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Social Aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912256/-loss-of-risk-perception-to-zoonoses-and-the-figure-of-community-dog
#1
Claudio A Rojas, Carlos F Lüders, Carlos Manterola, Myriam Velazco
Dogs may cause zoonoses and damages; especially when we accept as normal some dangerous behavior, losing the perception of disease risk. The purpose of this review was to demonstrate that the presence of stray dogs as well as community dogs, are public health hazard. Through sustainable epidemiological information, we believe this measure could prevent it from spreading. Dog's aggressiveness regulates its social relationships through submission or dominance; those characteristics are difficult to be recognized by human population...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911956/social-support-violence-exposure-and-mental-health-among-young-south-african-adolescents
#2
Annette Humm, Debra Kaminer, Anneli Hardy
OBJECTIVE: Cumulative violence exposure has been associated with both internalising and externalising difficulties in youth. Therefore, it is important to identify protective factors that may ameliorate both exposure to and the impact of cumulative violence. This study aimed to identify sources of perceived social support amongst early adolescents in a low-income, high-violence community in South Africa, and to examine the association of perceived support with exposure to violence and with the severity of depression, aggression and conduct disorder symptoms...
May 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911460/personal-and-venue-characteristics-associated-with-the-practice-of-physical-and-sexual-aggression-in-brazilian-nightclubs
#3
Elizabeth C Fung, Mariana G R Santos, Zila M Sanchez, Pamela J Surkan
Violence among young adults is an increasing public health concern, especially in the context of nightlife, such as around nightclubs and bars. Nightlife is associated with alcohol, drugs, and increased violence, but little is known about personal and environmental factors related to physical aggression and sexual violence in nightclubs. This study aimed to determine personal and environmental risk factors for physical and sexual aggression in nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected among nightclub patrons through use of a portal survey at the entrances and exits of 31 nightclubs...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909294/oxytocin-receptor-activation-in-the-basolateral-complex-of-the-amygdala-enhances-discrimination-between-discrete-cues-and-promotes-configural-processing-of-cues
#4
Justine Fam, Nathan Holmes, Andrew Delaney, James Crane, R Frederick Westbrook
Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide which influences the expression of social behavior and regulates its distribution according to the social context - OT is associated with increased pro-social effects in the absence of social threat and defensive aggression when threats are present. The present experiments investigated the effects of OT beyond that of social behavior by using a discriminative Pavlovian fear conditioning protocol with rats. In Experiment 1, an OT receptor agonist (TGOT) microinjected into the basolateral amygdala facilitated the discrimination between an auditory cue that signaled shock and another auditory cue that signaled the absence of shock...
June 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908715/some-neuroanatomical-insights-to-impulsive-aggression-in-schizophrenia
#5
REVIEW
Marcel P Leclerc, Christina Regenbogen, Roy H Hamilton, Ute Habel
Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk of engaging in violence towards others, compared to both the general population and most other patient groups. We have here explored the role of cortico-limbic impairments in schizophrenia, and have considered these brain regions specifically within the framework of a popular neuroanatomical model of impulsive aggression. In line with this model, evidence in patients with aggressive schizophrenia implicated structural deficits associated with impaired decision-making, emotional control and evaluation, and social information processing, especially in the orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex...
June 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906750/naringenin-attenuates-behavioral-derangements-induced-by-social-defeat-stress-in-mice-via-inhibition-of-acetylcholinesterase-activity-oxidative-stress-and-release-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#6
Solomon Umukoro, Hassanat Adeola Kalejaye, Benneth Ben-Azu, Abayomi M Ajayi
The effects of naringenin; a dietary flavonoid, with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities on social defeat stress (SDS)-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical changes were evaluated in mice using resident-intruder paradigm. The intruder male mice were distributed into 6 groups (n = 6). Mice in group 1 (control) received vehicle (3% DMSO, i.p), group 2 (SDS-control) were also given vehicle, groups 3-5 received naringenin (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) while group 6 had ginseng (50 mg/kg, i...
June 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906478/does-nicotine-impact-tramadol-abuse-insights-from-neurochemical-and-neurobehavioral-changes-in-mice
#7
Shimaa M Azmy, Mai A Abd El Fattah, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman, Somia A Nada, Omar M E Abdel Salam, Mohammed F El-Yamany, Noha N Nassar
Nicotine and tramadol concomitant drug dependence pose increasing social, economic as well as public threats. Accordingly, the present study investigated neurochemical, neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes in the brain subsequent to the interaction of nicotine and tramadol. To this end, tramadol (20 mg/kg, i.p) and nicotine (0.25 mg/kg, i.p) were administrated to male albino mice once daily for 30 days. Consequent to microglial activation, nicotine exacerbated oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by tramadol as manifest by the step-up in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide subsequent to the enhanced levels of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases; paralleled by decreased non-protein sulfhydryls...
June 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905600/rehabilitation-for-cancer-survivors-how-we-can-reduce-the-healthcare-service-inequality-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
Sumadi Lukman Anwar, Guritno Adistyawan, Wahyu Wulaningsih, Christoph Gutenbrunner, Boya Nugraha
Cancer diagnosis often substantially affects patient's physical, psychological, and emotional status. The majority of cancer patients experience declining of energy, activity levels, social-cultural participation and relationships. In addition, cancer progression and side effects of aggressive cancer treatment often cause debilitating pain, fatigue, weakness, joint stiffness, depression, emotional instability, limited mobility, poor nutritional status, skin breakdown, bowel dysfunction, swallowing difficulty, and lymphedema leading into functional impairment and disability that can be addressed through rehabilitation care...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903270/-association-of-aggressive-behavior-with-separation-from-parents-and-social-anxiety-in-grade-four-to-six-of-rural-senior-primary-school-students-in-anhui-province-in-2014
#9
Qin Zhang, Yanqiu Meng, Lu Wu, Rongying Yao, Lianguo Fu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between separation from parents and social anxiety with aggressive behaviors, to provide scientific basis for the prevention of aggression. METHODS: Stratified random sampling was used to collect 1126 students ofthe fourth, fifth and sixth grade from three primary schools in Dangshan County and two primary schools in Guzhen County. The incomplete or incorrect questionnaires were eliminated, and 1024 questionnaires were valid; the effective rate was 90...
March 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900616/the-role-of-acceptance-of-violence-beliefs-and-social-information-processing-on-dating-violence-perpetration
#10
Liria Fernández-González, Esther Calvete, Izaskun Orue
This study's main objective was to explore whether beliefs legitimizing dating violence predict dysfunctional social information processing (SIP) when adolescents deal with ambiguous dating situations, and whether this more proximal cognitive processing acts as a mediator between acceptance of violence beliefs and dating violence perpetration. Participants were 855 high school students who completed self-report measures at three time points, with a 1-year interval between them. SIP did not act as a mediator, but the emergence of anger emotions in dating conflict situations, along with aggression-justifying beliefs, were revealed as essential in explaining dating violence...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899710/behavioral-and-metabolic-phenotype-indicate-personality-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Mingzhe Yuan, Yan Chen, Yingying Huang, Weiqun Lu
Consistency of individual differences of animal behavior and personality in reactions to various environmental stresses among their life stages could reflect basic divergences in coping style which may affect survival, social rank, and reproductive success in the wild. However, the physiological mechanisms determining personality remain poorly understood. In order to study whether behavior, metabolism and physiological stress responses relate to the personality, we employed post-stress recovery assays to separate zebrafish into two behavioral types (proactive and reactive)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898607/does-enrichment-improve-well-being-in-animals-under-human-care-a-case-study-of-two-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina
#12
Ruta Vaicekauskaite, Jennifer N Schneide, Fabienne Delfour
Harbor seals in the wild live in a stimulating environment; therefore, nonhuman-animal caretakers have increasingly been using environmental enrichment to improve the well being of seals under human care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an object-based environmental enrichment program during a four-month period on stimulating exploration and play and improving conspecific social interactions and human-animal relationships (HAR). Zoo staff conducted the environmental enrichment program as part of the animal care program...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898416/the-effect-of-parasitism-on-personality-in-a-social-insect
#13
Joe Turner, William O H Hughes
Individuals are known to differ consistently in various aspects of their behaviour in many animal species, a phenomenon that has come to be referred to as animal personalities. These individual differences are likely to have evolutionary and ecological significance, and it is therefore important to understand the precise nature of how environmental and physiological factors affect animal personalities. One factor which may affect personality is disease, but while the effects of disease on many aspects of host behaviour are well known, the effects on animal personalities have been little studied...
June 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896139/are-adolescents-engaged-in-the-problematic-use-of-social-networking-sites-more-involved-in-peer-aggression-and-victimization
#14
Belén Martínez-Ferrer, David Moreno, Gonzalo Musitu
The problematic use of social networking sites is becoming a major public health concern. Previous research has found that adolescents who engage in a problematic use of social networking sites are likely to show maladjustment problems. However, little is known about its links with peer aggression and victimization. The main goal of this study was to analyze the relationship between problematic use of online social networking sites, peer aggression -overt vs. relational and reactive vs. instrumental-, and peer victimization -overt physical and verbal, and relational-, taking into account gender and age (in early and mid-adolescence)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892437/nest-site-competition-and-killing-by-invasive-parakeets-cause-the-decline-of-a-threatened-bat-population
#15
Dailos Hernández-Brito, Martina Carrete, Carlos Ibáñez, Javier Juste, José L Tella
The identification of effects of invasive species is challenging owing to their multifaceted impacts on native biota. Negative impacts are most often reflected in individual fitness rather than in population dynamics of native species and are less expected in low-biodiversity habitats, such as urban environments. We report the long-term effects of invasive rose-ringed parakeets on the largest known population of a threatened bat species, the greater noctule, located in an urban park. Both species share preferences for the same tree cavities for breeding...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889003/kinship-and-intimate-partner-violence-against-married-women-in-ghana-a-qualitative-exploration
#16
Alice Pearl Sedziafa, Eric Y Tenkorang, Adobea Y Owusu
In African societies, kinship ties determine how women are socialized, their access to power and wealth, as well as custody of children, often considered important factors in married women's experience of intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet studies that examine how kinship norms influence IPV are scant. Using in-depth interviews collected from women identifying with both matrilineal and patrilineal descent systems, we explored differences in Ghanaian women's experiences of IPV in both kin groups. Results show that while IPV occurs across matrilineal and patrilineal societies, all women in patrilineal societies narrated continuous pattern of emotional, physical, and sexual assault, and their retaliation to any type of violence almost always culminated in more experience of violent attacks and abandonment...
July 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888445/personalities-influence-spatial-responses-to-environmental-fluctuations-in-wild-fish
#17
David Villegas-Ríos, Denis Réale, Carla Freitas, Even Moland, Esben M Olsen
1.Although growing evidence supports the idea that animal personality can explain plasticity in response to changes in the social environment, it remains to be tested whether it can explain spatial responses of individuals in the face of natural environmental fluctuations. This is a major challenge in ecology and evolution as spatial dynamics link individual- and population-level processes. 2.In this study we investigated the potential of individual personalities to predict differences in fish behaviour in the wild...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888234/a-systematic-review-of-the-reliability-and-validity-of-behavioural-tests-used-to-assess-behavioural-characteristics-important-in-working-dogs
#18
Karen Brady, Nina Cracknell, Helen Zulch, Daniel Simon Mills
Background: Working dogs are selected based on predictions from tests that they will be able to perform specific tasks in often challenging environments. However, withdrawal from service in working dogs is still a big problem, bringing into question the reliability of the selection tests used to make these predictions. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken aimed at bringing together available information on the reliability and predictive validity of the assessment of behavioural characteristics used with working dogs to establish the quality of selection tests currently available for use to predict success in working dogs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887618/social-network-dynamics-precede-a-mass-eviction-in-group-living-rhesus-macaques
#19
Sam M Larson, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Michael L Platt, Lauren J N Brent
Network dynamics can reveal information about the adaptive function of social behaviour and the extent to which social relationships can flexibly respond to extrinsic pressures. Changes in social networks occur following changes to the social and physical environment. By contrast, we have limited understanding of whether changes in social networks precede major group events. Permanent evictions can be important determinants of gene flow and population structure and are a clear example of an event that might be preceded by social network dynamics...
February 2018: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885343/human-social-neuroendocrinology-review-of-the-rapid-effects-of-testosterone
#20
REVIEW
Shawn N Geniole, Justin M Carré
It is well documented that testosterone concentrations change rapidly within reproductively relevant contexts (e.g., competition, mate-seeking). It has been argued that such rapid changes in testosterone may serve to adaptively fine-tune ongoing and/or future social behaviour according to one's social environment. In this paper, we review human correlational and experimental evidence suggesting that testosterone fluctuates rapidly in response to competition and mate-seeking cues, and that such acute changes may serve to modulate ongoing and/or future social behaviours (e...
June 6, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
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