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Pancreatic beta cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454490/subchronic-exposure-to-acrylamide-leads-to-pancreatic-islet-remodeling-determined-by-alpha-cell-expansion-and-beta-cell-mass-reduction-in-adult-rats
#1
Milena Stošić, Milica Matavulj, Jelena Marković
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic substance, used to synthesize polymers for industrial and laboratory processes. Also, AA is a food contaminant formed during the high temperature preparation of carbohydrate-rich food. The main subject of this study was to examine effects of subchronic AA treatment on the islets of Langerhans of adult rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of glucagon and insulin expression and stereological analyses of pancreatic alpha and beta cells were performed...
February 14, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454299/congenital-forms-of-diabetes-the-beta-cell-and-beyond
#2
REVIEW
Lisa R Letourneau, Siri Atma W Greeley
The majority of patients diagnosed with diabetes less than 6 months of age, and many cases diagnosed between 6 and 12 months of age, have a gene mutation that causes permanent or transient hyperglycemia. Recent research advances have allowed for the discovery of new causes of congenital diabetes, including genes involved in pancreatic development (GATA4, NKX2-2, MNX1) and monogenic causes of autoimmune dysregulation (STAT3, LRBA). Ongoing follow-up of patients with KCNJ11 and ABCC8 mutations has supported the safety and efficacy of sulfonylureas, as well as the use of insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors in infants with insulin-requiring forms of monogenic diabetes...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453918/high-dose-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-affects-insulin-secretory-mechanism-of-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#3
Eiji Yamato
OBJECTIVE: Histone deacytylase inhibitors (HDACis) inhibit the deacetylation of the lysine residue of proteins, including histones, and regulate the transcription of a variety of genes. Recently, HDACis have been used clinically as anti-cancer drugs and possible anti-diabetic drugs. Even though HDACis have been proven to protect the cytokine-induced damage of pancreatic beta cells, evidence also shows that high doses of HDACis are cytotoxic. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the eff ect of HDACis on insulin secretion in a pancreatic beta cell line...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452961/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-dpp-4i-combined-with-vitamin-d3-an-exploration-to-treat-new-onset-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-in-the-future
#4
Marcelo Maia Pinheiro, Felipe Moura Maia Pinheiro, Maria Luisa Trabachin
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of pancreatic beta cells through cell injury caused primarily by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8 + ). The pathophysiological basis of T1DM seems to be an imbalance between a reduced function of T regulatory lymphocytes and an increased inflammatory activity of Th17 lymphocytes caused by increased production of inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IFN-gamma due to environmental factors and genetic predisposition...
February 13, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450573/author-correction-beta-cell-connectivity-in-pancreatic-islets-a-type-2-diabetes-target
#5
Guy A Rutter, David J Hodson
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Legends of Figures 1 and 2 were interchanged. The correct versions are given below.
February 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444133/a-long-term-mechanistic-computational-model-of-physiological-factors-driving-the-onset-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-individual
#6
Joydeep Sarkar, Gaurav Dwivedi, Qian Chen, Iris E Sheu, Mark Paich, Colleen M Chelini, Paul M D'Alessandro, Samuel P Burns
A computational model of the physiological mechanisms driving an individual's health towards onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is described, calibrated and validated using data from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). The objective of this model is to quantify the factors that can be used for prevention of T2D. The model is energy and mass balanced and continuously simulates trajectories of variables including body weight components, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among others on the time-scale of years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442719/nanoliposomal-resveratrol-as-a-novel-approach-to-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Çiğdem Yücel, Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak, Yeşim Aktaş
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease and the subgroup of DM is called type II which is the most common form. The incidence of type II is increasing worldwide and it focuses on several new approaches to efficiently treatment of diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV) is known to be strong antioxidant and has an insulin-like effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cells. It plays an active role at treatment of diabetes with reducing the oxidative stress, lowering glucose levels and protection of beta cells which are responsible for insulin secretion...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435118/assessment-of-folate-receptor-alpha-and-beta-expression-in-selection-of-lung-and-pancreatic-cancer-patients-for-receptor-targeted-therapies
#8
Jiayin Shen, Yingwen Hu, Karson S Putt, Sunil Singhal, Haiyong Han, Daniel W Visscher, Linda M Murphy, Philip S Low
A number of folate receptor (FR) targeted small molecular drugs and monoclonal antibodies have been introduced into clinical trials to treat FR positive cancers. Because the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs depends prominently on the level of FR-α expression on the cancer cells, patients have been commonly selected for FR-targeted therapies based on the intensity of a folate-targeted radioimaging agent. Unfortunately, uptake of such imaging agents can be mediated by both major isoforms of the folate receptor, FR-α and FR-β...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431265/blockade-of-cannabinoid-1-receptor-improves-glucose-responsiveness-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#9
Hanho Shin, Ji Hye Han, Juhwan Yoon, Hyo Jung Sim, Tae Joo Park, Siyoung Yang, Eun Kyung Lee, Rohit N Kulkarni, Josephine M Egan, Wook Kim
Cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed in peripheral tissues, including islets of Langerhans, where their function(s) is under scrutiny. Using mouse β-cell lines, human islets and CB1R-null (CB1R-/- ) mice, we have now investigated the role of CB1Rs in modulating β-cell function and glucose responsiveness. Synthetic CB1R agonists diminished GLP-1-mediated cAMP accumulation and insulin secretion as well as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse β-cell lines and human islets. In addition, silencing CB1R in mouse β cells resulted in an increased expression of pro-insulin, glucokinase (GCK) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), but this increase was lost in β cells lacking insulin receptor...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428671/swertisin-ameliorates-diabetes-by-triggering-pancreatic-progenitors-for-islet-neogenesis-in-streptozotocin-treated-balb-c-mice
#10
Abhay Srivastava, Nidheesh Dadheech, Mitul Vakani, Sarita Gupta
In the present study, Swertisin's role in triggering resident pancreatic progenitors for islet neogenesis in Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice was explored. STZ diabetic mice when treated with Swertisin demonstrated reversion to normoglycemia and significant elevation of fasting serum insulin levels. On screening the pancreatic tissue post Swertisin treatment in the STZ diabetic mice, we observed significant up-regulation of key transcription factors viz. Pdx1, Neurog3, MafA and Nkx6.1 required for islet neogenesis and beta cell homeostasis...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422234/an-overview-of-type-2-diabetes-and-importance-of-vitamin-d3-vitamin-d-receptor-interaction-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#11
REVIEW
Abraham Neelankal John, Fang-Xu Jiang
One significant health issue that plagues contemporary society is that of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This disease is characterised by higher-than-average blood glucose levels as a result of a combination of insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretions from the β-cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Previous developmental research into the pancreas has identified how early precursor genes of pancreatic β-cells, such as Cpal, Ngn3, NeuroD, Ptf1a, and cMyc, play an essential role in the differentiation of these cells...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420708/sex-differences-in-maturation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-in-mice
#12
Nelly Saber, Jennifer E Bruin, Shannon O'Dwyer, Hellen Schuster, Alireza Rezania, Timothy J Kieffer
Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are now in clinical trials for insulin replacement in patients with type 1 diabetes. Animal studies indicate the cells can mature into a mixed population of pancreatic endocrine cells including glucose-responsive beta cells several months after implant, but it remains unclear how conditions in the recipient may influence the maturation and ultimately the function of these cells. Here, we investigated the effects of the host sex and pregnancy on the maturation of human Stage 4 (S4) pancreatic progenitor cells and more mature Stage 7 (S7) pancreatic endocrine cells implanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient SCID-Beige mice...
February 5, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415820/differentially-methylated-circulating-dna-a-novel-biomarker-to-monitor-beta-cell-death
#13
REVIEW
Yingfeng Liu, Qiyuan Tan, Fang Liu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder of glucose homeostasis caused by insufficient secretion or inadequate action of insulin. Nowadays, the increased morbidity of DM is a worldwide issue. Pancreatic beta cell death plays a key role in the progress of DM, especially Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Traditional biomarkers, such as C-peptide and islet autoimmune antibodies are limited to reflect beta cell death and to identify high risk patients in the clinical practice. Recently, a novel biomarker, differentially methylated circulating DNA, has become a research hotspot...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415062/loss-of-intra-islet-heparan-sulfate-is-a-highly-sensitive-marker-of-type-1-diabetes-progression-in-humans
#14
Charmaine J Simeonovic, Sarah K Popp, Lora M Starrs, Debra J Brown, Andrew F Ziolkowski, Barbara Ludwig, Stefan R Bornstein, J Dennis Wilson, Alberto Pugliese, Thomas W H Kay, Helen E Thomas, Thomas Loudovaris, Fui Jiun Choong, Craig Freeman, Christopher R Parish
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-producing beta cells in pancreatic islets are progressively destroyed. Clinical trials of immunotherapies in recently diagnosed T1D patients have only transiently and partially impacted the disease course, suggesting that other approaches are required. Our previous studies have demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan conventionally expressed in extracellular matrix, is present at high levels inside normal mouse beta cells. Intracellular HS was shown to be critical for beta cell survival and protection from oxidative damage...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412835/control-of-insulin-secretion-by-glp-1
#15
Ben Jones, Stephen R Bloom, Teresa Buenaventura, Alejandra Tomas, Guy A Rutter
Stimulation of insulin secretion by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and other gut-derived peptides is central to the incretin response to ingesting nutriments. Analogues of GLP-1, and inhibitors of its breakdown, have found widespread clinical use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The release of these peptides underlies the improvements in glycaemic control and disease remission after bariatric surgery. Given therapeutically, GLP-1 analogues can lead to side effects including nausea, which limit dosage...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412828/emerging-therapeutic-potential-for-peptide-yy-for-obesity-diabetes
#16
Ryan A Lafferty, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
The vast majority of research to date on the gut hormone Peptide YY (PYY) has focused on appetite suppression and body weight regulation effects. These biological actions are believed to occur through interaction of PYY with hypothalamic Y2 receptors. However, more recent studies have added additional knowledge to understanding of the physiological, and potential therapeutic, roles of PYY beyond obesity alone. Thus, PYY has now been shown to impart improvements in pancreatic beta-cell survival and function, with obvious benefits for diabetes...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412822/apelin-13-analogues-show-potent-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-insulinotropic-and-glucose-lowering-actions
#17
F P M O'Harte, V Parthsarathy, C Hogg, P R Flatt
Nine structurally modified apelin-13 analogues were assessed for their in vitro and acute in vivo antidiabetic potential. Stability was assessed in mouse plasma and insulinotropic efficacy tested in cultured pancreatic BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP production in BRIN-BD11 cells was determined, as was glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Acute antihyperglycemic effects of apelin analogues were assessed following i.p. glucose tolerance tests (ipGGT, 18 mmol/kg) in normal and diet-induced-obese (DIO) mice and on food intake in normal mice...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412820/a-novel-glp-1-xenin-hybrid-peptide-improves-glucose-homeostasis-circulating-lipids-and-restores-gip-sensitivity-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#18
Annie Hasib, Ming T Ng, Dawood Khan, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
Combined modulation of peptide hormone receptors including, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and xenin, have established benefits for the treatment of diabetes. The present study has assessed the biological actions and therapeutic efficacy of a novel exendin-4/xenin-8-Gln hybrid peptide, both alone and in combination with the GIP receptor agonist (DAla2)GIP. Exendin-4/xenin-8-Gln was enzymatically stable and exhibited enhanced insulin secretory actions when compared to its parent peptides...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411334/regulation-and-bioactivity-of-the-ccn-family-of-genes-and-proteins-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Stephen M Twigg
Across the years the CCNs have been increasingly implicated in the development of obesity, diabetes and its complications. Evidence for this is currently derived from their dysregulation in key metabolic pathological states in humans, animal and in vitro models, and also pre-clinical effects of their bioactivities. CCN2 is the best studied in this disease process and the other CCNs are yet to be better defined. Key steps where CCNs may play a pathogenic metabolic role include: (i) obesity and insulin resistance, where CCN2 inhibits fat cell differentiation in vitro and CCN3 may induce obesity and insulin resistance; (ii) elevated blood glucose levels to diabetes mellitus onset, where CCN2 may contribute to pancreatic beta cell and islet function; and (iii) in diabetes complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, liver disease (NAFLD/NASH), CVD and diabetes with heart failure...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409957/dpp-4-is-expressed-in-human-pancreatic-beta-cells-and-its-direct-inhibition-improves-beta-cell-function-and-survival-in-type-2-diabetes
#20
Marco Bugliani, Farooq Syed, Flavia M M Paula, Bilal A Omar, Mara Suleiman, Sandra Mossuto, Francesca Grano, Francesco Cardarelli, Ugo Boggi, Fabio Vistoli, Franco Filipponi, Paolo De Simone, Lorella Marselli, Vincenzo De Tata, Bo Ahren, Decio L Eizirik, Piero Marchetti
It has been reported that the incretin system, including regulated GLP-1 secretion and locally expressed DPP-4, is present in pancreatic islets. In this study we comprehensively evaluated the expression and role of DPP-4 in islet alpha and beta cells from non-diabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals, including the effects of its inhibition on beta cell function and survival. Isolated islets were prepared from 25 ND and 18 T2D organ donors; studies were also performed with the human insulin-producing EndoC-βH1 cells...
January 31, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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