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Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Sean P Riley, Vincent Tafuto, Mark Cote, Jean-Michel Brismée, Alexis Wright, Chad Cook
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the test-retest reliability of Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) Work (FABQW) subscale, FABQ Physical Activity (FABQPA) subscale, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) Pain subscale, SPADI Disability subscale, and Numeric Pain Rating scale (NPRS); and 2) the relationship between the FABQPA, FABQW, SPADI pain, SPADI disability, and NPRS after 4 weeks of pragmatically applied physical therapy (PT) in patients with shoulder pain...
March 20, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Suji Gim, Hyung-Kyu Lim, Hyungjun Kim
The solid-liquid interface is of great interest because of its highly heterogeneous character and its ubiquity in various applications. The most fundamental physical variable determining the strength of the solid-liquid interface is the solid-liquid interfacial tension, which is usually measured according to the contact angle. However, an accurate experimental measurement and a reliable theoretical prediction of the contact angle remain lacking because of many practical issues. Here, we propose a first principles-based simulation approach to quantitatively predict the contact angle of an ideally clean surface using our recently developed multiscale simulation method of density functional theory in classical explicit solvents (DFT-CES)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Marcin Frączek, Marcin Masalski, Maciej Guziński
BACKGROUND: Paranasal computed tomography (CT) has become the investigation method of choice to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) on the basis of its ability to deliver objective data regarding the presence of inflamed mucosa or polyps. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of CT scan findings among untreated CRS patients without the presence of polyps in a nasal endoscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among patients with clinically demonstrated CRS considered for surgery, 93 subjects who had had 2 CT scans performed at different time points in the diagnostic process were enrolled into the study...
March 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Marco Esposito, Daniele Cardaropoli, Luca Gobbato, Fabio Scutellà, Andrea Fabianelli, Saverio Mascellani, Gianluca Delli Ficorelli, Fabio Mazzocco, Luca Sbricoli, Anna Trullenque-Eriksson
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether there are aesthetic and clinical benefits to using a newly designed abutment (Curvomax), over a conventional control abutment (GingiHue). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 patients, who required at least two implants, had two sites randomised according to a split-mouth design to receive one abutment of each type at seven different centres. The time of loading (immediate, early or delayed) and of prosthesis (provisional crowns of fixed prosthesis) was decided by the clinicians, but they had to restore both implants in a similar way...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Giorgio Gastaldi, Pietro Felice, Valeria Pistilli, Carlo Barausse, Daniela Rita Ippolito, Marco Esposito
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether 5.0 × 5.0 mm dental implants with a novel nanostructured calcium-incorporated titanium surface could be an alternative to implants of at least 10.0 mm long placed in bone augmented with bone substitutes in posterior atrophic jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with atrophic posterior (premolar and molar areas) mandibles with 5.0 mm to 7.0 mm bone height above the mandibular canal, and 40 patients with atrophic maxillas with 4...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Caroline Bolle, Pietro Felice, Carlo Barausse, Valeria Pistilli, Anna Trullenque-Eriksson, Marco Esposito
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether 4.0 mm short dental implants could be an alternative to augmentation with xenographs in the maxilla and placement of at least 10.0 mm long implants in posterior atrophic jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 40 patients with atrophic posterior (premolar and molar areas) mandibles with 5.0 mm to 6.0 mm bone height above the mandibular canal and 40 patients with atrophic maxillas having 4.0 mm to 5.0 mm below the maxillary sinus, were randomised according to a parallel group design to receive between one and three 4...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Julia Huber, Christoph Nikendei, Johannes C Ehrenthal, Henning Schauenburg, Johannes Mander, Ulrike Dinger
OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic agency is defined as a patient's intentional influence over the process of psychotherapeutic change. However, there is a lack of conceptually sound self-report measures with adequate psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate the patient-rated Therapeutic Agency Inventory (TAI). METHOD: Based on the literature, we developed items related to therapeutic agency and investigated their psychometric properties in a naturalistic study with a sample of 334 psychotherapy participants...
March 20, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Monique Piraud, Magali Pettazzoni, Pamela Lavoie, Séverine Ruet, Cécile Pagan, David Cheillan, Philippe Latour, Christine Vianey-Saban, Christiane Auray-Blais, Roseline Froissart
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a highly sensitive and specific technique. Thanks to the development of triple quadrupole analyzers, it is becoming more widely used in laboratories working in the field of inborn errors of metabolism. We review here the state of the art of this technique applied to the diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and how MS/MS has changed the diagnostic rationale in recent years. This fine technology brings more sensitive, specific, and reliable methods than the previous biochemical ones for the analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans, oligosaccharides, and sialic acid...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Simon Krabbe, Inge J Sørensen, Bente Jensen, Jakob M Møller, Lone Balding, Ole R Madsen, Robert G W Lambert, Walter P Maksymowych, Susanne J Pedersen, Mikkel Østergaard
Background: The Canada-Denmark (CANDEN) definitions of spinal MRI lesions allow a detailed anatomy-based evaluation of inflammatory and structural lesions in vertebral bodies and posterior elements of the spine in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). The objective was to examine the reliability, responsiveness and discrimination of scores for spinal inflammation, fat, bone erosion and new bone formation based on the CANDEN system and to describe patterns of inflammatory and structural lesions and their temporal development...
2018: RMD Open
Shuo-Hsiu Chang, Taimoor Afzal, Jeffrey Berliner, Gerard E Francisco
Background: Robotic wearable exoskeletons have been utilized as a gait training device in persons with spinal cord injury. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of offering exoskeleton-assisted gait training (EGT) on gait in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) in preparation for a phase III RCT. The objective was to assess treatment reliability and potential efficacy of EGT and conventional physical therapy (CPT). Methods: Forty-four individuals were screened, and 13 were eligible to participate in the study...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Cian Walsh, Patrick Ryan, Daniel Flynn
Background: This article presents a detailed idiographic analysis of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) clinicians' experiences of team consultation meetings. DBT is an evidence-based psychological intervention with a demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Team consultation meetings encompass one of the primary components involved in this treatment model; where DBT clinicians regularly meet to discuss client work and enhance further learning...
2018: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Douglas Yeung
This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Zhifeng Gao, Jeffrey Bortman, Faraz Mahmood, John Mitchell, Feroze Mahmood, Robina Matyal
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and reliability of using a vendor-neutral platform to evaluate right ventricular (RV) strain. Reliability was determined by comparing intra- and inter-observer variability between RV strain assessments. The secondary objective was to assess strain's correlation with conventional RV functional parameters to evaluate its feasibility as a RV systolic functional assessment tool. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary hospital...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Vanessa L Oliver, Sarah E Thurston, Jennifer L Lofgren
Recent studies have revealed some of the most frequently used analgesics in mice are not effectively treating postoperative pain. Our laboratory sought to compare and assess the validity and reliability of 2 cageside pain assessments that we recently developed for use in mice-nesting consolidation and grooming transfer tests. We then applied these tests to compare the efficacy of commonly used analgesics-buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 48 h) and carprofen (30 mg/kg in drinking water for 72 h)-alone and in multimodal combination as a refinement for treating postoperative pain in mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Evangelos Gatsios, Jonás García-Rincón, John L Rayner, Robert G McLaughlan, Greg B Davis
Water table fluctuations affect the recoverability of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) petroleum hydrocarbons. LNAPL transmissivity (Tn ) is being applied as an improved metric for LNAPL recoverability. In this paper, the applicability of Tn as a lagging and leading metric in unconsolidated aquifers under variable water table conditions was investigated. Tn values obtained through baildown testing and recovery data-based methods (skimming) were compared in three areas of a heterogeneous gasoline contaminated site in Western Australia...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
João Castelhano, Paula Tavares, Susana Mouga, Guiomar Oliveira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalographic biomarkers have been widely investigated in autism, in the search for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic outcome measures. Here we took advantage of the information available in temporal oscillatory patterns evoked by simple perceptual decisions to investigate whether stimulus dependent oscillatory signatures can be used as potential biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: We studied an extensive set of stimuli (9 categories of faces) and performed data driven classification (Support vector machine, SVM) of ASD vs...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Wiepke J A Koopmans, S Theo Goverts, Cas Smits
OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to examine developmental effects for speech recognition in noise abilities for normal-hearing children in several listening conditions, relevant for daily life. Our aim was to study the auditory component in these listening abilities by using a test that was designed to minimize the dependency on nonauditory factors, the digits-in-noise (DIN) test. Secondary aims were to examine the feasibility of the DIN test for children, and to establish age-dependent normative data for diotic and dichotic listening conditions in both stationary and interrupted noise...
March 16, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Ranliang Hu, John Holbrook, Nancy J Newman, Valerie Biousse, Beau B Bruce, Deqiang Qiu, John Oshinski, Amit M Saindane
BACKGROUND: Optic nerve sheath tortuosity is a previously reported, but incompletely characterized, finding in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). We hypothesized that optic nerve angle (ONA), as a quantitative measure of tortuosity, would change dynamically with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure status of patients with IIH immediately before and after lumbar puncture (LP). METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected IIH referred for MRI and diagnostic LP were prospectively enrolled in this single institution, institutional review board-approved study...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Grant M Walker, Gregory Hickok, Julius Fridriksson
Picture naming impairments are a typical feature of stroke-induced aphasia. Overall accuracy and rates of different error types are used to make inferences about the severity and nature of damage to the brain's language network. Currently available assessment tools for picture naming accuracy treat it as a unidimensional measure, while assessment tools for error types treat items homogenously, contrary to findings from psycholinguistic investigations of word production. We created and tested a new cognitive psychometric model for assessment of picture naming responses, using cognitive theory to specify latent processing decisions during the production of a naming attempt, and using item response theory to separate the effects of item difficulty and participant ability on these internal processing decisions...
March 19, 2018: Psychological Assessment
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