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Guanfeng Xu, Jie Zhang, Hao Lyu, Qisheng Song, Qili Feng, Hui Xiang, Sichun Zheng
BACKGROUND: Accurate regulation of tissue- and stage-specific expression of genes is prerequisite for normal development in organisms. DNA methylation plays an important role in modulating gene expression in mammals and plants. However, there is no direct evidence showing how DNA methylation regulates gene transcription in insects. RESULTS: During the development of Bombyx mori wing, the expression level of DNA methyltransferase 1 (BmDnmt1) gradually declined and became stationary at pupal stage, resulting in a lower methylation rate of the intragenic promoter of the mid-pupal wing-specific gene BmCHSA-2b, an epidermal chitin synthase controlling mid-pupal wing development in B...
June 14, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Jason X Cheng, Li Chen, Yuan Li, Adam Cloe, Ming Yue, Jiangbo Wei, Kenneth A Watanabe, Jamile M Shammo, John Anastasi, Qingxi J Shen, Richard A Larson, Chuan He, Michelle M Le Beau, James W Vardiman
In the originally published version of this Article, the GAPDH loading control blot in Fig. 1a was inadvertently replaced with a duplicate of the DNMT2 blot in the same panel during assembly of the figure. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
June 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Radoslav Janostiak, Monika Vyas, Ali Fuat Cicek, Narendra Wajapeyee, Malini Harigopal
KIT Proto-Oncogene Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (KIT) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase which plays an important role in regulation of cell proliferation, survival and migration. Interestingly, the role of c-KIT in malignant transformation seems to be highly tissue-specific and it can act either as an oncogene or tumor suppressor gene. Here we analyzed the expression of c-KIT in normal breast tissues and tissues from different stages encompassing major steps of breast tumor development. Our study showed, that the c-KIT protein expression is gradually lost during the process of breast tissue transformation...
May 28, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Sija Landman, Marjan Cruijsen, Paulo C M Urbano, Gerwin Huls, Piet E J van Erp, Esther van Rijssen, Irma Joosten, Hans J P M Koenen
Regulatory T cells (Treg) can show plasticity whereby FOXP3 expression, the master transcription factor for Treg suppressor function, is lost and proinflammatory cytokines are produced. Optimal FOXP3 expression strongly depends on hypomethylation of the FOXP3 gene. 5-Azacytidine (Aza) and its derivative 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) are DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) that are therapeutically used in hematological malignancies, which might be an attractive strategy to promote Treg stability. Previous in vitro research primarily focused on Treg induction by DAC from naïve conventional CD4+ T cells (Tconv)...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Oleg Denisenko, Daniel Mar, Matthew Trawczynski, Karol Bomsztyk
Dysregulation of gene expression is a hallmark of aging. We examined epigenetic mechanisms that mediate aberrant expression of laminin genes in aging rat kidneys. In old animals, no alterations were found in the levels of abundant laminin mRNAs, whereas Lama3, b3, and c2 transcripts were increased compared to young animals. Lamc2 showed the strongest changes at the mRNA and protein levels. Lamc2 upregulation was transcriptional, as indicated by the elevated RNA polymerase II density at the gene. Furthermore, aging is associated with the loss of H3K27m3 and 5mC silencing modifications at the Lamc2 gene...
May 29, 2018: Aging
Xiaoli Ren, Huatao Li, Xianyi Song, Yuhong Wu, Yun Liu
Background: Canine mammary gland tumors (CMGTs) are the most common, spontaneous types of neoplasias in female dogs. Aberrant DAPK1 and MGMT methylation associated with tumor formation and development in various cancers. 5-Azacytidine is a known specific demethylation drug that covalently binds to DNA methyltransferase. However, the methylation of the DAPK1 and MGMT is unknown with respect to CMGTs. Therefore, we sought to demonstrate the effects of 5-azacytidine on the proliferation of CMGTs cell, and elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms of action in these cancerous cells...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Dajiang Li, Wenmin Fu, Sankar Swaminathan
Late gene transcription in herpesviruses is dependent on viral DNA replication in cis but the mechanistic basis for this linkage remains unknown. DNA replication results in demethylated DNA, topological changes, removal of proteins and recruitment of proteins to promoters. One or more of these effects of DNA replication may facilitate late gene transcription. Using 5-azacytidine to promote demethylation of DNA, we demonstrate that late gene transcription cannot be rescued by DNA demethylation. Late gene transcription precedes significant increases in DNA copy number, indicating that increased template numbers also do not contribute to the linkage between replication and late gene transcription...
May 29, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Lucie Jiraskova, Lukas Cerveny, Sara Karbanova, Zuzana Ptackova, Frantisek Staud
Equilibrative ( SLC29A) and concentrative ( SLC28A) nucleoside transporters contribute to proper placental development and mediate uptake of nucleosides/nucleoside-derived drugs. We analyzed placental expression of SLC28A mRNA during gestation. Moreover, we studied in choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells whether SLC29A and SLC28A mRNA levels can be modulated by activity of adenylyl cyclase, retinoic acid receptor activation, CpG islands methylation, or histone acetylation, using forskolin, all- trans-retinoic acid, and 5-azacytidine, and sodium butyrate/sodium valproate, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Clara M Castillejo Becerra, Anna M Mattson, David H H Molstad, Ian M Lorang, Jennifer J Westendorf, Elizabeth W Bradley
The protein phosphatase Phlpp1 is an essential enzyme for proper chondrocyte function. Altered Phlpp1 levels are associated with cancer and degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis. While much is known about the post-transcriptional mechanisms controlling Phlpp1 levels, transcriptional regulation of the Phlpp1 gene locus is underexplored. We previously showed that CpG methylation of the PHLPP1 promoter is lower in osteoarthritic cartilage than in normal cartilage, and indirectly correlates with gene expression...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ziye Li, Lin Yang, Xiaojun Liu, Ziyuan Nie, Jianmin Luo
The long noncoding RNA (lnc) maternally expressed 3 (MEG3) is downregulated in many types of cancers. However, the relationship between lncRNA MEG3, microRNA-21 (miR-21) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) blast crisis is unknown. This study examined bone marrow samples from 40 CML patients and 10 healthy donors. Proliferation and apoptosis assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), bisulfite sequencing PCR, Western blotting, luciferase assay, RNA pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Luc Gailhouste, Lee Chuen Liew, Ken Yasukawa, Izuho Hatada, Yasuhito Tanaka, Hitoshi Nakagama, Takahiro Ochiya
Primary liver tumors are mainly represented by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most aggressive and resistant forms of cancer. Liver tumorigenesis is characterized by an accumulation of epigenetic abnormalities, leading to gene extinction and loss of hepatocyte differentiation. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of converting liver cancer cells toward a less aggressive and differentiated phenotype using a process called epigenetic reconditioning. Here, we showed that an epigenetic regimen with non-cytotoxic doses of the demethylating compound 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) promoted an anti-cancer response by inhibiting HCC cell tumorigenicity...
April 26, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Xin Sun, Jacqueline Johnson, Justin C St John
Replication of mitochondrial DNA is strictly regulated during differentiation and development allowing each cell type to acquire its required mtDNA copy number to meet its specific needs for energy. Undifferentiated cells establish the mtDNA set point, which provides low numbers of mtDNA copy but sufficient template for replication once cells commit to specific lineages. However, cancer cells, such as those from the human glioblastoma multiforme cell line, HSR-GBM1, cannot complete differentiation as they fail to enforce the mtDNA set point and are trapped in a 'pseudo-differentiated' state...
May 2, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Marta Cabezón, Joan Bargay, Blanca Xicoy, Olga García, Josep Borrás, Mar Tormo, Sílvia Marcé, Carme Pedro, David Valcárcel, Maria-José Jiménez, Ramón Guàrdia, Laura Palomo, Salut Brunet, Ferran Vall-Llovera, Antoni Garcia, Evarist Feliu, Lurdes Zamora
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are stem cell disorders caused by various gene abnormalities. We performed targeted deep sequencing in 39 patients with high-risk MDS and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) at diagnosis and follow-up (response and/or relapse), with the aim to define their mutational status, to establish if specific mutations are biomarkers of response to 5-azacytidine (AZA) and/or may have impact on survival. Overall, 95% of patients harbored at least one mutation. TP53, DNMT3A and SRSF2 were the most frequently altered genes...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
Fangjie Dai, Peizhao Du, Yaowei Chang, Endong Ji, Yunjia Xu, Chunyan Wei, Jiming Li
BACKGROUND Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are pluripotent stem cells with potent self-renewal and differentiation ability that are widely used in transplantation of cell therapy. But the mechanism on microRNA (miRNA) regulating stem cell differentiation is complicated and unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether miR-199b-5p is involved in differentiation of cardiomyocyte-like cells and identify potential signal pathways in BMSCs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mouse BMSCs were treated with 5-azacytidine and transfected by miR-199b-5p mimic and inhibitor, respectively...
May 1, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Nikolaos Spetsieris, Panagiotis Diamantopoulos, Konstantinos Zervakis, Nefeli Giannakopoulou, Niki Rougala, Georgios Garefalakis, Vasiliki Skarlatou, Nora-Athina Viniou
RATIONALE: The hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine has been approved in Europe for patients with intermediate 2 and high (i.e., higher) risk myelodysplastic syndrome according to the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS). A total of 91% of all first responses in higher risk patients occur within 6 cycles of treatment; however, data regarding the time to first response in clinical trials with lower risk patients are not available. PATIENT CONCERNS: Our case describes the late response of a lower risk (intermediate 1 according to the IPSS and intermediate according to the IPSS-R) patient to 5-azacytidine treatment...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Luc Gailhouste, Lee Chuen Liew, Izuho Hatada, Hitoshi Nakagama, Takahiro Ochiya
Curative management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is limited because this malignancy remains resistant to most chemotherapeutic drugs. Strategies that reverse epigenetic alterations offer a unique opportunity for cancer cell reprogramming, which is valuable for development of new treatments. The aim of this work was to reprogram pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells toward a less aggressive and drug-responsive phenotype. The process applied is called "epigenetic reprogramming". To evaluate the efficiency of PDAC epigenetic reprogramming, we assessed tumor growth and drug response in PANC-1 cells after exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-AZA)...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Rashmi Bharti, Goutam Dey, Anjan Kumar Das, Mahitosh Mandal
BACKGROUND: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are mitochondrial enzymes functioning in oxidative metabolism of monoamines. The action of MAO-A has been typically described in neuro-pharmacological domains. Here, we have established a co-relation between IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A and their regulation in hypoxia induced invasion/angiogenesis. METHODS: We employed various in-vitro and in-vivo techniques and clinical samples. RESULTS: We studied a co-relation among MAO-A and IL-6/IL-6R and tumour angiogenesis/invasion in hypoxic environment in breast cancer model...
May 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Andrea A Domenighetti, Margie A Mathewson, Rajeswari Pichika, Lydia A Sibley, Leyna Zhao, Henry G Chambers, Richard L Lieber
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of pediatric neurodevelopmental and physical disability in the United States. It is defined as a group of motor disorders caused by a non-progressive perinatal insult to the brain. While the brain lesion is non-progressive, there is a progressive, lifelong impact on skeletal muscles, which are shorter, spastic, and may develop debilitating contractures. Satellite cells are resident muscle stem cells that are indispensable for postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscles...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Pinar Yilgor Huri, Justin Morrissette-McAlmon, Warren L Grayson
Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) constitute a very promising source for cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches as they can be easily obtained in large quantities with comparatively minimal patient discomfort. Moreover, ASCs have multilineage differentiation capacity. Among these, differentiation capacity along the myogenic lineage is of particular interest since myogenic precursors are scarce and obtaining a large number of cells from skeletal muscle biopsies is difficult. Here, we describe a method to effectively induce ASC myogenesis through the combination of biochemical (cocktail including 5-azacytidine and horse serum) and biophysical (dynamic culture via uniaxial cyclic strain) stimulation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jae-Min Shin, Ji-Young Um, Seoung-Ae Lee, Il-Ho Park, Soo-Hyung Lee, Heung-Man Lee
Purpose Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), known as a transcriptional regulator, has been suggested to play an important role in myofibroblast differentiation in the lung. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of MeCP2 in transforming growth factor (TGF)- β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs). Methods To identify the expression of MeCP2 in nasal polyp tissues, immunohistochemistry staining and Western blot were performed...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
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