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neuron direct reprogramming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191764/neural-progenitor-like-cells-induced-from-human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-regulate-myelination-of-schwann-cells-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#1
Qunzhou Zhang, Phuong Nguyen, Qilin Xu, Wonse Park, Sumin Lee, Akihiro Furuhashi, Anh D Le
Regeneration of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical challenge. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as potential candidates for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that human gingiva-derived MSCs (GMSCs) could be directly induced into multipotent NPCs (iNPCs) under minimally manipulated conditions without the introduction of exogenous genes. Using a crush-injury model of rat sciatic nerve, we demonstrate that GMSCs transplanted to the injury site could differentiate into neuronal cells, whereas iNPCs could differentiate into both neuronal and Schwann cells...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186702/direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-into-schwann-cells-that-facilitate-regeneration-of-injured-peripheral-nerve-in-vivo
#2
Yoshihiro Sowa, Tsunao Kishida, Koichi Tomita, Kenta Yamamoto, Toshiaki Numajiri, Osam Mazda
Schwann cells (SCs) play pivotal roles in the maintenance and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Although transplantation of SCs enhances repair of experimentally damaged peripheral and central nerve tissues, it is difficult to prepare a sufficient number of functional SCs for transplantation therapy without causing adverse events for the donor. Here, we generated functional SCs by somatic cell reprogramming procedures and demonstrated their capability to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. Normal human fibroblasts were phenotypically converted into SCs by transducing SOX10 and Krox20 genes followed by culturing for 10 days resulting in approximately 43% directly converted Schwann cells (dSCs)...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145631/generation-of-integration-free-induced-neurons-using-graphene-oxide-polyethylenimine
#3
Soonbong Baek, Jaesur Oh, Juhyun Song, Hwan Choi, Junsang Yoo, Gui-Yeon Park, Jin Han, Yujung Chang, Hanseul Park, Hongwon Kim, Ssang-Goo Cho, Byung-Soo Kim, Jongpil Kim
Direct conversion of somatic cells into induced neurons (iNs) without inducing pluripotency has great therapeutic potential for treating central nervous system diseases. Reprogramming of somatic cells to iNs requires the introduction of several factors that drive cell-fate conversion, and viruses are commonly used to deliver these factors into somatic cells. However, novel gene-delivery systems that do not integrate transgenes into the genome are required to generate iNs for safe human clinical applications...
February 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099929/modeling-the-phenotype-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy-by-the-direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-to-motor-neurons
#4
Qi-Jie Zhang, Jin-Jing Li, Xiang Lin, Ying-Qian Lu, Xin-Xin Guo, En-Lin Dong, Miao Zhao, Jin He, Ning Wang, Wan-Jin Chen
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lethal autosomal recessive neurological disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. In recent years, the development of cellular reprogramming technology has provided an alternative and effective method for obtaining patient-specific neurons in vitro. In the present study, we applied this technology to the field of SMA to acquire patient-specific induced motor neurons that were directly converted from fibroblasts via the forced expression of 8 defined transcription factors...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981499/direct-conversion-of-somatic-cells-into-induced-neurons
#5
REVIEW
Na An, Huiming Xu, Wei-Qiang Gao, Hao Yang
The progressive loss and degeneration of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), as a result of traumas or diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, stroke, and traumatic injury to the brain and spinal cord, can usually have devastating effects on quality of life. The current strategies available for treatments are described including drug delivery, surgery, electrical stimulation, and cell-based tissue engineering approaches. However, apart from cell-based therapy, other attempts are limited in improving clinical outcomes...
December 16, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979736/the-expanding-horizon-of-micrornas-in-cellular-reprogramming
#6
REVIEW
Yogita K Adlakha, Pankaj Seth
Research over the last few years in cellular reprogramming has enlightened the magical potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) in changing the cell fate from somatic to pluripotent. Recent investigations on exploring the role(s) of miRNAs in somatic cell reprogramming revealed that they target a wide range of molecules and refine their protein output. This leads to fine tuning of distinct cellular processes including cell cycle, signalling pathways, transcriptional activation/silencing and epigenetic modelling. The concerted actions of miRNA on different pathways simultaneously strengthen the transition from a differentiated to de-differentiated state...
December 12, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943183/generation-of-spinal-motor-neurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
David P Santos, Evangelos Kiskinis
Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by their unique ability to self-renew indefinitely, as well as to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) share these salient characteristics with ESCs and can easily be generated from any given individual by reprogramming somatic cell types such as fibroblasts or blood cells. The spinal motor neuron (MN) is a specialized neuronal subtype that synapses with muscle to control movement. Here, we present a method to generate functional, postmitotic, spinal motor neurons through the directed differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs by the use of small molecules...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917895/small-molecules-increase-direct-neural-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts
#8
Ulrich Pfisterer, Fredrik Ek, Stefan Lang, Shamit Soneji, Roger Olsson, Malin Parmar
The generation of human induced neurons (hiNs) via exogenous delivery of neural transcription factors represents a novel technique to obtain disease and patient specific neurons. These cells have the potential to be used for disease modeling, diagnostics and drug screening, and also to be further developed for brain repair. In the present study, we utilized hiNs to develop an unbiased screening assay for small molecules that increase the conversion efficiency. Using this assay, we screened 307 compounds from five annotated libraries and identified six compounds that were very potent in potentiating the reprogramming process...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857203/rapid-and-efficient-crispr-cas9-gene-inactivation-in-human-neurons-during-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-differentiation-and-direct-reprogramming
#9
Alicia Rubio, Mirko Luoni, Serena G Giannelli, Isabella Radice, Angelo Iannielli, Cinzia Cancellieri, Claudia Di Berardino, Giulia Regalia, Giovanna Lazzari, Andrea Menegon, Stefano Taverna, Vania Broccoli
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a rapid and customizable tool for gene editing in mammalian cells. In particular, this approach has widely opened new opportunities for genetic studies in neurological disease. Human neurons can be differentiated in vitro from hPSC (human Pluripotent Stem Cells), hNPCs (human Neural Precursor Cells) or even directly reprogrammed from fibroblasts. Here, we described a new platform which enables, rapid and efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome targeting simultaneously with three different paradigms for in vitro generation of neurons...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822179/plasmid-based-generation-of-induced-neural-stem-cells-from-adult-human-fibroblasts
#10
Philipp Capetian, Luis Azmitia, Martje G Pauly, Victor Krajka, Felix Stengel, Eva-Maria Bernhardi, Mariana Klett, Britta Meier, Philip Seibler, Nancy Stanslowsky, Andreas Moser, Andreas Knopp, Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach, Guido Nikkhah, Florian Wegner, Máté Döbrössy, Christine Klein
Direct reprogramming from somatic to neural cell types has become an alternative to induced pluripotent stem cells. Most protocols employ viral expression systems, posing the risk of random genomic integration. Recent developments led to plasmid-based protocols, lowering this risk. However, these protocols either relied on continuous presence of a variety of small molecules or were only able to reprogram murine cells. We therefore established a reprogramming protocol based on vectors containing the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-derived oriP/EBNA1 as well as the defined expression factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, L-myc, Lin28, and a small hairpin directed against p53...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769915/clk1-deficiency-promotes-neuroinflammation-and-subsequent-dopaminergic-cell-death-through-regulation-of-microglial-metabolic-reprogramming
#11
Ruinan Gu, Fali Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaojun Han, Jay Liu, Zhaoxiang Ren, Yi Zhu, John L Waddington, Long Tai Zheng, Xuechu Zhen
Clock (Clk)1/COQ7 is a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or UQ). Here, we investigate the role of Clk1 in neuroinflammation and consequentially dopaminergic (DA) neuron survival. Reduced expression of Clk1 in microglia enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response and promoted aerobic glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis abolished Clk1 deficiency-induced hypersensitivity to the inflammatory stimulation. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that mTOR/HIF-1α and ROS/HIF-1α signaling pathways were involved in Clk1 deficiency-induced aerobic glycolysis...
February 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762639/stem-cells-for-modeling-and-therapy-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Qingxi Zhang, Wanling Chen, Sheng Tan, Tongxiang Lin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by a low level of dopamine being expressing in the striatum and a deterioration of dopaminergic neurons (DAn) in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Generation of PD-derived DAn, including differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, human neural stem cells, human-induced pluripotent stem cells, and direct reprogramming, provides an ideal tool to model PD, creating the possibility of mimicking key essential pathological processes and charactering single-cell changes in vitro...
January 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716287/modeling-neurological-diseases-with-induced-pluripotent-cells-reprogrammed-from-immortalized-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines
#13
Koki Fujimori, Toshiki Tezuka, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Mitsui, Koichiro Doi, Jun Yoshimura, Hirobumi Tada, Takuya Matsumoto, Miho Isoda, Ryota Hashimoto, Nubutaka Hattori, Takuya Takahashi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) facilitate understanding of the etiology of diseases, discovery of new drugs and development of novel therapeutic interventions. A frequently used starting source of cells for generating iPSCs has been dermal fibroblasts (DFs) isolated from skin biopsies. However, there are also numerous repositories containing lymphoblastoid B-cell lines (LCLs) generated from a variety of patients. To date, this rich bioresource of LCLs has been underused for generating iPSCs, and its use would greatly expand the range of targeted diseases that could be studied by using patient-specific iPSCs...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688759/oligodendrocytes-contribute-to-motor-neuron-death-in-als-via-sod1-dependent-mechanism
#14
Laura Ferraiuolo, Kathrin Meyer, Thomas W Sherwood, Jonathan Vick, Shibi Likhite, Ashley Frakes, Carlos J Miranda, Lyndsey Braun, Paul R Heath, Ricardo Pineda, Christine E Beattie, Pamela J Shaw, Candice C Askwith, Dana McTigue, Brian K Kaspar
Oligodendrocytes have recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we show that, in vitro, mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mouse oligodendrocytes induce WT motor neuron (MN) hyperexcitability and death. Moreover, we efficiently derived human oligodendrocytes from a large number of controls and patients with sporadic and familial ALS, using two different reprogramming methods. All ALS oligodendrocyte lines induced MN death through conditioned medium (CM) and in coculture...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660263/microrna-mediated-reprogramming-of-somatic-cells-into-neural-stem-cells-or-neurons
#15
REVIEW
Hao Yang, Lingling Zhang, Jing An, Qian Zhang, Cuicui Liu, Baorong He, Ding-Jun Hao
Cellular reprogramming is a promising strategy to generate neural stem cells (NSCs) or desired subtype-specific neurons for cell-based therapeutic intervention. By far, the intricate cell event like reprogramming of non-neural cells to desired cell types can be achieved by forced expression of lineage-related transcription factors (TFs), nuclear transfer, a defined set of factors, and via non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs), as well as other precisely defined conditions. In addition, scientists have been trying to develop better approaches for reprogramming, either by using distinct combinations of a set of small molecules and certain TFs or delivery of appropriate small molecules and miRNAs...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650112/induced-neural-stem-cells-modulate-microglia-activation-states-via-cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling
#16
Mou Gao, Qin Dong, Hui Yao, Yan Zhang, Yang Yang, Yuanyuan Dang, Hongtian Zhang, Zhijun Yang, Minhui Xu, Ruxiang Xu
We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) directly reprogrammed from mouse embryonic fibroblasts can expand and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Whether iNSCs have immunoregulatory properties in addition to facilitating cell replacement remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of iNSCs on the activation states of microglia and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects. Using a mouse model of closed head injury (CHI), we observed that iNSC grafts decreased the levels of ED1(+)/Iba1(+) and TNF-α(+)/Iba1(+) microglia but increased the levels of IGF1(+)/Iba1(+) microglia in the injured cortex...
January 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604215/neural-progenitor-like-cells-induced-from-human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-regulate-myelination-of-schwann-cells-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#17
Qunzhou Zhang, Phuong Nguyen, Qilin Xu, Wonse Park, Sumin Lee, Akihiro Furuhashi, Anh D Le
: : Regeneration of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical challenge. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as potential candidates for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that human gingiva-derived MSCs (GMSCs) could be directly induced into multipotent NPCs (iNPCs) under minimally manipulated conditions without the introduction of exogenous genes. Using a crush-injury model of rat sciatic nerve, we demonstrate that GMSCs transplanted to the injury site could differentiate into neuronal cells, whereas iNPCs could differentiate into both neuronal and Schwann cells...
September 7, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589383/progress-and-challenges-of-cell-replacement-therapy-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-based-on-direct-neural-reprogramming
#18
Ying Chen, Jiali Pu, Baorong Zhang
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by protein aggregation and progressive degeneration of neurons, causing severe functional deficiency in cognition, behavior, and movement. Until now, there has been no effective treatment available in the clinic. Considering the selective loss of specific neurons in the human brain in the pathogenesis of these diseases, generating functional neurons in vitro or in vivo to replace the lost neurons represents a novel strategy to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have good potential for cell replacement therapy...
December 2016: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569063/expandable-and-rapidly-differentiating-human-induced-neural-stem-cell-lines-for-multiple-tissue-engineering-applications
#19
Dana M Cairns, Karolina Chwalek, Yvonne E Moore, Matt R Kelley, Rosalyn D Abbott, Stephen Moss, David L Kaplan
Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC) lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539906/brain-repair-and-reprogramming-the-route-to-clinical-translation
#20
S Grealish, J Drouin-Ouellet, M Parmar
The adult brain has a very limited capacity for generation of new neurons, and neurogenesis only takes place in restricted regions. Some evidence for neurogenesis after injury has been reported, but few, if any, neurons are replaced after brain injury or degeneration, and the permanent loss of neurons leads to long-term disability and loss of brain function. For decades, researchers have been developing cell transplantation using exogenous cell sources for brain repair, and this method has now been shown to successfully restore lost function in experimental and clinical trials...
September 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
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