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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087940/the-memory-immune-response-to-tuberculosis
#1
Joanna R Kirman, Marcela I Henao-Tamayo, Else Marie Agger
Immunological memory is a central feature of the adaptive immune system and a prerequisite for generating effective vaccines. Understanding long-term memory responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will thus provide us with valuable insights that can guide us in the search for a novel vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). For many years, triggering CD4 T cells and, in particular, those secreting interferon-γ has been the goal of most TB vaccine research, and numerous data from animals and humans support the key role of this subset in protective immunity...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087918/-research-progress-on-the-role-of-tank-binding-kinase-1-in-anti-virus-innate-immune-response
#2
Xue Wang, Yuchuan Zhang, Wei Chen
The innate immune response against viral infection is mainly relies on type I interferon, the production of which is mediated by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). It is revealed that the downstream TBK1 is activated by viral nucleic acid sensors RIG-I, cGAS and TLR3. The activity of TBK1 is complexly and precisely regulated by different type of protein modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and Sumolylation. This article focuses on the role of TBK1 in anti-viral innate immunity and the regulatory mechanism for the TBK1 activation...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087817/t-cell-redeployment-and-intracellular-cytokine-expression-following-exercise-effects-of-exercise-intensity-and-cytomegalovirus-infection
#3
Emily C LaVoy, Maryam Hussain, Justin Reed, Hawley Kunz, Mira Pistillo, Austin B Bigley, Richard J Simpson
The magnitude of lymphocytosis following exercise is directly related to exercise intensity. Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) also augments lymphocytosis after exercise. It is not known if the enhanced T-cell response to exercise due to CMV depends on exercise intensity. Furthermore, exercise-induced changes in T-cell expression of type I and type II cytokines are thought to be intensity dependent, but direct comparisons are lacking. The aim of this experiment was to determine if CMV affects the exercise-induced redistribution of T-cell subsets at varying intensities, and determine the effect of exercise intensity on CD8(+) T-cell cytokine expression...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087453/the-impact-of-isgylation-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-mice
#4
Jacqueline M Kimmey, Jessica A Campbell, Leslie A Weiss, Kristen J Monte, Deborah J Lenschow, Christina L Stallings
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection results in 1.5 million deaths annually. Type I interferon (IFN) signaling through its receptor IFNAR correlates with increased severity of disease, although how this increases susceptibility to M. tuberculosis remains uncertain. ISG15 is one of the most highly induced interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) during M. tuberculosis infection. ISG15 functions by conjugation to target proteins (ISGylation), by noncovalent association with intracellular proteins, and by release from the cell...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087229/disease-associated-mutations-identify-a-novel-region-in-human-sting-necessary-for-the-control-of-type-i-interferon-signaling
#5
Isabelle Melki, Yoann Rose, Carolina Uggenti, Lien Van Eyck, Marie-Louise Frémond, Naoki Kitabayashi, Gillian I Rice, Emma M Jenkinson, Anaïs Boulai, Nadia Jeremiah, Marco Gattorno, Sefano Volpi, Olivero Sacco, Suzanne W J Terheggen-Lagro, Harm A W M Tiddens, Isabelle Meyts, Marie-Anne Morren, Petra De Haes, Carine Wouters, Eric Legius, Anniek Corveleyn, Frederic Rieux-Laucat, Christine Bodemer, Isabelle Callebaut, Mathieu P Rodero, Yanick J Crow
BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function mutations in transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173) encoding stimulator of interferon genes (STING) underlie a recently described type I interferonopathy called STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). OBJECTIVES: We sought to define the molecular and cellular pathology relating to 3 individuals variably exhibiting the core features of the SAVI phenotype including systemic inflammation, destructive skin lesions, and interstitial lung disease...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086978/correlation-of-cytokine-level-with-the-severity-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#6
Miao-Miao Liu, Xiao-Ying Lei, Hao Yu, Jian-Zhi Zhang, Xue-Jie Yu
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was an emerging hemorrhagic fever that was caused by a tick-borne bunyavirus, SFTSV. Although SFTSV nonstructural protein can inhibit type I interferon (IFN-I) production Ex Vivo and IFN-I played key role in resistance SFTSV infection in animal model, the role of IFN-I in patients is not investigated. METHODS: We have assayed the concentration of IFN-α, a subtype of IFN-I as well as other cytokines in the sera of SFTS patients and the healthy population with CBA (Cytometric bead array) assay...
January 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081442/mapping-and-role-of-the-cd8-t-cell-response-during-primary-zika-virus-infection-in-mice
#7
Annie Elong Ngono, Edward A Vizcarra, William W Tang, Nicholas Sheets, Yunichel Joo, Kenneth Kim, Matthew J Gorman, Michael S Diamond, Sujan Shresta
CD8(+) T cells may play a dual role in protection against and pathogenesis of flaviviruses, including Zika virus (ZIKV). We evaluated the CD8(+) T cell response in ZIKV-infected LysMCre(+)IFNAR(fl/fl) C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice lacking the type I interferon receptor in a subset of myeloid cells. In total, 26 and 15 CD8(+) T cell-reactive peptides for ZIKV African (MR766) and Asian (FSS13025) lineage strains, respectively, were identified and validated. CD8(+) T cells from infected mice were polyfunctional and mediated cytotoxicity...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081430/amphibian-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles-and-adult-frogs-mount-distinct-interferon-responses-to-the-frog-virus-3-ranavirus
#8
Emily S Wendel, Amulya Yaparla, Daphne V Koubourli, Leon Grayfer
Infections of amphibians by Frog Virus 3 (FV3) and other ranavirus genus members are significantly contributing to the amphibian declines, yet much remains unknown regarding amphibian antiviral immunity. Notably, amphibians represent an important step in the evolution of antiviral interferon (IFN) cytokines as they are amongst the first vertebrates to possess both type I and type III IFNs. Accordingly, we examined the roles of type I and III IFNs in the skin of FV3-challenged amphibian Xenopus laevis) tadpoles and adult frogs...
January 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077645/herpes-simplex-virus-1-abrogates-cgas-sting-mediated-cytosolic-dna-sensing-pathway-via-its-virion-host-shutoff-protein-ul41
#9
Chenhe Su, Chunfu Zheng
: Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a key DNA sensor capable of detecting microbial DNA and activating the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to interferon (IFN) production and host antiviral responses. Cells exhibited reduced type I IFN production in response to cytosolic DNA in the absence of cGAS. Although cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing signal is crucial for host defense against many viruses, especial for DNA viruses, few viral components have been identified to specifically target this signaling pathway...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077630/mavs-is-essential-for-primary-cd4-t-cell-immunity-but-not-for-recall-t-cell-responses-following-an-attenuated-west-nile-virus-infection
#10
Huanle Luo, Evandro Winkelmann, Guorui Xie, Rong Fang, Bi-Hung Peng, Li Li, Helen M Lazear, Slobodan Paessler, Michael S Diamond, Michael Gale, Alan D Barrett, Tian Wang
: The use of pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) agonists and the molecular mechanisms involved have been the major focus of research in individual vaccine development. West Nile virus (WNV) nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant has several features for an ideal vaccine candidate, including significantly reduced neuroinvasiveness, induction of strong adaptive immunity, and protection of mice from wild-type (WT) WNV infection. Here, we determined the role of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS), the adaptor protein for RIG-I like receptor in regulating host immunity against the NS4B-P38G vaccine...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076786/porphyromonas-gingivalis-promotes-unrestrained-type-i-interferon-production-by-dysregulating-tam-signaling-via-myd88-degradation
#11
Gabriel Mizraji, Maria Nassar, Hadas Segev, Hafiz Sharawi, Luba Eli-Berchoer, Tal Capucha, Tsipora Nir, Yaara Tabib, Avraham Maimon, Shira Dishon, Lior Shapira, Gabriel Nussbaum, Asaf Wilensky, Avi-Hai Hovav
Whereas type I interferons (IFNs-I) were proposed to be elevated in human periodontitis, their role in the disease remains elusive. Using a bacterial-induced model of murine periodontitis, we revealed a prolonged elevation in IFN-I expression. This was due to the downregulation of TAM signaling, a major negative regulator of IFN-I. Further examination revealed that the expression of certain TAM components was reduced as a result of prolonged degradation of MYD88 by the infection. As a result of such prolonged IFN-I production, innate immunological functions of the gingiva were disrupted, and CD4(+) T cells were constitutively primed by dendritic cells, leading to elevated RANKL expression and, subsequently, alveolar bone loss (ABL)...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073693/crosstalk-between-cytoplasmic-rig-i-and-sting-sensing-pathways
#12
REVIEW
Alessandra Zevini, David Olagnier, John Hiscott
Detection of evolutionarily conserved molecules on microbial pathogens by host immune sensors represents the initial trigger of the immune response against infection. Cytosolic receptors sense viral and intracellular bacterial genomes, as well as nucleic acids produced during replication. Once activated, these sensors trigger multiple signaling cascades, converging on the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. Although distinct classes of receptors are responsible for the RNA and DNA sensing, the downstream signaling components are physically and functionally interconnected...
January 7, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072821/maysin-and-its-flavonoid-derivative-from-centipedegrass-attenuates-amyloid-plaques-by-inducting-humoral-immune-response-with-th2-skewed-cytokine-response-in-the-tg-appswe-ps1de9-alzheimer-s-mouse-model
#13
Yuno Song, Hong-Duck Kim, Min-Kwon Lee, Il-Hwa Hong, Chung-Kil Won, Hyoung-Woo Bai, Seung Sik Lee, SungBeom Lee, Byung Yeoup Chung, Jae-Hyeon Cho
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. The etiology of AD and its underlying mechanism are still not clear. In a previous study, we found that an ethyl acetate extract of Centipedegrass (CG) (i.e., EA-CG) contained 4 types of Maysin derivatives, including Luteolin, Isoorientin, Rhamnosylisoorientin, and Derhamnosylmaysin, and showed protective effects against Amyloid beta (Aβ) by inhibiting oligomeric Aβ in cellular and in vitro models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069953/c-type-lectin-receptor-dcir-modulates-immunity-to-tuberculosis-by-sustaining-type-i-interferon-signaling-in-dendritic-cells
#14
Anthony Troegeler, Ingrid Mercier, Céline Cougoule, Danilo Pietretti, André Colom, Carine Duval, Thien-Phong Vu Manh, Florence Capilla, Renaud Poincloux, Karine Pingris, Jérôme Nigou, Jörg Rademann, Marc Dalod, Frank A W Verreck, Talal Al Saati, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Bernd Lepenies, Denis Hudrisier, Olivier Neyrolles
Immune response against pathogens is a tightly regulated process that must ensure microbial control while preserving integrity of the infected organs. Tuberculosis (TB) is a paramount example of a chronic infection in which antimicrobial immunity is protective in the vast majority of infected individuals but can become detrimental if not finely tuned. Here, we report that C-type lectin dendritic cell (DC) immunoreceptor (DCIR), a key component in DC homeostasis, is required to modulate lung inflammation and bacterial burden in TB...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069942/a-paradox-of-transcriptional-and-functional-innate-interferon-responses-of-human-intestinal-enteroids-to-enteric-virus-infection
#15
Kapil Saxena, Lukas M Simon, Xi-Lei Zeng, Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Narayan P Sastri, Umesh C Karandikar, Nadim J Ajami, Nicholas C Zachos, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Mark Donowitz, Margaret E Conner, Chad A Shaw, Mary K Estes
The intestinal epithelium can limit enteric pathogens by producing antiviral cytokines, such as IFNs. Type I IFN (IFN-α/β) and type III IFN (IFN-λ) function at the epithelial level, and their respective efficacies depend on the specific pathogen and site of infection. However, the roles of type I and type III IFN in restricting human enteric viruses are poorly characterized as a result of the difficulties in cultivating these viruses in vitro and directly obtaining control and infected small intestinal human tissue...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069935/resistance-to-type-1-interferons-is-a-major-determinant-of-hiv-1-transmission-fitness
#16
Shilpa S Iyer, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Gerald H Learn, Lindsey Plenderleith, Andrew G Smith, Hannah J Barbian, Ronnie M Russell, Marcos V P Gondim, Catherine Y Bahari, Christiana M Shaw, Yingying Li, Timothy Decker, Barton F Haynes, George M Shaw, Paul M Sharp, Persephone Borrow, Beatrice H Hahn
Sexual transmission of HIV-1 is an inefficient process, with only one or few variants of the donor quasispecies establishing the new infection. A critical, and as yet unresolved, question is whether the mucosal bottleneck selects for viruses with increased transmission fitness. Here, we characterized 300 limiting dilution-derived virus isolates from the plasma, and in some instances genital secretions, of eight HIV-1 donor and recipient pairs. Although there were no differences in the amount of virion-associated envelope glycoprotein, recipient isolates were on average threefold more infectious (P = 0...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068342/neuropathogenesis-of-zika-virus-in-a-highly-susceptible-immunocompetent-mouse-model-after-antibody-blockade-of-type-i-interferon
#17
Darci R Smith, Bradley Hollidge, Sharon Daye, Xiankun Zeng, Candace Blancett, Kyle Kuszpit, Thomas Bocan, Jeff W Koehler, Susan Coyne, Tim Minogue, Tara Kenny, Xiaoli Chi, Soojin Yim, Lynn Miller, Connie Schmaljohn, Sina Bavari, Joseph W Golden
Animal models are needed to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of Zika virus (ZIKV) and to evaluate candidate medical countermeasures. Adult mice infected with ZIKV develop a transient viremia, but do not demonstrate signs of morbidity or mortality. Mice deficient in type I or a combination of type I and type II interferon (IFN) responses are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection; however, the absence of a competent immune system limits their usefulness for studying medical countermeasures. Here we employ a murine model for ZIKV using wild-type C57BL/6 mice treated with an antibody to disrupt type I IFN signaling to study ZIKV pathogenesis...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064547/a-systematic-approach-to-autoinflammatory-syndromes-a-spelling-booklet-for-the-beginner
#18
Donato Rigante
Hallmark of autoinflammatory syndromes (AIS) is the periodic recurrence of "sterile" inflammatory attacks characterized by fever and organ- or tissue-specific inflammation. Basic research projects over the last two decades have boosted our understanding of pathological pathways, mainly involving interleukin (IL)-1 biosynthesis, and also revealed that their dysregulation results from genetically-heterogeneous inborn errors of innate immunity and leads to multiple inflammatory phenotypes. Starting from the evidence of poor response to IL-1 inhibitors of some patients with multi-organ inflammation, further research studies have disclosed a crucial role for nuclear factor (NF)-κB and type I interferon (IFN) in specific AIS...
January 9, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063160/elevated-semaphorin5a-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-is-in-association-with-disease-activity-and-lupus-nephritis
#19
Yan Du, Xinyu Wu, Mo Chen, Wenwen Wang, Weihong Xv, Lv Ye, Di Wu, Jing Xue, Wenjia Sun, Judong Luo, Huaxiang Wu
OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by extensive immune response including over-activation of T and B cells development of pathogenic autoantibodies, organ damage induced by the formation and deposition of immune complex, and the abnormal elevation of type I interferon. Semaphorin5A (Sema5A), is essentially involved in immune cell regulation and also implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. We aimed to evaluate the role of Sema5A in patients with SLE...
January 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062922/interferon-%C3%AE-mediates-human-beta-cell-hla-class-i-overexpression-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis-three-hallmarks-of-early-human-type-1-diabetes
#20
Laura Marroqui, Reinaldo S Dos Santos, Anne Op de Beeck, Alexandra Coomans de Brachène, Lorella Marselli, Piero Marchetti, Decio L Eizirik
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Three hallmarks of the pancreatic islets in early human type 1 diabetes are overexpression of HLA class I, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and beta cell apoptosis. The mediators of these phenomena remain to be defined. The type I interferon IFNα is expressed in human islets from type 1 diabetes patients and mediates HLA class I overexpression. We presently evaluated the mechanisms involved in IFNα-induced HLA class I expression in human beta cells and determined whether this cytokine contributes to ER stress and apoptosis...
January 6, 2017: Diabetologia
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