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Insulin secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166590/interleukin-33-activated-islet-resident-innate-lymphoid-cells-promote-insulin-secretion-through-myeloid-cell-retinoic-acid-production
#1
Elise Dalmas, Frank M Lehmann, Erez Dror, Stephan Wueest, Constanze Thienel, Marcela Borsigova, Marc Stawiski, Emmanuel Traunecker, Fabrizio C Lucchini, Dianne H Dapito, Sandra M Kallert, Bruno Guigas, Francois Pattou, Julie Kerr-Conte, Pierre Maechler, Jean-Philippe Girard, Daniel Konrad, Christian Wolfrum, Marianne Böni-Schnetzler, Daniela Finke, Marc Y Donath
Pancreatic-islet inflammation contributes to the failure of β cell insulin secretion during obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the nature and function of resident immune cells in this context or in homeostasis. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-33 was produced by islet mesenchymal cells and enhanced by a diabetes milieu (glucose, IL-1β, and palmitate). IL-33 promoted β cell function through islet-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that elicited retinoic acid (RA)-producing capacities in macrophages and dendritic cells via the secretion of IL-13 and colony-stimulating factor 2...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166583/the-skinny-pancreatic-ilc2s-promote-insulin-secretion
#2
Kelly M Cautivo, Ari B Molofsky
Regulation of pancreatic insulin production is pivotal in the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes. In this issue of Immunity, Dalmas et al. (2017) describe a type 2 immune circuit where pancreatic interleukin-33 (IL-33) promotes insulin secretion via the activity of islet-associated group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s).
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166433/hypoglycemia-caused-by-co-secretion-of-insulin-from-lung-tumor-and-cardia-cancer-first-case-report
#3
Yaning Chen, Yi Kang, Liu Hong, Hebin Yao
CONTEXT: Non-islet-cell-tumor-induced hypoglycemia (NICTH) is caused on rare occasions by secretion of insulin from tumor cells that are reported to have a single tissue origin. CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old male patient had cardia adenocarcinoma and concomitant lung adenocarcinoma with extensive metastases and repeated episodes of intractable hypoglycemia. Immunohistochemical staining for insulin showed that lung adenocarcinoma stained positive and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma stained weakly positive...
November 17, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162828/selenoprotein-p-neutralizing-antibodies-improve-insulin-secretion-and-glucose-sensitivity-in-type-2-diabetes-mouse-models
#4
Yuichiro Mita, Kaho Nakayama, Shogo Inari, Yukina Nishito, Yuya Yoshioka, Naoko Sakai, Kanade Sotani, Takahiro Nagamura, Yuki Kuzuhara, Kumi Inagaki, Miki Iwasaki, Hirofumi Misu, Masaya Ikegawa, Toshinari Takamura, Noriko Noguchi, Yoshiro Saito
Selenoprotein P (SeP) functions as a selenium (Se)-supply protein. SeP is identified as a hepatokine, promoting insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Thus, the suppression of Se-supply activity of SeP might improve glucose metabolism. Here, we develop an anti-human SeP monoclonal antibody AE2 as with neutralizing activity against SeP. Administration of AE2 to mice significantly improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance that are induced by human SeP administration. Furthermore, excess SeP administration significantly decreases pancreas insulin levels and high glucose-induced insulin secretion, which are improved by AE2 administration...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162361/impaired-beta-cell-sensitivity-to-incretins-in-type-2-diabetes-is-insufficiently-compensated-by-higher-incretin-response
#5
A Tura, J I Bagger, E Ferrannini, J J Holst, F K Knop, T Vilsbøll, A Mari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incretin effect is impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. We investigated the relationships between the time course of the incretin effect and that of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), thereby estimating incretin sensitivity of the beta cell, and its associated factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients with T2D and eight matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) received 25, 75, and 125 g OGTTs and corresponding isoglycemic glucose infusions (IIGI)...
October 13, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162152/the-peptidylglycine-%C3%AE-amidating-monooxygenase-pam-gene-rs13175330-a-g-polymorphism-is-associated-with-hypertension-in-a-korean-population
#6
Hye Jin Yoo, Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Jey Sook Chae, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Peptidylglycine-α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) may play a role in the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which is a hormone involved in the maintenance of blood pressure (BP). The objective of the present study was to determine whether PAM is a novel candidate gene for hypertension (HTN). RESULTS: A total of 2153 Korean participants with normotension and HTN were included. Genotype data were obtained using the Korean Chip. The rs13175330 polymorphism of the PAM gene was selected from the ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most strongly associated with BP...
November 21, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161229/sex-and-dose-specific-effects-of-maternal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-pancreatic-islets-of-first-and-second-generation-adult-mice-offspring
#7
Amita Bansal, Cetewayo Rashid, Frances Xin, Changhong Li, Erzsebet Polyak, Anna Duemler, Tom van der Meer, Martha Stefaniak, Sana Wajid, Nicolai Doliba, Marisa S Bartolomei, Rebecca A Simmons
BACKGROUND: Exposure to the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with the increased risk of diabetes and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We recently demonstrated that perinatal BPA exposure is associated with higher body fat, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin secretion in first- (F1) and second-generation (F2) C57BL/6J male mice offspring. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the multigenerational effects of maternal bisphenol A exposure on mouse pancreatic islets...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160030/dihydromyricetin-enhances-glucose-uptake-by-inhibition-of-mek-erk-pathway-and-consequent-down-regulation-of-phosphorylation-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#8
Lei Liu, Min Zhou, Hedong Lang, Yong Zhou, Mantian Mi
Accumulating evidence suggests that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling can reduce phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) at serine 273, which mitigates obesity-associated insulin resistance and might be a promising treatment for type 2 diabetes. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a flavonoid that has many beneficial pharmacological properties. In this study, mouse fibroblast 3T3-L1 cells were used to investigate whether DHM alleviates insulin resistance by inhibiting PPARγ phosphorylation at serine 273 via the MEK/ERK pathway...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159853/the-use-of-cell-conditioned-medium-for-musculoskeletal-tissue-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Francesca Veronesi, Veronica Borsari, Maria Sartori, Monia Orciani, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte Cima, Milena Fini
Tissue regenerative medicine combines the use of cells, scaffolds and molecules to repair damaged tissues. Different cell types are employed for musculoskeletal diseases, both differentiated and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In recent years, the hypothesis that cell-based therapy is guided principally by cell-secreted factors has become increasingly popular. The aim of the present literature review was to evaluate preclinical and clinical studies that used conditioned medium (CM), rich in cell-factors, for musculoskeletal regeneration with a cell-free approach...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159483/obestatin-can-potentially-differentiate-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-insulin-producing-cells
#10
Rana K El-Asfar, Mohamed M Kamal, Rania S Abd El-Razek, Ebtehal El-Demerdash, Hala O El-Mesallamy
In vitro-generation of β-cells from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) could provide a potential basis for diabetes mellitus cell therapy. However, the generation of functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from WJ-MSCs remains a challenge. Recently, obestatin, a gut hormone, was found to promote β-cell generation from pancreatic precursor cells. Accordingly, we hypothesize that obestatin can induce the differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of obestatin to generate IPCs in comparison to well-known extrinsic factors that are commonly used in IPCs differentiation protocols from MSCs, namely exendin-4 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158477/sirolimus-induces-depletion-of-intracellular-calcium-stores-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#11
Angela Lombardi, Jessica Gambardella, Xue-Liang Du, Daniela Sorriento, Maurizio Mauro, Guido Iaccarino, Bruno Trimarco, Gaetano Santulli
Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive drug used in transplantation. One of its major side effects is the increased risk of diabetes mellitus; however, the exact mechanisms underlying such association have not been elucidated. Here we show that sirolimus impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion both in human and murine pancreatic islets and in clonal β cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Importantly, we demonstrate that sirolimus markedly depletes calcium (Ca(2+)) content in the endoplasmic reticulum and significantly decreases glucose-stimulated mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158401/kinesin-dependent-mechanism-for-controlling-triglyceride-secretion-from-the-liver
#12
Priyanka Rai, Mukesh Kumar, Geetika Sharma, Pradeep Barak, Saumitra Das, Siddhesh S Kamat, Roop Mallik
Despite massive fluctuations in its internal triglyceride content, the liver secretes triglyceride under tight homeostatic control. This buffering function is most visible after fasting, when liver triglyceride increases manyfold but circulating serum triglyceride barely fluctuates. How the liver controls triglyceride secretion is unknown, but is fundamentally important for lipid and energy homeostasis in animals. Here we find an unexpected cellular and molecular mechanism behind such control. We show that kinesin motors are recruited to triglyceride-rich lipid droplets (LDs) in the liver by the GTPase ARF1, which is a key activator of lipolysis...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157981/foxo1-inhibition-promotes-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-insulin-producing-cells
#13
Fei Yu, Rui Wei, Jin Yang, Junling Liu, Kun Yang, Haining Wang, Yiming Mu, Tianpei Hong
Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold great potential for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. Tremendous progress has been made in inducing differentiation of hESCs into IPCs in vitro, of which definitive endoderm (DE) protocol mimicking foetal pancreatic development has been widely used. However, immaturity of the obtained IPCs limits their further applications in treating diabetes. Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) is involved in the differentiation and functional maintenance of murine pancreatic β cells, but its role in human β cell differentiation is under elucidation...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157807/a-comparative-proteomic-study-of-secretomes-in-kaempferitrin-treated-ctx-tna2-astrocytic-cells
#14
Wei-Chi Ku, Yi-Ling Chang, Sheng-Fa Wu, Hui-Nung Shih, Yew-Min Tzeng, Hui-Ru Kuo, Kai-Ming Chang, Dinesh Chandra Agrawal, Bing-Lan Liu, Chin-An Chang, Siendong Huang, Meng-Jen Lee
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kaempferitrin is extracted in significantly high quantities from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum (C.O) and Bauhinia forficata, and are used as an antidiabetic herbal remedy in China and Brazil. Commercial product using dry Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves has been sold locally in Taiwan. Oral administration of kaempferitrin reduced blood sugar in diabetic rats. AIM OF THE STUDY: Though previously demonstrated to activate the classical insulin signaling pathways, a mechanism for kaempferitrin is still not fully understood...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157116/perinatal-exposure-to-high-dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-transgenic-nod8-3-mice-leads-to-pancreatic-beta-cell-dysfunction
#15
Danielle J Borg, Felicia Y T Yap, Sahar Keshvari, David G Simmons, Linda A Gallo, Amelia K Fotheringham, Aowen Zhuang, Robyn M Slattery, Sumaira Z Hasnain, Melinda T Coughlan, Phillip Kantharidis, Josephine M Forbes
The contribution of environmental factors to pancreatic islet damage in type 1 diabetes remains poorly understood. In this study, we crossed mice susceptible to type 1 diabetes, where parental male (CD8(+) T cells specific for IGRP206-214; NOD8.3) and female (NOD/ShiLt) mice were randomized to a diet either low or high in AGE content and maintained on this diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, NOD8.3(+) female offspring were identified and maintained on the same parental feeding regimen for until day 28 of life...
November 20, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156952/duodenal-infusions-of-isoleucine-influence-pancreatic-exocrine-function-in-dairy-heifers
#16
Kai Liu, Jing Shen, Yangchun Cao, Chuanjiang Cai, Junhu Yao
Four healthy Holstein heifers (235 ± 12 kg) fitted with duodenal and pancreatic cannulas were used to investigate infusion of isoleucine (Ile) on the pancreatic exocrine function in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Three doses of Ile, 10, 20 and 30 g in 2500 ml water, respectively, were infused into the duodenum over a period of 12 h in Experiment (Exp) 1 and over 10 d in Exp 2. Hourly pancreatic juice and jugular blood were taken during the infusion period in Exp 1, and the blood samples were taken in 2-h intervals over the last 2 d in Exp 2...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155153/the-glp-1-response-to-glucose-does-not-mediate-beta-and-alpha-cell-dysfunction-in-hispanics-with-abnormal-glucose-metabolism
#17
Elizabeth Adams, Pauline Genter, Emma Keefe, Kevin Sandow, Virginia Gray, Jerome I Rotter, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Eli Ipp
AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) contributes to insulin secretion after meals. Though Hispanics have increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is unknown if impaired GLP-1 secretion contributes to this risk. We therefore studied plasma GLP-1 secretion and action in Hispanic adults. METHODS: Hispanic (H; n=31) and non-Hispanic (nH; n=15) participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All participants were categorized by glucose tolerance into four groups: normal glucose tolerant non-Hispanic (NGT-nH; n = 15), normal glucose tolerant Hispanic (NGT-H; n = 12), impaired glucose tolerant Hispanic (IGT-H; n = 11), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, Hispanic (T2D-H; n = 8)...
November 16, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#18
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152839/beta-cell-sensitivity-to-glucose-is-impaired-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#19
Marzieh Salehi, Amalia Gastaldelli, David A D'Alessio
AIMS: Patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (GB) have exaggerated postprandial insulin secretion, which has been attributed to increased meal glucose appearance and enhanced incretin effect. Here we sought to determine β-cell glucose sensitivity in the absence of meal stimulation and insulinotropic gut factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve non-diabetic subjects with prior GB, and 7 matched non-surgical controls with normal glucose tolerance were studied...
November 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151531/repeated-hypoglycemic-episodes-with-postprandial-hyperinsulinemia-after-the-recovery-from-acute-weight-loss-revealed-by-continuous-glucose-monitoring-and-the-oral-glucose-tolerance-test
#20
Seizaburo Masuda, Masanori Murakami, Ryotaro Bouchi, Isao Minami, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
We herein report a case of a 20-year-old woman who experienced hypoglycemia in parallel with acute weight loss confirmed by continuous glucose motoring (CGM). When she recovered from the acute weight loss, CGM revealed nocturnal and postprandial hypoglycemia. Six months were required to resolve the hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia after the recovery of her weight. Our case suggests that the adaption of insulin secretion to the rapid loss of weight and to the recovery of weight may require a long period of time, leading to the excessive secretion of insulin relative to the glucose level and repeated hypoglycemic episodes with postprandial hyperinsulinemia...
November 20, 2017: Internal Medicine
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