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Insulin secretion

Chi Zhang, Huaigao Liu, Shangwu Chen, Yongkang Luo
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine exo-peptidase that can inactivate incretins by removing N-terminal dipeptides. Currently, inhibiting the DPP-IV activity is a common treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The goal of this study is to investigate whether IADHFL, a novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptide identified from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), has the potential to modulate T2D. IADHFL remained stable after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and significantly decreased the activity and expression of both soluble and membrane-bound DPP-IV after 24 h and 48 h of treatment...
March 19, 2018: Food & Function
Chun-Hsiang Tan, Peter A McNaughton
The abilities to detect warmth and heat are critical for the survival of all animals, both in order to be able to identify suitable thermal environments for the many different activities essential for life and to avoid damage caused by extremes of temperature. Several ion channels belonging to the TRP family are activated by non-noxious warmth or by heat and are therefore plausible candidates for thermal detectors, but identifying those that actually regulate warmth and heat detection in intact animals has proven problematic...
March 19, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Katya B Rubinow
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, parallel recognition has grown of the importance of both sex steroids and immune activity in metabolic regulation. More recently, these discrete areas have been integrated in studies examining the metabolic effects of sex steroid immunomodulation. Implicit in these studies has been a traditional, endocrine model of sex steroid delivery from the gonads to target cells, including immune cells. Thus, research to date has focused on the metabolic effects of sex steroid receptor signaling in immune cells...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
M Sassek, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, K W Nowak
The physiology of porcine pancreatic islets is poorly understood. Orexin A is one of important agents regulating the physiology of porcine pancreatic islets. This study aimed to determine the potential effect of orexin A on the functioning of porcine pancreatic islets. Orexin receptor localization was done by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Western Blot, both in pancreatic isolated islets and whole pancreas. Secretion of insulin and glucagon from islets after orexin-A treatment was assayed. The viability of pig pancreatic islet cells and level of cleaved/total caspase 3 protein were measured by MTT test (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and Western blotting, respectively...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Kanwal Rehman, Kiran Saeed, Syeda Mehak Munawar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that is associated with variable degrees of glucose intolerance, impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. The aim of present study was to investigate the therapeutic potentials of resveratrol (RSV) alone and/or in combination with vitamin-E (Vit-E) against hyperglycemia-induced modulations using experimentally alloxan-induced diabetic animal model. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes mellitus in white albino rats and metformin (MF) was used as standard anti-diabetic drug to compare the therapeutic potentials of RSV (alone and/or with Vit-E) by estimating the effect of treatment on glycemia, insulin resistance, liver and kidney function biomarkers, anti-oxidant status, and serum levels of calcium and magnesium...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Vladimir S Shavva, Alexandra M Bogomolova, Alexander M Efremov, Alexander N Trofimov, Artemy A Nikitin, Anna V Babina, Ekaterina V Nekrasova, Ella B Dizhe, Galina N Oleinikova, Boris V Missyul, Sergey V Orlov
C3 is an acute phase protein, and thus its plasma concentration increases quickly and drastically during the onset of inflammation. Insulin plays a complex role in inflammation. Elevated level of plasma C3 was shown to correlate with heightened fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance and appears to be a risk factor for the cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The main source of plasma C3 is liver. Nothing is known about effects of insulin on C3 gene expression and protein secretion by hepatocytes...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
C S Krumm, S L Giesy, C L Orndorff, Y R Boisclair
Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced predominantly by adipose tissue; it circulates as oligomers of 3, 6, 18, or more units. Plasma adiponectin might be involved in the development of insulin resistance in transition dairy cows because it falls to a nadir around parturition. The possibility that this regulation occurs through a post-transcriptional mechanism was suggested in a previous study that showed unchanged adiponectin mRNA abundance combined with reduced expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones implicated in assembly of adiponectin oligomers...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Vishal Musale, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt, J Michael Conlon, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Long-standing Type 2 diabetes is associated with loss of both β-cell function and β-cell mass. Peptides derived from the frog-skin host-defense peptide esculentin-1 have been shown to exhibit potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study is to determine whether such peptides also show insulinotropic and β-cell protective activities. Esculentin-1a(1-21).NH2 , esculentin-1b(1-18).NH2 , and esculentin-1a(1-14).NH2 produced concentration-dependent stimulations of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells, 1...
March 17, 2018: Amino Acids
Haipeng Yin, Qiang Guo, Xin Li, Tiantian Tang, Cuiling Li, Hengxiao Wang, Yuanxin Sun, Qi Feng, Chunhong Ma, Chengjiang Gao, Fan Yi, Jun Peng
Turmeric is traditionally used as a spice and coloring in foods. Curcumin is the primary active ingredient in the turmeric, and compelling evidence has shown that it has the ability to inhibit inflammation. However, the mechanism mediating its anti-inflammatory effects are not fully understood. We report that curcumin inhibited caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion through suppressing LPS priming and the inflammasome activation pathway in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on inflammasome activation was specific to the NLRP3, not to the NLRC4 or the AIM2 inflammasomes...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Dafna Greitzer-Antes, Li Xie, Tairan Qin, Huanli Xie, Dan Zhu, Subhankar Dolai, Tao Liang, Fei Kang, Alexandre B Hardy, Yan He, Youhou Kang, Herbert Y Gaisano
The voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channel Kv2.1 is a major delayed rectifier in many secretory cells, including pancreatic β-cells. In addition, Kv2.1 has a direct role in exocytosis at an undefined step, involving SNARE proteins and independent of its ion-conducting pore function. Here, we elucidated the precise step in exocytosis. We previously reported that syntaxin 3 (Syn-3) is the key syntaxin that mediates exocytosis of newcomer secretory granules that spend minimal residence time on the plasma membrane before fusion...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Teresa Daraio, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Kerstin Brismar, Christina Bark
SNAP-25 is a protein involved in regulated membrane fusion and part of the SNARE complex. It exists as two splicing variants, SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b, which differ in 9 out of 206 amino acids. SNAP-25 together with Syntaxin 1 and VAMP-2 forms the ternary SNARE complex essential for mediating activity-dependent release of hormones and neurotransmitters. The functional difference between SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b is poorly understood as both can participate in SNARE complexes and mediate membrane fusion. However, we recently demonstrated that SNAP-25b-deficiency results in metabolic disease and increased insulin secretion...
March 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Geoffrey P Roberts, Richard G Kay, James Howard, Richard H Hardwick, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
BACKGROUND: Altered enteroendocrine hormone responses are widely believed to underlie the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery in type 2 diabetes. While elevated postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is considered one of the mediators, increased postprandial glucagon levels have recently been implicated. OBJECTIVES: We investigated hormonal responses in lean patients after prophylactic total gastrectomy (PTG), as a model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass without the confounding effects of obesity or massive weight loss...
February 3, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Line Engelbrechtsen, Yuvaraj Mahendran, Anna Jonsson, Anette Prior Gjesing, Peter E Weeke, Marit E Jørgensen, Kristine Færch, Daniel R Witte, Jens J Holst, Torben Jørgensen, Niels Grarup, Oluf Pedersen, Henrik Vestergaard, Signe Torekov, Jørgen K Kanters, Torben Hansen
BACKGROUND: Patients with long QT syndrome due to rare loss-of-function mutations in the human ether-á-go-go-related gene (hERG) have prolonged QT interval, risk of arrhythmias, increased secretion of insulin and incretins and impaired glucagon response to hypoglycemia. This is caused by a dysfunctional Kv11.1 voltage-gated potassium channel. Based on these findings in patients with rare variants in hERG, we hypothesized that common variants in hERG may also lead to alterations in glucose homeostasis...
March 16, 2018: BMC Genetics
Katarzyna Skrzypek, Yazmin Brito Barrera, Thomas Groth, Dimitrios Stamatialis
INTRODUCTION: Encapsulation of pancreatic islets or beta cells is a promising strategy for treatment of type 1 diabetes by providing an immune isolated environment and allowing for transplantation in a different location than the liver. However, islets used for encapsulation often show lower functionality due to the damaging of islet endothelial cells during the isolation procedure. Factors produced by endothelial cells have great impact on beta cell insulin secretion. Therefore, mutual signaling between endothelial cells and beta cells should be considered for the development of encapsulation systems to achieve high insulin secretion and maintain beta cell viability...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Ye Seul Yang, Min Hyuk Lim, Seong Ok Lee, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim, Andrea Mari, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
AIMS: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with renal protective effect. Additionally, they have been associated with the delayed onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations, and some ARB were reported to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. Therefore, we studied the effects of ARB on insulin secretion in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this open-labeled, active comparator-controlled and crossover study...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lianbin Xu, Xueyan Lin, Robin R White, Mark D Hanigan, Zhiyong Hu, Qiuling Hou, Yun Wang, Zhonghua Wang
Background: Circulating amino acid (AA) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and hepatic gluconeogenesis are affected by previous protein intake. However, information about their relations and islet hormone responses is limited. Objective: This study investigated the associations between islet hormone concentrations with circulating AA and NO concentrations as well as with hepatic gluconeogenesis in lactating rats. Methods: At delivery, 18 Wistar rats aged 14 wk were assigned either to low-protein (LP; 9% protein), standard-protein (SP; 21% protein), or high-protein (HP; 35% protein) diets for 15 d in groups of 6 pups/dam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Zia Uddin, Yeong Hun Song, Mahboob Ullah, Zuopeng Li, Jeong Yoon Kim, Ki Hun Park
Diabetes mellitus is one of a major worldwide concerns, regulated by either defects in secretion or action of insulin, or both. Insulin signaling down-regulation has been related with over activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, which has been a promising target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Herein, activity guided separation of methanol extract (95%) of Dodonaea viscosa aerial parts afforded nine ( 1 - 9 ) polyphenolic compounds, all of them were identified through spectroscopic data including 2D NMR and HREIMS...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Anthony J Kee, Jayshan Chagan, Jeng Yie Chan, Nicole S Bryce, Christine A Lucas, Jun Zeng, Jeff Hook, Herbert Treutlein, D Ross Laybutt, Justine R Stehn, Peter W Gunning, Edna C Hardeman
The development of novel small molecule inhibitors of the cancer-associated tropomyosin 3.1 (Tpm3.1) provides the ability to examine the metabolic function of specific actin filament populations. We have determined the ability of these anti-Tpm (ATM) compounds to regulate glucose metabolism in mice. Acute treatment (1 h) of wild-type (WT) mice with the compounds (TR100 and ATM1001) led to a decrease in glucose clearance due mainly to suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic islets...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sudha S Shankar, R Ravi Shankar, Lori A Mixson, Deborah L Miller, Barnali Pramanik, Amy K O'Dowd, Donna M Williams, Clay B Frederick, Chan R Beals, S Aubrey Stoch, Helmut O Steinberg, David E Kelley
Oxyntomodulin (OXM), an enteroendocrine hormone, causes appetite suppression, increased energy expenditure, and weight loss in obese humans via activation of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. However, the effects of OXM on glucose homeostasis remain ill-defined. To address this gap, we evaluated the effects of an intravenous (IV) infusion of native OXM on insulin secretory rates (ISR) and glycemic excursion in a graded glucose infusion (GGI) procedure in two separate randomized, placebo-controlled, single dose crossover trials in 12 overweight and obese subjects without diabetes, and in 12 obese subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) respectively, using the GLP-1 analog, liraglutide as a comparator in the T2DM...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes
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