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Insulin secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222196/correction-relaxation-response-induces-temporal-transcriptome-changes-in-energy-metabolism-insulin-secretion-and-inflammatory-pathways
#1
Manoj K Bhasin, Jeffery A Dusek, Bei-Hung Chang, Marie G Joseph, John W Denninger, Gregory L Fricchione, Herbert Benson, Towia A Libermann
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062817.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222054/ucp2-expression-is-increased-in-pancreas-from-brain-dead-donors-and-involved-in-cytokine-induced-%C3%AE-cells-apoptosis
#2
Leticia A Brondani, Tatiana H Rech, Gabriela Boelter, Andrea C Bauer, Cristiane B Leitão, Décio L Eizirik, Daisy Crispim
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation associated with brain death (BD) decreases islet yield and quality, negatively affecting outcomes of human islet transplantation. A recent study from our group showed an increased expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) in pancreas from rats with BD as compared with controls. UCP2 is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and regulates production of reactive oxygen species and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. It has been suggested that UCP2 also plays a role in β cell apoptosis, but these findings remain controversial...
March 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222044/endocrine-system-on-chip-for-a-diabetes-treatment-model
#3
Dao Thi Thuy Nguyen, Danny van Noort, In-Kyung Jeong, Sungsu Park
The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion...
February 21, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220294/chromogranin-a-regulates-vesicle-storage-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-to-influence-insulin-secretion
#4
Joshua Wollam, Sumana Mahata, Matthew Riopel, Angelina Hernandez-Carretero, Angshuman Biswas, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Nai-Wen Chi, Lee E Eiden, Nitish R Mahapatra, Angelo Corti, Nicholas J G Webster, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on the impact of CgA on mitochondrial function in β-cells. Using three different antibodies, we demonstrate that CgA is processed to vasostatin- and catestatin-containing fragments in pancreatic islet cells...
February 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218739/suppression-of-islet-homeostasis-protein-thwarts-diabetes-mellitus-progression
#5
Seh-Hoon Oh, Marda L Jorgensen, Clive H Wasserfall, Altin Gjymishka, Bryon E Petersen
During progression to type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing β-cells are lost through an autoimmune attack resulting in unrestrained glucagon expression and secretion, activation of glycogenolysis, and escalating hyperglycemia. We recently identified a protein, designated islet homeostasis protein (IHoP), which specifically co-localizes within glucagon-positive α-cells and is overexpressed in the islets of both post-onset non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and type 1 diabetes patients. Here we report that in the αTC1...
February 20, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218623/dreadding-proglucagon-neurons-a-fresh-look-at-metabolic-regulation-by-the-brain
#6
Jonathan E Campbell, David A D'Alessio
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in the CNS has been linked to reduced food intake, lower body weight, improved glucose homeostasis, and activation of CNS stress axes. GLP-1 is produced by cells that express proglucagon (GCG); however, the stimuli that activate GCG+ neurons are not well known, which has made understanding the role of this neuronal population in the CNS a challenge. In this issue of the JCI, Gaykema et al. use designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to specifically activate GCG+ neurons in mouse models...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218622/activation-of-murine-pre-proglucagon-producing-neurons-reduces-food-intake-and-body-weight
#7
Ronald P Gaykema, Brandon A Newmyer, Matteo Ottolini, Vidisha Raje, Daniel M Warthen, Philip S Lambeth, Maria Niccum, Ting Yao, Yiru Huang, Ira G Schulman, Thurl E Harris, Manoj K Patel, Kevin W Williams, Michael M Scott
Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide-secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216543/circulating-mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-is-increased-in-newly-diagnosed-prediabetic-and-diabetic-patients-and-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#8
Tong Wu, Fang Zhang, Qiu Yang, Yuwei Zhang, Qinhui Liu, Wei Jiang, Hongyi Cao, Daigang Li, Shugui Xie, Nanwei Tong, Jinhan He
Evidence has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and development of insulin resistance. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a novel secreted protein upregulated by ER stress. This study aimed to assess serum level of MANF in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participants and newly diagnosed prediabetic and T2DM patients. A total of 257 participants with NGT, newly diagnosed prediabetes or T2DM were recruited from Yinchao and Hangtian communities of Chengdu, Sichuan, China...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216438/porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide-induces-pro-inflammatory-adipokine-secretion-and-oxidative-stress-by-regulating-toll-like-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-and-redox-enzymes-in-adipocytes
#9
Fanny Le Sage, Olivier Meilhac, Marie-Paule Gonthier
Gut microbiota LPS contributes to obesity-related chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, promoting insulin resistance. Periodontal disease also represents a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and is associated with obesity. This study compared the effect of LPS from P. gingivalis periodontopathogen and E. coli enterobacteria on inflammatory adipokine secretion and redox status of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that both LPS activated TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways involving MyD88 adaptor and NFκB transcription factor, leading to an increased secretion of leptin, resistin, IL-6 and MCP-1...
February 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216051/morin-activates-the-nrf2-are-pathway-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-induced-dna-damage-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#10
Pachamuthu Vanitha, S Senthil Kumar, Sireesh Dornadula, S Anantha Kumar, Palanisamy Rajaguru, Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar
Oxidative stress is an important factor contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. In our earlier study, we demonstrated the antidiabetic efficacy of morin by regulating key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in diabetic rats. The present study was designed to assess the antigenotoxic potential of morin in pancreatic β-cells, using the COMET assay. To explore its potential mechanisms of action, three genotoxic agents, H2O2 which induces DNA damage by the generation of reactive oxygen species, streptozotocin (STZ) by RNS and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) by DNA alkylation was used...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215845/converting-adult-pancreatic-islet-%C3%AE-cells-into-%C3%AE-cells-by-targeting-both-dnmt1-and-arx
#11
Harini Chakravarthy, Xueying Gu, Martin Enge, Xiaoqing Dai, Yong Wang, Nicolas Damond, Carolina Downie, Kathy Liu, Jing Wang, Yuan Xing, Simona Chera, Fabrizio Thorel, Stephen Quake, Jose Oberholzer, Patrick E MacDonald, Pedro L Herrera, Seung K Kim
Insulin-producing pancreatic β cells in mice can slowly regenerate from glucagon-producing α cells in settings like β cell loss, but the basis of this conversion is unknown. Moreover, it remains unclear if this intra-islet cell conversion is relevant to diseases like type 1 diabetes (T1D). We show that the α cell regulators Aristaless-related homeobox (Arx) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) maintain α cell identity in mice. Within 3 months of Dnmt1 and Arx loss, lineage tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing revealed extensive α cell conversion into progeny resembling native β cells...
February 12, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215313/low-molecular-fraction-of-wheat-protein-hydrolysate-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-in-an-enteroendocrine-l-cell-line-and-improves-glucose-tolerance-in-rats
#12
Masaki Kato, Takenori Nakanishi, Tsubasa Tani, Takanori Tsuda
The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by enteroendocrine L cells. Stimulating endogenous GLP-1 secretion by dietary factors is a promising strategy to increase GLP-1 action. Several studies have examined the specific physiological function of wheat protein hydrolysate. Some reports suggested that intake of wheat protein ameliorates hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that wheat protein hydrolysate reduces blood glucose concentration via stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. In this study, we investigated whether wheat protein hydrolysate stimulates GLP-1 secretion and its molecular mechanism in an enteroendocrine L cell line (GLUTag cells), and we examined the effect on glucose tolerance via stimulation of GLP-1 secretion followed by induction of insulin secretion in rats...
January 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214826/emodin-increases-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-through-activation-of-mek-erk-ampk%C3%AE-and-interaction-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-sp1-in-lung-cancer
#13
Qing Tang, JingJing Wu, Fang Zheng, Swei Sunny Hann, YuQing Chen
BACKGROUND: Emodin has anti-neoplastic activities on multiple tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect still remain to be fully understood. METHODS: Cell viability and cell cycle distribution were measured using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell invasion and migration were examined by transwell invasion and wound healing assays. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the phosphorylation and protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and the transcription factor Sp1...
January 26, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211947/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-and-collagen-i-alpha-2-synthesis-via-induction-of-mrna-binding-protein-larp6-expression
#14
Yue Guo, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Hao-Neng Tang, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Shu-Wen Tan, Min Wang, Yun-Zhi Feng, Hou-De Zhou
This study explored the mechanism underlying the stimulation of collagen synthesis and osteoblastic differentiation by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in primary mouse osteoblasts. Primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts were cultured and treated with various doses of IGF1 before transfection with siRNA targeting the collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2) or La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (Larp6) genes. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin staining, alizarin red quantification and the expression level of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were performed to assess the differentiation of pre-osteoblasts...
February 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211611/short-acting-glp-1-receptor-agonists-as-add-on-to-insulin-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Anders Albèr, Andreas Brønden, Filip K Knop
A large proportion of patients with type 1 diabetes do not reach their glycemic target of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and, furthermore, an increasing number of patients with type 1 diabetes suffer from overweight and obesity. Treatment of type 1 diabetes is based on insulin therapy with well-described and unfortunate adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and increased body weight. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have received increasing interest as a possible adjunctive treatment to insulin in type 1 diabetes due to their glucagonostatic and extrapancreatic effects...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211608/preclinical-characterisation-of-55p0251-a-novel-compound-that-amplifies-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-and-counteracts-hyperglycaemia-in-rodents
#16
Karin Stadlbauer, Barbara Brunmair, Zsuzsanna Lehner, Immanuel Adorjan, Thomas Scherer, Anton Luger, Leonhardt Bauer, Clemens Fürnsinn
AIMS: 55P0251 is a novel compound with blood glucose lowering activity in mice, which has been developed from a molecular backbone structure found in herbal remedies. We here report its basic pharmacological attributes and initial progress in unmasking the mode of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetic properties of 55P0251 were portrayed in several species. First efforts to elucidate the glucose lowering mechanism in rodents included numerous experimental protocols dealing with glucose tolerance, insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, and comparison to established drugs...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211512/physiology-and-role-of-irisin-in-glucose-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Nikolaos Perakakis, Georgios A Triantafyllou, José Manuel Fernández-Real, Joo Young Huh, Kyung Hee Park, Jochen Seufert, Christos S Mantzoros
Irisin is a myokine that leads to increased energy expenditure by stimulating the 'browning' of white adipose tissue. In the first description of this hormone, increased levels of circulating irisin, which is cleaved from its precursor fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5, were associated with improved glucose homeostasis by reducing insulin resistance. Consequently, several studies attempted to characterize the role of irisin in glucose regulation, but contradictory results have been reported, and even the existence of this hormone has been questioned...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209843/lipid-transport-by-tmem24-at-er-plasma-membrane-contacts-regulates-pulsatile-insulin-secretion
#18
Joshua A Lees, Mirko Messa, Elizabeth Wen Sun, Heather Wheeler, Federico Torta, Markus R Wenk, Pietro De Camilli, Karin M Reinisch
Insulin is released by β cells in pulses regulated by calcium and phosphoinositide signaling. Here, we describe how transmembrane protein 24 (TMEM24) helps coordinate these signaling events. We showed that TMEM24 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored membrane protein whose reversible localization to ER-plasma membrane (PM) contacts is governed by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in response to oscillations in cytosolic calcium. A lipid-binding module in TMEM24 transports the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] precursor phosphatidylinositol between bilayers, allowing replenishment of PI(4,5)P2 hydrolyzed during signaling...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208654/a-protein-isolate-from-moringa-oleifera-leaves-has-hypoglycemic-and-antioxidant-effects-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice
#19
Paulo C Paula, Daniele O B Sousa, Jose T A Oliveira, Ana F U Carvalho, Bella G T Alves, Mirella L Pereira, Davi F Farias, Martonio P Viana, Flavia A Santos, Talita C Morais, Ilka M Vasconcelos
Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature...
February 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207927/attenuated-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-mucus-secretion-in-hdm-exposed-igf1r-deficient-mice
#20
S Piñeiro-Hermida, J A Gregory, I P López, R Torrens, C Ruíz-Martínez, M Adner, J G Pichel
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic lung disease characterized by airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. IGFs have been reported to play a role in asthma but little is known about how the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) affects asthma pathobiology. METHODS: Female Igf1r-deficient and control mice were intranasally challenged with house dust mite (HDM) extract or PBS five days per week for four weeks. Lung function measurements, and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and lungs were collected on day 28 for further cellular, histological and molecular analysis...
February 16, 2017: Allergy
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