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Reflective practice

Deborah K Armstrong, Marilyn E Asselin
Given the recent calls for transformation of nursing education, it is critical that faculty be reflective educators. Reflective teaching practice is a process of self-examination and self-evaluation to gain insight into teaching to improve the teaching-learning experience. Limited attention has been given to this notion in the nursing education literature. An innovative reflective teaching practice approach for nursing education is proposed, consisting of question cues, journaling, and a process of facilitated meetings...
November 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
Šarunas Narbutas, Kristina York, Barry D Stein, Kara Magsanoc-Alikpala, Yoshiyuki Majima, Zoltan Kalo, Timea Almasi, Andras Inotai
Successful implementation of treatment in cancer care partially depends on how patients' perspectives are taken into account, as preferences of health care professionals and patients may differ. Objectives of this exploratory research were (I) to identify patient preferences and values (PPVs) in cancer care as indicated by patient organizations (POs), (II) to determine how these PPVs are captured in cancer care guidelines and (III) to review how guidelines take into account these PPVs. Based on a survey developed and completed by 19 POs, a literature review was conducted to analyse how patient perspectives are incorporated in oncology treatment guidelines...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Samantha J Anthony, Maeghan Toews, Timothy Caulfield, Linda Wright
BACKGROUND: Because organ transplantation relies on public support for donation, an analysis of public discourse around organ donation is essential. We investigated the portrayal of family veto - when a family overrides the deceased person's prior legally executed wishes to donate - in Canadian news media. METHODS: Using the Canadian Newsstream database, we identified articles published in English-language newspapers addressing family veto between 2000 and 2016...
October 17, 2017: CMAJ Open
Yu Xu, Huayun Xiao, Hui Guan, Chaojun Long
Moss (as a reference material) and camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaf, branch bark and bark samples were systematically collected across an urban-rural gradient in Guiyang (SW China) to determine the efficacy of using these bio-indicators to evaluate nitrogen (N) pollution. The tissue N concentrations (0.13%-2.70%) and δ(15)N values (-7.5‰ to +9.3‰) of all of these bio-indicators exhibited large spatial variations, as they recorded higher values in urban areas that quickly decreased with distance from the city center; moreover, both soil N concentrations and soil δ(15)N values were found no significant differences within each 6 km from the urban to the rural area...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Adrienne Lemon, Mélanie Pinet
Capturing unintended impacts has been a persistent struggle in all fields of international development, and the field of peacebuilding is no exception. However, because peacebuilding focuses on relationships in complex contexts, the field of peacebuilding has, by necessity, made efforts towards finding practical ways to reflect upon both the intended and unintended effects of this work. To explore what lessons can be learned from the peacebuilding field, this study examines the evaluations of Search for Common Ground, a peacebuilding organisation working in over 35 countries across the world...
September 23, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
Limor Nizri, Dalit Vaizel-Ohayon, Hila Ben-Amram, Yehonatan Sharaby, Malka Halpern, Hadas Mamane
We established a molecular method for quantifying ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficacy using total bacterial DNA in a water sample. To evaluate UV damage to the DNA, we developed the "DNA damage" factor, which is a novel cultivation-independent approach that reveals UV-exposure efficiency by applying a simple PCR amplification method. The study's goal was to prove the feasibility of this method for demonstrating the efficiency of UV systems in the field using flow-through UV reactors. In laboratory-based experiments using seeded bacteria, the DNA damage tests demonstrated a good correlation between PCR products and UV dose...
October 10, 2017: Water Research
Kevin P Eaton, Kathryn Levy, Christine Soong, Amit K Pahwa, Christopher Petrilli, Justin B Ziemba, Hyung J Cho, Rodrigo Alban, Jaime F Blanck, Andrew S Parsons
Routine daily laboratory testing of hospitalized patients reflects a wasteful clinical practice that threatens the value of health care. Choosing Wisely initiatives from numerous professional societies have identified repetitive laboratory testing in the face of clinical stability as low value care. Although laboratory expenditure often represents less than 5% of most hospital budgets, the impact is far-reaching given that laboratory tests influence nearly 60% to 70% of all medical decisions. Excessive phlebotomy can lead to hospital-acquired anemia, increased costs, and unnecessary downstream testing and procedures...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Yuliya Vystavna, Josef Hejzlar, Jiří Kopáček
European freshwater ecosystems have undergone significant human-induced and environmentally-driven variations in nutrient export from catchments throughout the past five decades, mainly in connection with changes in land-use, agricultural practice, waste water production and treatment, and climatic conditions. We analysed the relations among concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the Slapy Reservoir (a middle reservoir of the Vltava River Cascade, Czechia), and socio-economic and climatic factors from 1963 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
Audrey Marshall
The 'Dissertations into practice' feature began life in March 2012 with a dual aim: to encourage students, recent graduates and new professionals to write for publication and to highlight the impact of student research on policy and practice. This article reflects on the initiative and demonstrates that it has been extremely successful in achieving both aims. It highlights the diverse range of contributions to the feature so far and proves that student research can and does influence policy and practice. It also demonstrates that, with the right encouragement and support, students are willing and able to write for academic publication and that they gain a lot from the experience...
October 19, 2017: Health Information and Libraries Journal
María Trinidad Morales-Belando, José L Arias-Estero
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to know whether an intervention using an adaptation of the teaching games for understanding approach (named teaching races for understanding [TRfU]) led participants to improve skill execution, decision making, race performance, race involvement, race knowledge, enjoyment, intention to continue practicing sailing, and perceived competence. METHOD: Participants were 67 children from a randomly selected sailing school (Mage = 9...
October 19, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Stefanie Porkert, Eva Lehner-Baumgartner, Julia Valencak, Robert Knobler, Elisabeth Riedl, Constanze Jonak
The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) has been shown to assess illness perception reproducibly in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Illness perception reflects patients' individual concepts of understanding and interpretation of the disease, influencing illness behaviour and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study investigated the clinical relevance of the relationships between illness perception, illness behaviour, and HRQOL in CTCL and cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCL). A total of 92 patients completed the IPQ-R, the Scale for the Assessment of Illness Behavior (SAIB), and a skin-specific HRQOL tool (Skindex-29)...
October 19, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Xin Liu, Xuewen Shu
All-optical fractional-order temporal differentiators with bandwidths reaching terahertz (THz) values are demonstrated with transmissive fiber Bragg gratings. Since the designed fractional-order differentiator is a minimum phase function, the reflective phase of the designed function can be chosen arbitrarily. As examples, we first design several 0.5th-order differentiators with bandwidths reaching the THz range for comparison. The reflective phases of the 0.5th-order differentiators are chosen to be linear phase, quadratic phase, cubic phase, and biquadratic phase, respectively...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Dong Hu, Renfu Lu, Yibin Ying
The spatial-frequency domain (SFD) imaging technique allows us to estimate the optical properties of biological tissues in a wide field of view. The technique is, however, prone to error in measurement because the two crucial assumptions used for deriving the analytical solution to the diffusion approximation cannot be met perfectly in practical applications. This research mainly focused on modeling light transfer in turbid media under the normal incidence of structured illumination using the finite element method (FEM)...
July 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Jingjing Ai, Peng Gao, Qingying Chen, Shuaiyi Zhang
The modulation transfer function (MTF) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are the key parameters to evaluate quantitatively the image quality and spectral performance in a polarization imaging spectrometer based on a Savart polariscope. In order to evaluate the image quality and reflect the detecting ability of the imaging spectrometer, calibration experiments on the MTF, SNR, and spectral resolution were carried out and some important conclusions were obtained. For incident radiance values 4.464, 3.119, and 0...
July 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Qiuling Zhao, Tsz Kit Yung, Xia Wang, Wing Yim Tam
We propose a method for the measurement of the reflection phase using a thick-gap Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon interferometry technique with correction for the numerical aperture effect of the optical setup. The setup is first calibrated using a known sample by comparing the reflectance from a two-beam interference model for the FP etalon with experimental data. We then apply the correction to a sample of interest and obtain the reflection phase of the sample. Our method can be used to measure the reflection phase of a small sample and could lead to practical applications in optical characterization of metamaterials...
May 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Sofieke de Wilde, Maria G H de Jong, Paul P H Le Brun, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Kirsten J M Schimmel
Most medicinal products dispensed to patients have marketing authorization (MA) to ensure high quality of the product, safety, and efficacy. However, in daily practice, to treat patients adequately, there is a medical need for drugs that do not hold MA. To meet this medical need, medicinal products are used in clinical care without MA (unlicensed), such as products prepared by (local) pharmacies: the pharmaceutical preparations. Three types of pharmaceutical preparations are distinguished: (i) reconstitution in excess of summary of product characteristics; (ii) adaptation of a licensed medicinal product (outside its official labeling); (iii) medicinal products from an active pharmaceutical ingredient...
October 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Theodore Baird
This article takes the reader inside four border security fairs in Europe and North America to examine the knowledge practices of border security professionals. Building on the border security as practice research agenda, the analysis focuses on the production, circulation, and consumption of scarce forms of knowledge. To explore situated knowledge of border security practices, I develop an approach to multi-sited event ethnography to observe and interpret knowledge that may be hard to access at the security fairs...
June 2017: Secur Dialogue
Ane U Albaek, Liv G Kinn, Anne M Milde
Understanding the challenges of professionals in addressing child adversity is key to improving the detection, protection, and care of exposed children. We aimed to synthesize findings from qualitative studies of professionals' lived experience of addressing child adversity. Through a systematic search, we identified eight qualitative studies and synthesized them using metaethnography. We generated three themes, "feeling inadequate," "fear of making it worse," and "facing evil," and one overarching metaphor, "walking children through a minefield...
October 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
Jenna Gillett-Swan, Jonathon Sargeant
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights elaborated for children through the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, mandates each child's right to participate in all matters affecting them. In particular, Article 19 includes the child's right to freedom of expression and opinion, access to information and communication choice. However, many barriers placed on children's daily lives often restrict or limit the enactment of children's participatory rights in practice, most noticeably in education...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Monica L Kasting, Courtney L Scherr, Karla N Ali, Paige Lake, Teri L Malo, Tracy Johns, Richard G Roetzheim, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Susan T Vadaparampil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Residency training is a pivotal time to establish skills for career-long practices, particularly for challenging skills such as human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine recommendation. Training experience and preferences related to delivering HPV vaccine recommendations were examined for family medicine (FM) residents and faculty. METHODS: Residents (n=28) and faculty (n=19) were identified through a national FM residency directory and recruited from training programs in Florida...
October 2017: Family Medicine
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