inhibitory-control
#18
I-Ju Hsieh, Yung Y Chen
Aggressive behavior can be defined as any behavior intended to hurt another person, and it is associated with many individual and social factors. This study examined the relationship between emotional regulation and inhibitory control in predicting aggressive behavior. Seventy-eight participants (40 males) completed self-report measures (Negative Mood Regulation Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire), a stop signal task, and engaged in a modified version of Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) exercise, in which the outcome was used as a measure of direct physical aggression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398259/geospatial-analysis-of-inflammatory-breast-cancer-and-associated-community-characteristics-in-the-united-states
#19
Lia Scott, Lee R Mobley, Dora Il'yasova
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer, almost always diagnosed at late stage where mortality outcomes and morbidity burdens are known to be worse. Missed by mammography screening, IBC progresses rapidly and reaches late stage by the time of diagnosis. With an unknown etiology and poor prognosis, it is crucial to evaluate the distribution of the disease in the population as well as identify area social and economic contextual risk factors that may be contributing to the observed patterns of IBC incidence...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393871/long-term-consumption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverage-during-the-growth-period-promotes-social-aggression-in-adult-mice-with-proinflammatory-responses-in-the-brain
#20
Jung-Yun Choi, Mi-Na Park, Chong-Su Kim, Young-Kwan Lee, Eun Young Choi, Woo Young Chun, Dong-Mi Shin
Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is known to be a key contributor to the obesity epidemic; however, its effects on behavioral changes are yet to be fully studied. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of SSB on social aggression in mice. Three-week-old weaned mice started to drink either a 30 w/v% sucrose solution (S30), plain water (CT), or an aspartame solution with sweetness equivalent to the sucrose solution (A30) and continued to drink until they were 11-week-old adults...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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