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5-azacytidine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644148/5-azacytidine-promotes-invadopodia-formation-and-tumor-metastasis-through-the-upregulation-of-pi3k-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#1
Dan Cao, Dan Li, Yong Huang, Yu Ma, Binglan Zhang, Chengjian Zhao, Senyi Deng, Min Luo, Tao Yin, Yu-Quan Wei, Wei Wang
The high incidence of metastasis accounts for most of the lethality of ovarian cancer. Invadopodia are small, specialized types of machinery that degrade the extracellular matrix and are thus involved in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The formation of invadopodia is regulated by both genetic and epigenetic factors. However, the ways by which methylation/demethylation regulates the dynamics of invadopodia in ovarian cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the inhibition of methylation by 5-AZ (5-Azacytidine) increased the formation of invadopodia and enhanced degradation of the extracellular matrix in ovarian cancer cells...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638744/azacytidine-prevents-experimental-xenogeneic-graft-versus-host-disease-without-abrogating-graft-versus-leukemia-effects
#2
Grégory Ehx, Gilles Fransolet, Laurence de Leval, Stéphanie D'Hondt, Sophie Lucas, Muriel Hannon, Loïc Delens, Sophie Dubois, Pierre Drion, Yves Beguin, Stéphanie Humblet-Baron, Frédéric Baron
The demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (AZA) has proven its efficacy in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. In addition, AZA can demethylate FOXP3 intron 1 (FOXP3i1) leading to the generation of regulatory T cells (Treg). Here, we investigated the impact of AZA on xenogeneic graft-vs.-host disease (xGVHD) and graft-vs.-leukemia effects in a humanized murine model of transplantation (human PBMCs-infused NSG mice), and described the impact of the drug on human T cells in vivo...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607150/wnt3a-induces-the-expression-of-acetylcholinesterase-during-osteoblast-differentiation-via-the-runx2-transcription-factor
#3
Miranda L Xu, Cathy W C Bi, Etta Y L Liu, Tina T X Dong, Karl W K Tsim
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzes acetylcholine to terminate cholinergic transmission in neurons. Apart from this AChE activity, emerging evidence suggests that AChE could also function in other, nonneuronal cells. For instance, in bone, AChE exists as a proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA)-linked globular form in osteoblasts, in which it is proposed to play a noncholinergic role in differentiation. However, this hypothesis is untested. Here, we found that in cultured rat osteoblasts, AChE expression was increased in parallel with osteoblastic differentiation...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601197/a-comparative-study-to-evaluate-myogenic-differentiation-potential-of-human-chorion-versus-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Nikoo Bana, Davood Sanooghi, Mansoureh Soleimani, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Sepideh Alavi Moghaddam, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Forough Azam Sayahpour, Faezeh Faghihi
OBJECTIVE: Musculodegenerative diseases threaten the life of many patients in the world. Since drug administration is not efficient in regeneration of damaged tissues, stem cell therapy is considered as a good strategy to restore the lost cells. Since the efficiency of myogenic differentiation potential of human Chorion- derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (C-MSCs) has not been addressed so far; we set out to evaluate myogenic differentiation property of these cells in comparison with Umbilical Cord Blood- derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UCB-MSCs) in the presence of 5-azacytidine...
May 11, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586038/mir-1247-5p-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-targeting-wnt3
#5
Yuankui Chu, Weining Fan, Wenwei Guo, Yixin Zhang, Lixin Wang, Le Guo, Xiangguo Duan, Jun Wei, Guangxian Xu
Increasing evidence suggests that aberrant expression of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) may participate in the genesis and progression of tumors. Several studies have indicated that miR-1247-5p plays different roles in various types of cancer cells. The effects of miR-1247-5p on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are elusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of miR-1247-5p on the progression of HCC. The transcript of miR-1247-5p was markedly downregulated in clinical samples of patients with HCC and HCC cell lines, and ectopic overexpression of miR‑1247-5p markedly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HepG2 cells, induced cell apoptosis in vitro, and suppressed the growth of transplanted tumors in vivo...
June 6, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575160/dynamic-changes-in-methylome-and-transcriptome-patterns-in-response-to-methyltransferase-inhibitor-5-azacytidine-treatment-in-citrus
#6
Jidi Xu, Xia Wang, Hongbo Cao, Haidan Xu, Qiang Xu, Xiuxin Deng
DNA methylation is known to play an important role in various developmental processes in plants. However, there is a general lack of understanding about the possible functions of DNA methylation in fruit trees. Using callus as a model, methylome, transcriptome and metabolite changes were assessed after treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5azaC). Genome-wide methylome analysis revealed the demethylation of a diverse of genes, including many genes encoding transcription factors (TFs), genes involved in biological processes, and the up-regulation of a wide range of transposable elements (TEs)...
June 1, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543390/the-effect-of-ebv-on-wif1-nlk-and-apc-gene-methylation-and-expression-in-gastric-carcinoma-and-nasopharyngeal-cancer
#7
Zhenzhen Zhao, Wen Liu, Jincheng Liu, Jiayi Wang, Bing Luo
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important DNA tumor virus that is associated with approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas and 99% of nasopharyngeal cancers. DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most studied epigenetic mechanisms that can prompt disease susceptibility. This study aimed to detect the effect of EBV on Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), Nemo-like kinase (NLK), and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene methylation and expression in gastric carcinoma and nasopharyngeal cancer. METHODS: The WIF1, NLK, and APC gene mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in four EBV-positive cell lines and four EBV-negative cell lines...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529454/characterization-of-cytosine-methylation-and-the-dna-methyltransferases-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#8
Haixia Wei, Shichen Jiang, Longfei Chen, Cheng He, Shuizhen Wu, Hongjuan Peng
DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification which confers phenotypic plasticity and adaptation. Cyst-forming strains of Toxoplasma gondii undergo tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion after initial acute infection of a host, and the reverse conversion may occur in immune-suppressed hosts. The formation of m(5)C is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). We identified two functional DNA methyltransferases, TgDNMTa and TgDNMTb, in T. gondii that may mediate DNA methylation. The recombinant proteins showed intrinsic methyltransferase activity; both have higher transcription levels in bradyzoites than that in tachyzoites...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527889/enhanced-cardiomyogenic-induction-of-mouse-pluripotent-cells-by-cyclic-mechanical-stretch
#9
Akankshya Shradhanjali, Brandon D Riehl, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Jung Yul Lim
The cardiac milieu is mechanically active with spontaneous contraction beginning from early development and persistent through maturation and homeostasis, suggesting that mechanical loading may provide a biomimetic myocardial developmental signal. In this study, we tested the role of cyclic mechanical stretch loading in the cardiomyogenesis of pluripotent murine embryonic (P19) stem cells. A Flexcell tension system was utilized to apply equiaxial stretch (12% strain, 1.25 Hz frequency) to P19 cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs)...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512793/5-azacytidine-mediated-hmsc-behavior-on-electrospun-scaffolds-for-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#10
Ines Fasolino, Vincenzo Guarino, Valentina Cirillo, Luigi Ambrosio
Incomplete regeneration after trauma or muscular dysfunction is a common problem in muscle replacement therapies. Recent approaches in tissue engineering allow for the replication of skeletal muscle structure and function in vitro and in vivo by molecular therapies and implantable scaffolds which properly address muscle cells toward myotube differentiation and maturation. Here, we investigate the in vitro response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on electrospun fibers made of polycaprolactone (PCL) in the presence of 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) to evaluate how fibrous network may influence the therapeutic effect of drug during in vitro myogenesis...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510781/5-azacytidine-mediated-reactivation-of-silenced-transgenes-in-potato-solanum-tuberosum-at-the-whole-plant-level
#11
Dimitrij Tyč, Eva Nocarová, Lenka Sikorová, Lukáš Fischer
Transient 5-azacytidine treatment of leaf explants from potato plants with transcriptionally silenced transgenes allows de novo regeneration of plants with restored transgene expression at the whole plant level. Transgenes introduced into plant genomes frequently become silenced either at the transcriptional or the posttranscriptional level. Transcriptional silencing is usually associated with DNA methylation in the promoter region. Treatments with inhibitors of maintenance DNA methylation were previously shown to allow reactivation of transcriptionally silenced transgenes in single cells or tissues, but not at the whole plant level...
May 16, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510608/the-biomphalaria-glabrata-dna-methylation-machinery-displays-spatial-tissue-expression-is-differentially-active-in-distinct-snail-populations-and-is-modulated-by-interactions-with-schistosoma-mansoni
#12
Kathrin K Geyer, Umar H Niazi, David Duval, Céline Cosseau, Chad Tomlinson, Iain W Chalmers, Martin T Swain, David J Cutress, Utibe Bickham-Wright, Sabrina E Munshi, Christoph Grunau, Timothy P Yoshino, Karl F Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The debilitating human disease schistosomiasis is caused by infection with schistosome parasites that maintain a complex lifecycle alternating between definitive (human) and intermediate (snail) hosts. While much is known about how the definitive host responds to schistosome infection, there is comparably less information available describing the snail's response to infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here, using information recently revealed by sequencing of the Biomphalaria glabrata intermediate host genome, we provide evidence that the predicted core snail DNA methylation machinery components are associated with both intra-species reproduction processes and inter-species interactions...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490812/hdac3-regulates-dnmt1-expression-in-multiple-myeloma-therapeutic-implications
#13
T Harada, H Ohguchi, Y Grondin, S Kikuchi, M Sagawa, Y-T Tai, R Mazitschek, T Hideshima, K C Anderson
Epigenetic signaling pathways are implicated in tumorigenesis and therefore histone deacetylases (HDACs) represent novel therapeutic targets for cancers including multiple myeloma (MM). Although non-selective HDAC inhibitors show anti-MM activities, unfavorable side effects limit their clinical efficacy. Isoform- and/or class-selective HDAC inhibition offers the possibility to maintain clinical activity while avoiding adverse events attendant to broad non-selective HDAC inhibition. We have previously reported that HDAC3 inhibition, either by genetic knockdown or selective inhibitor BG45, abrogates MM cell proliferation...
May 11, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486212/anti-oxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-benefits-of-the-ribonucleoside-analogue-5-azacitidine-in-mice-with-acetaminophen-induced-toxic-hepatitis
#14
Changming Yang, Jun Yi, Xianqiong Gong, Pu Ge, Jie Dai, Ling Lin, Yu Xing, Li Zhang
Toxic hepatitis induced by overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the major life-threatening problems, oxidative stress and inflammatory injury are the essential underlying mechanisms. 5-Azacytidine (5-AZA) is a ribonucleoside analogue which has been approved for the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodyplastic syndrome, but recent studies also found that 5-AZA might have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory benefits in non-tumor disorders. In the present study, the potential effects of 5-AZA on APAP-induced toxic hepatitis were investigated in a mouse model in vivo...
July 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480959/research-on-the-epigenetic-regulation-mechanism-of-the-ptpn6-gene-in-advanced-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia
#15
Xiaokun Zhang, Lin Yang, Xiaojun Liu, Ziyuan Nie, Xingzhe Wang, Yuxia Pan, Jianmin Luo
PTPN6, a tyrosine phosphatase protein, plays a negative role in cell signal transduction and is negatively correlated with tumour formation and growth. However, epigenetic regulation mechanism of the PTPN6 gene in advanced chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) remains unclear. This study investigated bone marrow or blood samples from 44 CML patients and 10 healthy volunteers. KCL22 and K562 cells were cultured and treated with demethylation drugs and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing PCR, Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed...
May 8, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474536/comments-on-an-overview-of-protocols-for-the-neural-induction-of-dental-and-oral-stem-cells-in-vitro-article-in-tissue-engineering-part-b-heng-et-al-february-2016-doi-10-1089-ten-teb-2015-0488
#16
Orsolya Pall, Bela Varga Varga, Pierre-Yves Collart-Dutilleul, Csilla Gergely, Frédéric Cuisinier
We read with interest the review of Heng et al.(2016). The article summarizes a wide range of protocols about the in vitro neurodifferentiation of different dental and oral stem cells. Our research group is also interested in the study of neurogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells, so we were pleased to find such a detailed and comprehensive review about this topic. Unfortunately when reading carefully the article, we observed numerous errors regarding for example the quantity of the products in several protocols...
May 5, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465359/elevated-foxg1-and-sox2-in-glioblastoma-enforces-neural-stem-cell-identity-through-transcriptional-control-of-cell-cycle-and-epigenetic-regulators
#17
Harry Bulstrode, Ewan Johnstone, Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon, Kirsty M Ferguson, Raul Bardini Bressan, Carla Blin, Vivien Grant, Sabine Gogolok, Ester Gangoso, Sladjana Gagrica, Christine Ender, Vassiliki Fotaki, Duncan Sproul, Paul Bertone, Steven M Pollard
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor driven by cells with hallmarks of neural stem (NS) cells. GBM stem cells frequently express high levels of the transcription factors FOXG1 and SOX2. Here we show that increased expression of these factors restricts astrocyte differentiation and can trigger dedifferentiation to a proliferative NS cell state. Transcriptional targets include cell cycle and epigenetic regulators (e.g., Foxo3, Plk1, Mycn, Dnmt1, Dnmt3b, and Tet3). Foxo3 is a critical repressed downstream effector that is controlled via a conserved FOXG1/SOX2-bound cis-regulatory element...
April 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442560/obesity-and-menopause-modify-the-epigenomic-profile-of-breast-cancer
#18
Ana B Crujeiras, Angel Díaz-Lagares, Olafur A Stefansson, Manuel Macias, Juan Sandoval, Juan Cueva, Rafael López-López, Sebastian Moran, Jon G Jonasson, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Elinborg Olafsdottir, Francisco J Tinahones, Marcos C Carreira, Felipe F Casanueva, Manel Esteller
Obesity is a high risk factor for breast cancer. This relationship could be marked by a specific methylome. The current work was aimed to explore the impact of obesity and menopausal status on variation in breast cancer methylomes. Data from Infinium 450K array-based methylomes of 64 breast tumor were coupled with information on BMI and menopausal status. Additionally, DNA methylation results were validated in 18 non-tumor and 81 tumor breast samples. Breast tumors arising in either pre- or postmenopausal women stratified by BMI or menopausal status alone were not associated with a specific DNA methylation pattern...
April 25, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418087/traumatic-stress-induced-persistent-changes-in-dna-methylation-regulate-neuropeptide-y-expression-in-rat-jejunum
#19
S Sagarkar, S Mahajan, A G Choudhary, C D Borkar, D M Kokare, A J Sakharkar
BACKGROUND: Stress-induced chronic neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety are often co-morbid with gastrointestinal malfunctions. While we find enduring anxiety-like symptoms following minimal traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in rats, gastrointestinal consequences of MTBI remain elusive. METHODS: In this study, we examined the effects of MTBI on a major gut peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gut motility. DNA methylation was studied as a possible epigenetic mechanism operative in the regulation of NPY expression in the gut...
April 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413451/differential-dna-methylation-at-conserved-non-genic-elements-and-evidence-for-transgenerational-inheritance-following-developmental-exposure-to-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-5-azacytidine-in-zebrafish
#20
Jorke H Kamstra, Liana Bastos Sales, Peter Aleström, Juliette Legler
BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental stressors during development may lead to latent and transgenerational adverse health effects. To understand the role of DNA methylation in these effects, we used zebrafish as a vertebrate model to investigate heritable changes in DNA methylation following chemical-induced stress during early development. We exposed zebrafish embryos to non-embryotoxic concentrations of the biologically active phthalate metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP, 30 µM) and the DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5AC, 10 µM)...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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