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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140551/b-cell-receptor-repertoire-sequencing-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Marie Ghraichy, Jacob D Galson, Dominic F Kelly, Johannes Trück
The advent of next-generation sequencing now allows a detailed assessment of the adaptive immune system in health and disease. In particular, high-throughput B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire sequencing provides detailed information about the functionality and abnormalities of the B-cell system. However, it is mostly unknown how the BCR repertoire is altered in the context of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and whether findings are consistent across phenotypes and genotypes. We have performed an extensive literature search of the published work on BCR repertoire sequencing in PID patients, including several forms of predominantly antibody disorders and combined immunodeficiencies...
November 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137597/reduction-of-pluripotent-gene-expression-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-exposed-to-mechanical-loading-or-cyclo-rgd-peptide
#2
Olesja Hazenbiller, Neil A Duncan, Roman J Krawetz
BACKGROUND: Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is directed by biological and/or physical cues that regulate multiple signaling cascades. We have previously shown that mESCs seeded in a type I collagen matrix demonstrate a loss of pluripotent marker expression and differentiate towards an osteogenic lineage. In this study, we examined if this effect was mediated in part through Arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) dependent integrin activity and/or mechano-transduction...
November 14, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133261/dual-inhibition-of-brd4-and-pi3k-by-sf2523-suppresses-human-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Gang Shen, Minjun Jiang, Jinxian Pu
Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) are both key oncogenic proteins in human prostate cancer. In the current study, we examined the anti-prostate cancer cell activity by SF2523, a BRD4 and PI3K dual inhibitor. We showed that SF2523 potently inhibited survival and proliferation of the primary human prostate cancer cells. SF2523 induced profound apoptosis activation in prostate cancer cells. The dual inhibitor was yet non-cytotoxic to the prostate epithelial cells...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130604/expanding-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-tp63-related-disorders-including-the-first-set-of-monozygotic-twins
#4
Tara Wenger, Dong Li, Margaret H Harr, Wen-Hann Tan, Renata Pellegrino, Zornitza Stark, Hakon Hakonarson, Elizabeth J Bhoj
Individuals with Tumor Protein P63 (TP63)-related disorders are known to present with a range of phenotypic features, including ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate, Rapp-Hodgkin, Hay-Wells, and limb-mammary syndromes. We present six individuals from three families, including a set of monozygotic twins, with pathogenic TP63 variants who had novel clinical findings. The twins were discordant for cleft lip and palate, and the type of hand malformations, but concordant for choanal atresia, and bilateral volar nail...
November 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123649/the%C3%A2-%C3%AE-c%C3%A2-family-of-cytokines-fine-tuning-signals-from-il-2-and-il-21-in-the-regulation-of-the-immune-response
#5
REVIEW
Rosanne Spolski, Daniel Gromer, Warren J Leonard
Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 form a family of cytokines based on the sharing of a receptor component, the common cytokine receptor γ chain, γ c, which is encoded by the gene mutated in humans with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID). Together, these cytokines play critical roles in lymphoid development, differentiation, growth, and survival as well as mediating effector function. Here, we provide an overview of the main actions of members of this cytokine family but then primarily focus on IL-2 and IL-21, discussing their dynamic interplay and contributions to a fine-tuned immune response...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116556/newborn-screening-for-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases-history-current-and-future-practice
#6
Jovanka R King, Lennart Hammarström
The primary objective of population-based newborn screening is the early identification of asymptomatic infants with a range of severe diseases, for which effective treatment is available and where early diagnosis and intervention prevent serious sequelae. Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are a heterogeneous group of inborn errors of immunity. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is one form of PID which is uniformly fatal without early, definitive therapy, and outcomes are significantly improved if infants are diagnosed and treated within the first few months of life...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113169/lentivirus-mediated-rna-interference-inhibits-the-tumorigenicity-of-cluster-of-differentiation-44-tumor-cells-in-hypopharyngeal-cancer
#7
Chenling Shen, Bin Ye, Haixia Hu, Chen Nie, Yan Ma, Jingrong Lv, Hao Wu, Mingliang Xiang
The present study aimed to investigate whether the inhibition of cluster of differentiation (CD)44 expression reduces the tumorigenicity of CD44(+) cancer stem cells in hypopharyngeal cancer. To assess this, effective recombinant CD44 short hairpin RNA-expressing lentiviruses were produced. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was then used to knockdown CD44 gene expression in the hypopharyngeal cancer FaDu cell line. The viability of FaDu cells in the two control groups and the RNAi group (RNAi-CD44 lentiviral vector) was detected using an MTT assay in vitro...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109851/safety-and-efficacy-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-on-hepatitis-c-eradication-in-hepatitis-c-virus-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infected-patients
#8
Xiaoping He, Lynne Hopkins, George Everett, Willie M Carter, Cynthia SchroppDyce, Khalid Abusaada, Vincent Hsu
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir on hepatitis C eradication in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in an urban HIV clinic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 40 subjects co-infected with HIV-1 and HCV treated with the fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 wk from 2014 to 2016. All patients included were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV RNA values of 100 copies/mL or fewer regardless of baseline HCV RNA level...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105400/effects-of-klf4-and-c-myc-knockdown-on-pluripotency-maintenance-in-porcine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell
#9
Yu-Jing Liao, Yi-Shiou Chen, Ja-Xin Lee, Lih-Ren Chen, Jenn-Rong Yang
OBJECTIVES: The importance of Oct4 and Sox2 in maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal is well-understood, but the functions of Klf4 and c-Myc has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we attempted to determine the roles of Klf4 and c-Myc on pluripotency maintenance of porcine induced pluripotent stem (piPS) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, we performed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down the Klf4 and c-Myc functions of piPS cells and examined pluripotency markers and teratoma formation to evaluate piPS cell pluripotency...
January 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105160/strength-in-amalgamation-newer-combination-agents-for-hiv-and-implications-for-practice
#10
Christopher McCoy, Melissa Badowski, Elizabeth Sherman, Rustin Crutchley, Ethan Smith, Daniel B Chastain
Antiretroviral (ART) therapy for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has undergone significant changes over the past 30 years. Many single tablet regimens (STR), including newer fixed dose combination (FDC) tablets, are available, offering patients several options for choosing a treatment regimen that works best for them. Given these changes, patients are more likely to adhere to treatment, achieve better clinical outcomes, and experience both fewer side effects and drug-drug interactions...
November 3, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102562/prostaglandin-e2-increases-lentiviral-vector-transduction-efficiency-of-adult-human-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#11
Garrett C Heffner, Melissa Bonner, Lauryn Christiansen, Francis J Pierciey, Dakota Campbell, Yegor Smurnyy, Wenliang Zhang, Amanda Hamel, Seema Shaw, Gretchen Lewis, Kendrick A Goss, Olivia Garijo, Bruce E Torbett, Holly Horton, Mitchell H Finer, Philip D Gregory, Gabor Veres
Gene therapy currently in development for hemoglobinopathies utilizes ex vivo lentiviral transduction of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). A small-molecule screen identified prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a positive mediator of lentiviral transduction of CD34(+) cells. Supplementation with PGE2 increased lentiviral vector (LVV) transduction of CD34(+) cells approximately 2-fold compared to control transduction methods with no effect on cell viability. Transduction efficiency was consistently increased in primary CD34(+) cells from multiple normal human donors and from patients with β-thalassemia or sickle cell disease...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100333/functional-consequence-of-the-p53-codon-72-polymorphism-in-colorectal-cancer
#12
Venkat R Katkoori, Upender Manne, Lakshmi S Chaturvedi, Marc D Basson, Pam Haan, Daniel Coffey, Harvey L Bumpers
Background: The codon 72 polymorphism in p53 has been implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, prognosis and CRC health disparities. We examined the functional consequence of this polymorphism in CRC. Experimental Design: Plasmids (pCMV6) that express different phenotypes of p53 [p53 wild type (wt) at codon 72 (R72(wt)), R72(wt) with mutation at codon 273 cysteine (R72(273Cys)), p53 mutation at codon 72 (P72(wt)) and P72(wt) with mutation at codon 273 (P72(273Cys))] were constructed...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091371/medical-devices-immunology-and-microbiology-devices-classification-of-the-newborn-screening-test-for-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-disorder-final-order
#13
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the newborn screening test for severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the newborn screening test for SCID's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device...
October 30, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079285/a-novel-orally-available-small-molecule-that-inhibits-hepatitis-b-virus-expression
#14
Henrik Mueller, Steffen Wildum, Souphalone Luangsay, Johanna Walther, Anais Lopez, Philipp Tropberger, Giorgio Ottaviani, Wenzhe Lu, Neil John Parrott, Jitao David Zhang, Roland Schmucki, Tomas Racek, Jean-Christophe Hoflack, Erich Kueng, Floriane Point, Xue Zhou, Guido Steiner, Marc Lütgehetmann, Gianna Rapp, Tassilo Volz, Maura Dandri, Song Yang, John A T Young, Hassan Javanbakht
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The hallmarks of chronic HBV infection are a high viral load (HBV DNA) and even higher levels (>100-fold in excess of virions) of non-infectious membranous particles containing the tolerogenic viral S antigen (HBsAg). Currently, standard treatment effectively reduces viremia but only rarely results in a functional cure (defined as sustained HBsAg loss). There is an urgent need to identify novel therapies that reduce HBsAg levels and restore virus-specific immune responsiveness in patients...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078283/humanized-mouse-model-supports-development-function-and-tissue-residency-of-human-natural-killer-cells
#15
Dietmar Herndler-Brandstetter, Liang Shan, Yi Yao, Carmen Stecher, Valerie Plajer, Melanie Lietzenmayer, Till Strowig, Marcel R de Zoete, Noah W Palm, Jie Chen, Catherine A Blish, Davor Frleta, Cagan Gurer, Lynn E Macdonald, Andrew J Murphy, George D Yancopoulos, Ruth R Montgomery, Richard A Flavell
Immunodeficient mice reconstituted with a human immune system represent a promising tool for translational research as they may allow modeling and therapy of human diseases in vivo. However, insufficient development and function of human natural killer (NK) cells and T cell subsets limit the applicability of humanized mice for studying cancer biology and therapy. Here, we describe a human interleukin 15 (IL15) and human signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPA) knock-in mouse on a Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) background (SRG-15)...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062885/arctigenin-inhibits-prostate-tumor-cell-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Piwen Wang, Walter Solorzano, Tanya Diaz, Clara E Magyar, Susanne M Henning, Jaydutt V Vadgama
The low bioavailability of most phytochemicals limits their translation to humans. We investigated whether arctigenin, a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, has favorable bioavailability/potency against prostate cancer. The anticarcinogenic activity of arctigenin was investigated both in vitro using the androgen-sensitive LNCaP and LAPC-4 human prostate cancer cells and pre-malignant WPE1-NA22 cells, and in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Arctigenin at lower doses (< 2μM) significantly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells by 30-50% at 48h compared to control, and inhibited WPE1-NA22 cells by 75%, while did not affect normal prostate epithelial cells...
June 2017: Clin Nutr Exp
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062247/frequency-of-mycobacterium-bovis-and-mycobacteria-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#17
Ezgi Ulusoy, Neslihan Edeer Karaca, Güzide Aksu, Cengiz Çavuşoğlu, Necil Kütükçüler
AIM: Susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases is observed in some primary immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate mycobacterial infections in primary immunodeficiency diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients under follow-up by Ege University Pediatric Immunology Department for severe combined and combined immunodeficiencies, interleukin 12/ interferon gamma receptor deficiency, nuclear factor kappa-beta essential modulator deficiency and chronic granulomatosis disease were evaluated retrospectively in terms of the frequency and characteristics of mycobacterial infections using a questionnaire form for demographic properties, clinical features and laboratory tests...
September 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059189/inhibition-of-mir-142-5p-ameliorates-disease-in-mouse-models-of-experimental-colitis
#18
Nicolette W Duijvis, Perry D Moerland, Cindy Kunne, Monique M W Slaman, Faas H van Dooren, Esther W Vogels, Wouter J de Jonge, Sybren L Meijer, Kees Fluiter, Anje A Te Velde
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetically involved in regulating gene expression. They may be of importance in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to determine the role of miRNAs by their specific blocking in the CD4+CB45RBhi T-cell transfer model of chronic experimental colitis. METHODS: Colitis caused by transfer of WT CD4+CD45RBhi T cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice shares many features with human IBD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058101/dock8-deficiency-presenting-as-an-ipex-like-disorder
#19
Fayhan J Alroqi, Louis-Marie Charbonnier, Sevgi Keles, Fatima Ghandour, Pierre Mouawad, Rami Sabouneh, Reem Mohammed, Abduarahman Almutairi, Janet Chou, Michel J Massaad, Raif S Geha, Zeina Baz, Talal A Chatila
PURPOSE: The dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is an autosomal recessive-combined immunodeficiency whose clinical spectra include recurrent infections, autoimmunity, malignancies, elevated serum IgE, eczema, and food allergies. Here, we report on patients with loss of function DOCK8 mutations with profound immune dysregulation suggestive of an immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX)-like disorder. METHODS: Immunophenotyping of lymphocyte subpopulations and analysis of DOCK8 protein expression were evaluated by flow cytometry...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055819/dynamics-of-lentiviral-infection-in-vivo-in-the-absence-of-adaptive-immune-responses
#20
Elissa J Schwartz, Naveen K Vaidya, Karin S Dorman, Susan Carpenter, Robert H Mealey
Understanding the dynamics of acute viral infection is crucial for developing strategies to prevent and control infection. In this study, lentiviral dynamics in a host without adaptive immunity were examined in order to determine kinetic parameters of infection and quantify the effect of neutralizing antibodies in preventing infection, using mathematical modeling of data from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Estimated parameters were used to calculate the basic reproductive number and virus doubling time and found that the rate that antibodies neutralized virus was ~18 times greater than the virus clearance rate...
October 19, 2017: Virology
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