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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793169/spontaneous-rise-in-open-rectangular-channels-under-gravity
#1
Vignesh Thammanna Gurumurthy, Ilia V Roisman, Cameron Tropea, Stephen Garoff
Fluid movement in microfluidic devices, porous media, and textured surfaces involves coupled flows over the faces and corners of the media. Spontaneous wetting of simple grooved surfaces provides a model system to probe these flows. This numerical study investigates the spontaneous rise of a liquid in an array of open rectangular channels under gravity, using the Volume-of-Fluid method with adaptive mesh refinement. The rise is characterized by the meniscus height at the channel center, outer face and the interior and exterior corners...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793150/exploring-the-victimization%C3%A2-early-substance-misuse-relationship-in-search-of-moderating-and-mediating-effects
#2
Glenn D Walters, Dorothy L Espelage
This study was designed to address two research questions. The first research question asked whether physical abuse victimization at the hands of parents/guardians, bullying victimization at the hands of peers, and the abuse x bullying interaction encouraged early involvement in substance misuse. The second research question inquired as to whether the victimization‒substance misuse relationship was mediated by variables proposed by various theories and research studies-specifically, cognitive impulsivity, negative affect, and low self-esteem...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793083/optimization-adsorption-of-norfloxacin-onto-polydopamine-microspheres-from-aqueous-solution-kinetic-equilibrium-and-adsorption-mechanism-studies
#3
Yibei Wan, Xiao Liu, Penglei Liu, Lei Zhao, Weihua Zou
Polydopamine microspheres (PDMPs) synthesized by a facile solution oxidation method were adopted as a potential adsorbent for the removal of Norfloxacin (NOR) from aqueous solution. The morphologies and properties of PDMPs were characterized using TEM, SEM, FTIR and pHPZC . Parameters effects such as contact time, initial pH, initial concentration and ionic strength on the adsorption capacity of NOR onto PDMPs were studied. To maximize NOR removal from liquid phase, Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD) combined with response surface modeling (RSM) was employed based on the 17 preliminary experiments at 308 K...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792971/impact-of-active-surveillance-and-infection-control-measures-on-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-colonization-and-infections-in-intensive-care
#4
T Karampatakis, K Tsergouli, E Iosifidis, C Antachopoulos, A Karapanagiotou, A Karyoti, N Gritsi-Gerogianni, A Tsakris, E Roilides
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) infections constitute a global threat for critically ill patients and the outcome of their hospitalization. Early identification of CRGNB through rectal surveillance cultures and routine infection control measures including contact precautions, use of appropriate disinfectants, staff education on cleaning, and hand hygiene may reduce the dissemination of CRGNB. AIM: To assess the impact of enhanced infection control measures on CRGNB infections in a nine-bed polyvalent intensive care unit in a tertiary level hospital in an endemic area...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792886/t-grasp-a-targeted-grasp-for-assessing-neuronal-connectivity
#5
Harold K Shearin, Casey D Quinn, Robert D Mackin, Ian S Macdonald, R Steven Stowers
BACKGROUND: Understanding how behaviors are generated by neural circuits requires knowledge of the synaptic connections between the composite neurons. Methods for mapping synaptic connections, such as electron microscopy and paired recordings, are labor intensive and alternative methods are thus desirable. NEW METHOD: Development of a targeted GFP Reconstitution Across Synaptic Partners(GRASP) method, t-GRASP, for assessing neural connectivity is described. RESULTS: Numerous different pre-synaptic and post-synaptic/dendritic proteins were tested for enhancing the specificity of GRASP signal to synaptic regions...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792802/the-anti-biofouling-properties-of-superhydrophobic-surfaces-are-short-lived
#6
Gi Byoung Hwang, Kristopher Page, Adnan Patir, Sean P Nair, Elaine Allan, Ivan P Parkin
Superhydrophobic surfaces are present in nature on the leaves of many plant species. Water rolls on these surfaces and the rolling motion picks up particles including bacteria and viruses. Man-made superhydrophobic surfaces have been made in an effort to reduce biofouling. We show here that the anti-biofouling property of a superhydrophobic surface is due to an entrapped air-bubble layer that reduces contact between the bacteria and the surface. Further, we show that prolonged immersion of superhydrophobic surfaces in water led to loss of the bubble-layer and subsequent bacterial adhesion that unexpectedly, exceeded that of the control materials...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792780/cardiovascular-screening-practices-and-attitudes-from-the-ncaa-autonomous-power-5-conferences
#7
Christopher W Miars, Andreas Stamatis, Grant B Morgan, Jonathan A Drezner
BACKGROUND: The development of athlete-specific electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation standards, along with recent rates of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes being higher than previously estimated, has heightened the debate in the sports medicine community regarding cardiovascular screening of the college athlete, including whether certain high-risk subsets, such as male basketball athletes, should undergo more intensive screening. HYPOTHESIS: ECG and/or echocardiography screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Autonomous 5 Division I (A5DI) schools will be more common than previous reports, and there will be more frequent use of noninvasive cardiac screening for men's basketball players than the general athlete population...
May 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792738/integrated-interventional-radiology-residency-program-websites-a-development-in-progress
#8
Sherwin Novin, Paul H Yi, Taylor Vanderplas, Douglas Yim, Kelvin Hong
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the comprehensiveness of interventional radiology (IR) residency program websites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined whether all integrated IR residency programs approved in 2016 by the Society for Interventional Radiology had a dedicated residency program website. On each website, we searched for 38 elements identified as important considerations for medical students applying to diagnostic radiology residency and IR fellowship programs...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792718/fixation-of-biomaterial-to-metallic-stent-and-fixation-of-stents-after-circular-endoscopic-dissection-in-the-esophagus-on-an-animal-model
#9
R Dolezel, B Walterová, S Juhas, O Ryska, J Juhásová, Z Vacková, J Krajciova, J Král, J Martínek
INTRODUCTION: Complete circular endoscopic (submucosal) resection (CER) performed using the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique is burdened with a high incidence of post-operative strictures in the esophagus. The most effective method of preventing them is not known so far; one of the possible methods is to prevent these strictures directly at the site of their formation by covering the defect with a stent. The aim of the study was to find a way to fix a selected biomaterial to a stent, and subsequently, to fix the stent at the CER site to prevent esophageal strictures in an animal model...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792703/structure-based-design-of-inhibitors-with-improved-selectivity-for-steroidogenic-cytochrome-p450-17a1-over-cytochrome-p450-21a2
#10
Charlie Fehl, Caleb D Vogt, Rahul Yadav, Kelin Li, Emily E Scott, Jeffrey Aubé
Inhibition of androgen biosynthesis is clinically effective for treating androgen-responsive prostate cancer. Abiraterone is a clinical first-in-class inhibitor of cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) required for androgen biosynthesis. However, abiraterone also causes hypertension, hypokalemia, and edema, likely due in part to off-target inhibition of another steroidogenic cytochrome P450, CYP21A2. Abiraterone analogs were designed based on structural evidence that B-ring substituents may favorably interact with polar residues in binding CYP17A1 and sterically clash with residues in the CYP21A2 active site...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792676/dramatic-increase-in-polymer-glass-transition-temperature-under-extreme-nanoconfinement-in-weakly-interacting-nanoparticle-films
#11
Haonan Wang, Jyo Lyn Hor, Yue Zhang, Tianyi Liu, Daeyeon Lee, Zahra Fakhraai
Properties of polymers in polymer nanocomposites and nanopores have been shown to deviate from their respective bulk properties due to chain confinement as well as polymer-particle interfacial interactions. However, separating the confinement effects from the interfacial effects under extreme nanoconfinement is experimentally challenging. Capillary Rise Infiltration (CaRI) enables polymer infiltration into nanoparticle (NP) packings, thereby confining polymers within extremely small pores and dramatically increasing the interfacial area, providing a unique system to systematically distinguish the role of each effect on polymer properties...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792668/an-out-of-plane-ionic-conductivity-measurement-configuration-for-high-throughput-experiments
#12
Ruiyun Huang, Christopher J Kucharczyk, Yangang Liang, Xiaohang Zhang, Ichiro Takeuchi, Sossina M Haile
An approach for measuring conductivity of thin-film electrolytes in an out-of-plane configuration, amenable to high-throughput experimentation, is presented. A comprehensive analysis of the geometric requirements for success is performed. Using samaria-doped ceria (Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9, SDC) excellent agreement between bulk samples and thin films with continuous and patterned electrodes, 100-500 m in diameter, is demonstrated. Films were deposited on conductive Nb-doped SrTiO3, and conductivity measured by A.C...
May 24, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792485/telephone-assisted-parent-mediated-cbt-for-rural-latino-youth-with-anxiety-a-feasibility-trial
#13
Denise A Chavira, Cristina Bustos, Maritza Garcia, Francisco Reinosa Segovia, Afshan Baig, Bernardo Ng, Alvaro Camacho
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we tailor a child anxiety cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) program to fit the needs of rural Latino/a Spanish-speaking families and examine the feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and safety of this intervention using 2 modes of service delivery. METHOD: Children (n = 31; age 8-13) with anxiety disorders were recruited from primary care settings and randomized to 1 of 2 modes of parent-mediated CBT bibliotherapy: (1) telephone-delivered, therapist-assisted bibliotherapy (TTB; n = 15), and (2) a more minimal contact, self-directed, bibliotherapy condition (SB; n = 16)...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792484/-a-threat-on-the-ground-the-consequences-of-witnessing-stereotype-confirming-ingroup-members-in-interracial-interactions
#14
Valerie Jones Taylor, Randi L Garcia, J Nicole Shelton, Caitlyn Yantis
OBJECTIVES: Three studies explored interpersonal consequences of engaging in interracial interactions after witnessing racial ingroup members' stereotypical behavior. METHOD: Study 1 used experience-sampling methodology to assess ethnic minority students' (n = 119) intergroup anxiety, metastereotypes, and anticipatory behaviors following one of three types of interpersonal interactions: (a) a White person and a racial ingroup member who had behaved stereotypically, (b) a White person and a nonstereotypical ingroup member, or (c) neither...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792478/acculturation-in-the-discourse-of-immigrants-and-receiving-community-members-results-from-a-cross-national-qualitative-study
#15
Angela Fedi, Terri Mannarini, Anne Brodsky, Alessia Rochira, Sara Buckingham, Lindsay Emery, Surbhi Godsay, Jill Scheibler, Anna Miglietta, Silvia Gattino
This study explores the bidirectional and interactional process of acculturation from the perspectives of immigrants and receiving community members (RCMs). Our aim was to understand the experiences and interactions of different ethno-cultural groups and their impact on the functioning and dynamics of multicultural communities. We conducted a cross-national, cross-cultural study of acculturation processes, using interviews collected across two countries (Italy: urban regions of Torino and Lecce; U.S.: Baltimore/Washington corridor) and three distinct groups of immigrants-Moroccans and Albanians in Italy and Latin Americans in the United States-and RCMs in Italy and the United States...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792440/looking-at-the-eyes-interferes-with-facial-emotion-recognition-in-alexithymia
#16
Esther Fujiwara
Alexithymia refers to difficulties in identifying, differentiating, and describing feelings. This personality trait is highly prevalent in many psychiatric conditions and may drive associated social-emotional problems, including the ability to decode emotions in faces. This study probed alexithymic problems with identifying clear and ambiguous blends of emotions in faces and their underlying visual attention patterns. Using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, students with high alexithymia (HA, n = 73) or low alexithymia (LA, n = 76) were enrolled in this study...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792413/conductive-metal-organic-frameworks-as-ion-to-electron-transducers-in-potentiometric-sensors
#17
Lukasz Mendecki, Katherine A Mirica
This paper describes an unexplored property of conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as ion-to-electron transducers in the context of potentiometric detection. Several conductive two-dimensional MOF analogues were drop-cast onto a glassy carbon electrode and then covered with an ion-selective membrane to form a potentiometric sensor. The resulting devices exhibited excellent sensing properties toward anions and cations, characterized by a near-Nernstian response and over 4 orders of magnitude linear range...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792412/facet-dependent-kinetics-and-energetics-of-hematite-for-solar-water-oxidation-reactions
#18
Wei Li, Ke R Yang, Xiahui Yao, Yumin He, Qi Dong, Gary W Brudvig, Victor S Batista, Dunwei Wang
The performance of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system is highly dependent on the charge separation, transport and transfer characteristics at the photoelectrode|electrolyte interface. Of the factors that influence the charge behaviors, the crystalline facets of the semiconductor in contact with the electrolyte play an important role but has been poorly studied previously. Here, we present a study aimed at understanding how the different facets of hematite affect the charge separation and transfer behaviors in a solar water oxidation reaction...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792230/community-health-worker-support-to-improve-hiv-treatment-outcomes-for-older-children-and-adolescents-in-zimbabwe-a-process-evaluation-of-the-zenith-trial
#19
Chido Dziva Chikwari, Victoria Simms, Joanna Busza, Ethel Dauya, Tsitsi Bandason, Prosper Chonzi, Shungu Munyati, Hilda Mujuru, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Community health worker (CHW)-delivered support visits to children living with HIV and their caregivers significantly reduced odds of virological failure among the children in the ZENITH trial conducted in Zimbabwe. We conducted a process evaluation to assess fidelity, acceptability, and feasibility of this intervention to identify lessons that could inform replication and scale-up of this approach. METHODS: Field manuals kept by each CHW, records from monthly supervisory meetings, and participant data collected throughout the trial were used to assess the intervention's implementation...
May 23, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792191/cost-of-provision-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-provision-in-tijuana-mexico
#20
Jose Luis Burgos, Javier A Cepeda, James G Kahn, Maria Luisa Mittal, Emilio Meza, Raúl Rafael Palacios Lazos, Psyché Calderón Vargas, Peter Vickerman, Steffanie A Strathdee, Natasha K Martin
BACKGROUND: Mexico recently enacted drug policy reform to decriminalize possession of small amounts of illicit drugs and mandated that police refer identified substance users to drug treatment. However, the economic implications of drug treatment expansion are uncertain. We estimated the costs of opioid substitution therapy (OST) provision in Tijuana, Mexico, where opioid use and HIV are major public health concerns. METHODS: We adopted an economic health care provider perspective and applied an ingredients-based micro-costing approach to quantify the average monthly cost of OST (methadone maintenance) provision at two providers (one private and one public) in Tijuana, Mexico...
May 23, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
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