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Fares Ayoub, Dhruv Mahtta, Roland-Austin Federico, Michael Kaufmann
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus) is a rare complication of latent Varicella Zoster virus infection. It can be complicated by permanent hearing loss, loss of taste and postherpetic neuralgia. Although Ramsay Hunt syndrome most prominently involves the facial nerve, a number of other cranial nerves can be involved such as the vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal and the vagus nerve. We report on a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cranial polyneuritis complicated by atrial fibrillation. Vagal involvement as evidenced by physical examination and MRI findings was present in our patient...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Ivan R F da Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arboviruses have been associated with central and peripheral nervous system injuries, in special the flaviviruses. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmological manifestations, and other neurological complications have been recently associated to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. In this review, we aim to analyze the epidemiological aspects, possible pathophysiology, and what we have learned about the clinical and laboratory findings, as well as treatment of patients with ZIKV-associated neurological complications...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Jennifer A Frontera, Daniel A Amitrano, Ana M Bispo de Filippis, Ivan R F Da Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Neurology
Ivanka S Nenova, Mariana Y Valcheva, Elina A Beleva, Dora Y Tumbeva, Marianna P Yaneva, Emilia L Rancheva, Zhanet G Grudeva-Popova
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune disorders have been documented in solid tumors and malignant hematological disorders. They are very common and well studied in lymphomas which are associated with immune imbalance. They are less common in solid tumors and are categorized as paraneoplastic syndromes with unclear pathogenesis. AIM: The aim of the present study was to find the frequency of autoimmune phenomena in solid tumors of various origin, location and status of the tumor...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Sneha Bharadwaj, Andrew Campbell Moffat, Brad Wood, Avinash Bharadwaj
An elderly man presented with severe right ear pain and discharge, hoarseness and dysphagia causing significant involuntary weight loss. Extensive investigations by varied specialties only highlighted right vocal cord palsy and right parotid lymphadenitis. Reassessment on transfer to a rehabilitation ward noted clinically subtle right Ramsay Hunt syndrome with multiple lower cranial nerve involvement. We illustrate a case of varicella zoster virus cranial polyneuritis with bulbar symptoms mimicking bulbar stroke, requiring percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeds, with significant clinical and radiological recovery over 1 year...
June 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Enrique Alcalde-Cabero, Javier Almazán-Isla, Fernando J García López, José Ramón Ara-Callizo, Fuencisla Avellanal, Carlos Casasnovas, Carlos Cemillán, José Ignacio Cuadrado, Jacinto Duarte, María Dolores Fernández-Pérez, Óscar Fernández, Juan Antonio García Merino, Rosa García Montero, Dolores Montero, Julio Pardo, Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Rivera, María Ruiz-Tovar, Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a slight excess risk in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) incidence associated with A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination campaign and seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine immunisations in 2009-2010. We aimed to assess the incidence of GBS as a potential adverse effect of A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. METHODS: A neurologist-led network, active at the neurology departments of ten general hospitals serving an adult population of 4.68 million, conducted GBS surveillance in Spain in 2009-2011...
May 21, 2016: BMC Neurology
Eda Kiliç Çoban, Elmir Xanmemmedov, Melek Çolak, Aysun Soysal
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an episodic and progressive inflammatory disease of cartilaginous structures. Its diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features such as laboratory parameters, biopsy. Neurological complications occur in 3% of the cases and are classified as an important cause of death. The cranial nerve disorders are most common but hemiplegia, ataxia, myelitis, polyneuritis, seizures, confusion, hallucination and headache can also happen. The aetiology of central nervous system involvement is still unknown...
November 30, 2015: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Jhao-Jhuang Ding, Chuen-Ming Lee, Shyi-Jou Chen, Chih-Chien Wang, Chun-Jung Juan, Hueng-Chuen Fan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Aurélien Jeandel, Kaspar Matiasek, Stéphane Blot
An Abyssinian kitten was presented after a sudden onset of neurological disorders consistent with a polyneuropathy. Electrophysiological and histological investigations revealed an inflammatory polyneuropathy. No infectious agents were detected. Spontaneous recovery occurred rapidly without relapse (2 years follow-up). This is the first description of a histologically confirmed self-limiting feline polyneuritis.
December 2015: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
L Smith, T Kemp, C H van der Meyden, C-M Schutte
Thyrotoxic myopathy frequently occurs in clinical practice; however, the association of hyperthyroidism with a flaccid, areflexic paraplegia, so-called Basedow paraplegia, appears to represent a controversial and doubtful entity. An 18-year-old female with undiagnosed and untreated Graves’ disease presented with acute onset of global weakness predominantly in the lower limbs, but also affecting the upper limbs. The weakness was accompanied by hypotonia and areflexia. Clinically, the patient had a goitre and signs of thyroid ocular disease...
October 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
William R Munday, Daniel DiCapua, Alexander Vortmeyer, Jose Luis Gomez
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute polyneuropathy, ascending paralysis and post infectious polyneuritis. Two-thirds of patients present with a history of recent upper respiratory tract or gastrointestinal infection. The clinical history, neurologic examination and laboratory assessment allow for a straightforward diagnosis in the majority of cases. However, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is known to cause clinically detectable muscular weakness. It is therefore critical to differentiate between PBC-associated muscular weakness and GBS-induced paralysis...
April 2015: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Don Gilden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the clinical features and laboratory and imaging abnormalities of the protean neurologic disorders produced by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. Diseases include not only zoster, but also chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia), meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis, single or multiple cranial nerve palsies (polyneuritis cranialis), myelopathy (myelitis and spinal cord infarction), and VZV vasculopathy of intracerebral and extracerebral arteries that causes ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, aneurysm, subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, arterial ectasia, and dissection...
December 2015: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Björn Ambrosius, Daniela Meyer, Lisa Schrewe, Ralf Gold
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate is an immunomodulatory and neuroprotective drug, approved recently for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In view of the limited therapeutic options for human acute and chronic polyneuritis, we used the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis in the Lewis rat to study the effects of dimethyl fumarate on autoimmune inflammation and neuroprotection in the peripheral nervous system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Experimental autoimmune neuritis was induced by immunization with the neuritogenic peptide (amino acids 53-78) of P2 myelin protein...
2015: PloS One
Hiromi Kanazawa, Naohiro Yoshida, Yukiko Iino
Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM...
December 2015: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Daisuke Taniguchi, Toshiki Nakahara Ph D, Sho Nakajima, Tomoko Nakazato, Michitaka Mikasa, Yoshiaki Furukawa Ph D
A 62-year-old woman developed meningitis as well as acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves on the right side and also had dysfunction of the left hypoglossal nerve. Although there was no evidence of a typical cutaneous or mucosal herpetic lesion, PCR detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the clinical diagnosis of polyneuritis cranialis due to VZV infection and zoster sine herpete. After starting intravenous acyclovir and methylprednisolone, her hypoglossal nerve palsy disappeared within a day and all other symptoms and signs dramatically improved...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
S Taconet, M-D Vignon-Pennamen, N Fouchard
BACKGROUND: Macular lymphocytic arteritis is a recently described type of cutaneous vasculitis involving vessels of medium size. Authors consider it as a form of polyarteritis nodosa. Herein we report a case of macular lymphocytic arteritis during the course of which periarteritis nodosa appeared. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 50-year-old man, with no history other than chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs, presented with an asymptomatic eruption involving all four limbs, mainly the lower limbs, and appearing in episodes...
October 2015: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Benjamin R Wakerley, Nobuhiro Yuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Marco Cicciù, Alan Scott Herford, Ennio Bramanti, Carlo Maiorana
Guillaine-Barré Syndrome (GBS), also known as post-infectious polyneuropathy or acute idiopathic polyneuritis, is an infrequent disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The cause of GBS is unknown. It has been associated in the past with microbial infections, vaccinations, surgical procedures and debilitation of the patient. The classic signs of GBS occurring in the two patients being reported here are muscle weakness, motor and sensory impairment and ascending paralysis with respiratory involvement. The documented cases involved GBS syndrome following oral and maxillofacial surgery in which allogeneic-banked freeze-dried bone have been utilized along with autogenous grafting...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Gaurav M Kasundra, Amita Narendra Bhargava, Bharat Bhushan, Khichar Shubhakaran, Isha Sood
A 22-year-old male student with no past medical illness, presented with acute onset dysarthria, binocular diplopia, and dysphagia over 10 hours. On examination, he had tachycardia, hypertension, generalized hyper-reflexia, and bilateral pupil sparing oculomotor, troclear, abducens, trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerve palsy. Rest examination was unremarkable. Facial nerve conduction study (NCS) showed decreased amplitude bilaterally and neurogenic pattern on electromyography. Limb NCS, repetitive nerve stimulation, neostigmine test, brain magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid, and biochemical tests were normal...
April 2015: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Vikram Londhey, Amar Pandit, Sridhar Sundaram, Meghav Shah, Harshal Dhake, Dilip S Asgaonkar
Leprosy is one of the most prevalent infections in India, with our country accounting for almost 60 percent of the world's patients. Hence unusual presentations of leprosy should be sought for and treated at the earliest. We report this rare case of polyneuritis cranialis secondary to leprosy. Affection ofa single cranial nerve has been described previously but there is only one report of leprosy presenting like orbital apex syndrome.
August 2014: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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