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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791942/emerging-viral-infections-and-their-impact-on-the-global-burden-of-neurological-disease
#1
Laura S Muñoz, Maria A Garcia, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Beatriz Parra, Carlos A Pardo
Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income regions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791940/global-neurology-navigating-career-possibilities
#2
Nicoline Schiess, Deanna Saylor, Joseph Zunt
Neurology has not typically been associated with international relief work; however, with the growth of chronic cardiovascular disease and stroke associated with unhealthy eating and sedentary ways, the appearance of "new" neurologic diseases, such as the Zika and West Nile viruses, and the high numbers of seizure disorders resulting from neuroinfectious diseases, more opportunities are arising for international and globally oriented neurologists. Multiple opportunities exist for developing a global clinician-educator career pathway, including private institutions, nongovernmental organizations, government-funded opportunities such as Medical Education Partnership Initiative, Fogarty and Fulbright Scholarships, and the American Academy of Neurology's Global Health Section...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790331/development-of-an-electrochemical-paper-based-analytical-device-for-trace-detection-of-virus-particles
#3
Robert B Channon, Yuanyuan Yang, Kristen M Feibelman, Brian J Geiss, David S Dandy, Charles S Henry
Viral pathogens are a serious health threat around the world, particularly in resource limited settings, where current sensing approaches are often insufficient and slow, compounding the spread and burden of these pathogens. Here, we describe a la-bel-free, point-of-care approach towards detection of virus particles, based on a microfluidic paper-based analytical device with integrated microwire Au electrodes. The device is initially characterized through capturing of streptavidin modified na-noparticles by biotin-modified microwires...
May 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788268/serosurvey-of-west-nile-virus-in-household-reared-pigeons-in-bauchi-metropolis-nigeria
#4
Istifanus J Waziri, Junaidu Kabir, Jacob K P Kwaga, Patrick Nguku
Background: In Nigeria not much is known about West Nile virus (WNV) in pigeons. This study determined the involvement of household-reared pigeons in the circulation of WNV in Nigeria. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Serological detection was done using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on risk factors related to WNV in households. Results: From the156 households enumerated, 376 pigeon serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies...
May 19, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782238/generation-of-a-lineage-ii-powassan-virus-deer-tick-virus-cdna-clone-assessment-of-flaviviral-genetic-determinants-of-tick-and-mosquito-vector-competence
#5
Joan L Kenney, Michael Anishchenko, Meghan Hermance, Hannah Romo, Ching-I Chen, Saravanan Thangamani, Aaron C Brault
The Flavivirus genus comprises a diverse group of viruses that utilize a wide range of vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. The genus includes viruses that are transmitted solely by mosquitoes or vertebrate hosts as well as viruses that alternate transmission between mosquitoes or ticks and vertebrates. Nevertheless, the viral genetic determinants that dictate these unique flaviviral host and vector specificities have been poorly characterized. In this report, a cDNA clone of a flavivirus that is transmitted between ticks and vertebrates (Powassan lineage II, deer tick virus [DTV]) was generated and chimeric viruses between the mosquito/vertebrate flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV), were constructed...
May 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770095/zika-virus-where-to-from-here
#6
EDITORIAL
P K Muchaal
After the waves of reported cases of infection with Zika virus swept across the Americas in 2015-16, the overall transmission of the virus in the Western Hemisphere declined in 2017. Between June 8 and August 31, 2017, only 16 new cases of Zika virus infection, all travel-related, were reported in Canada. This represents an 88% reduction in the cases recorded during the same time frame in 2016. Herd immunity undoubtedly constrains the transmission of the virus in endemic regions. However, while most countries in the Americas are no longer observing continuous transmission in the form of sustained increases over time, some areas are experiencing a notable resurgence...
January 4, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770047/emerging-infectious-diseases-prediction-and-detection
#7
N H Ogden, P AbdelMalik, Jrc Pulliam
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including West Nile virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Lyme disease, have had a direct effect within Canada, while many more EIDs such as Zika, chikungunya and Ebola are a threat to Canadians while travelling. Over 75% of EIDs affecting humans are, or were originally, zoonoses (infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans). There are two main ways by which infectious diseases can emerge: by changes in their geographical ranges and by adaptive emergence, a genetic change in a microorganism that results in it becoming capable of invading a new niche, often by jumping to a new host species such as humans...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768182/enhanced-production-and-immunological-characterization-of-recombinant-west-nile-virus-envelope-domain-iii-protein
#8
Nagesh K Tripathi, Divyanshi Karothia, Ambuj Shrivastava, Swati Banger, Jyoti S Kumar
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus which is responsible for severe and fatal encephalitis in humans and for which there is no licensed vaccine or therapeutic available to prevent infection. The envelope domain III protein (EDIII) of WNV was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using a two-step chromatography process which included immobilized metal affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. E. coli cells were grown in a bioreactor to high density using batch and fed-batch cultivation...
May 13, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768102/identification-of-dengue-and-chikungunya-cases-among-suspected-cases-of-yellow-fever-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#9
Sheila Makiala-Mandanda, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Jessica L Abbate, Elisabeth Pukuta-Simbu, Justus Nsio-Mbeta, Nicolas Berthet, Eric Maurice Leroy, Pierre Becquart, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum
For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tested negative for yellow fever virus (YFV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were selected for the study...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764954/survey-of-uk-horse-owners-knowledge-of-equine-arboviruses-and-disease-vectors
#10
Gail Elaine Chapman, Matthew Baylis, Debra C Archer
Increased globalisation and climate change have led to concern about the increasing risk of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) outbreaks globally. An outbreak of equine arboviral disease in northern Europe could impact significantly on equine welfare, and result in economic losses. Early identification of arboviral disease by horse owners may help limit disease spread. In order to determine what horse owners understand about arboviral diseases of horses and their vectors, the authors undertook an open, cross-sectional online survey of UK horse owners...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760190/tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-nonstructural-protein-ns5-induces-rantes-expression-dependent-on-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-activity
#11
Zifeng Zheng, Jieyu Yang, Xuan Jiang, Yalan Liu, Xiaowei Zhang, Mei Li, Mudan Zhang, Ming Fu, Kai Hu, Hanzhong Wang, Min-Hua Luo, Peng Gong, Qinxue Hu
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the flaviviruses that targets the CNS and causes encephalitis in humans. The mechanism of TBEV that causes CNS destruction remains unclear. It has been reported that RANTES-mediated migration of human blood monocytes and T lymphocytes is specifically induced in the brain of mice infected with TBEV, which causes ensuing neuroinflammation and may contribute to brain destruction. However, the viral components responsible for RANTES induction and the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully addressed...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757522/evidence-of-natural-wolbachia-infections-and-molecular-identification-of-field-populations-of-culex-pipiens-complex-diptera-culicidae-mosquitoes-in-western-turkey
#12
Burçin Morçiçek, Belgin Gocmen Taskin, Ersin Doğaç, Taylan Doğaroğlu, Vatan Taskin
Establishing reliable risk projection information about the distribution pattern of members of the Culex pipiens complex is of particular interest, as these mosquitoes are competent vectors for certain disease-causing pathogens. Wolbachia, a maternally inherited bacterial symbiont, are distributed in various arthropod species and can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility, i.e., reduced egg hatch, in certain crosses. It is being considered as a tool for population control of mosquito disease vectors. The Aegean region is characterized by highly populated, rural, and agricultural areas and is also on the route of the migratory birds...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757510/attraction-of-culex-pipiens-to-uropygial-gland-secretions-does-not-explain-feeding-preference-for-american-robins
#13
Mary C Garvin, Amy L Austin, Norberth H Stracker, Samuel P Slowinski, Jordan E Rutter, Maxwell Butler, Megan Michel, Rebecca J Whelan
Culex pipiens, the endemic mosquito vector of West Nile virus in eastern North America, is responsible for maintenance of the virus in avian reservoir hosts, the most important of which appears to be the American robin. One reason for the greater involvement of robins is believed to be the feeding preference of Cx. pipiens, however, the basis of this preference is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that the species-specific chemical profile of avian uropygial gland secretions are used by Cx. pipiens as cues to locate birds and, therefore, may contribute to the observed feeding preferences...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743363/comparative-characterization-of-the-sindbis-virus-proteome-from-mammalian-and-invertebrate-hosts-identifies-nsp2-as-a-component-of-the-virus-nucleocapsid-and-sorting-nexin-5-as-a-significant-host-factor-for-alphavirus-replication
#14
Ryan Schuchman, Andy Kilianski, Amanda Piper, Ricardo Vancini, José M C Ribeiro, Thomas R Sprague, Farooq Nasar, Gabrielle Boyd, Raquel Hernandez, Trevor Glaros
Recent advances in mass spectrometry methods and instrumentation now allow for more accurate identification of proteins in low abundance. This technology was applied to Sindbis virus, the prototypical alphavirus to investigate the viral proteome. To determine if host proteins are specifically packaged into alphavirus virions, Sindbis virus (SINV) was grown in multiple host cells representing vertebrate and mosquito hosts and total protein content of purified virions was determined. This analysis identified host factors not previously associated with alphavirus entry, replication, or egress...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740970/japanese-encephalitis-circulation-pattern-in-swine-of-northern-vietnam-and-consequences-for-swine-s-vaccination-recommendations
#15
A-S Ruget, C Beck, A Gabassi, K Trevennec, S Lecollinet, V Chevalier, J Cappelle
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the largest worldwide cause of infectious encephalitis in humans and is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus. JE transmission cycle involves Culex mosquitoes, pigs and aquatic birds as principal vertebrate amplifying hosts. JE infection is responsible for reproductive disorder in pigs when occurring after sexual maturity. In tropical areas, JE is endemic and the majority of pigs get infected before the age of 6 months. However, in subtropical areas, pigs may be infected after sexual maturity and thus experience clinical signs, inducing economic loss...
May 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737271/human-and-equine-infection-with-alphaviruses-and-flaviviruses-in-panam%C3%A3-during-2010-a-cross-sectional-study-of-household-contacts-during-an-encephalitis-outbreak
#16
Jean-Paul Carrera, Karoun H Bagamian, Amelia P Travassos da Rosa, Eryu Wang, Davis Beltran, Nathan D Gundaker, Blas Armien, Gianfranco Arroyo, Néstor Sosa, Juan Miguel Pascale, Anayansi Valderrama, Robert B Tesh, Amy Y Vittor, Scott C Weaver
Members of the genera Alphavirus (family Togaviridae ) and Flavivirus (family Flaviridae ) are important zoonotic human and equine etiologic agents of neurologic diseases in the New World. In 2010, an outbreak of Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly eastern equine encephalitis virus) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infections was reported in eastern Panamá. We further characterized the epidemiology of the outbreak by studying household contacts of confirmed human cases and equine cases with neurological disease signs...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734356/microbiota-epitope-similarity-either-dampens-or-enhances-the-immunogenicity-of-disease-associated-antigenic-epitopes
#17
Sebastian Carrasco Pro, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Sandeep K Dhanda, Chelsea Carpenter, Mikaela Lindvall, Ali A Faruqi, Clark A Santee, Harald Renz, John Sidney, Bjoern Peters, Alessandro Sette
The microbiome influences adaptive immunity and molecular mimicry influences T cell reactivity. Here, we evaluated whether the sequence similarity of various antigens to the microbiota dampens or increases immunogenicity of T cell epitopes. Sets of epitopes and control sequences derived from 38 antigenic categories (infectious pathogens, allergens, autoantigens) were retrieved from the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). Their similarity to microbiome sequences was calculated using the BLOSUM62 matrix. We found that sequence similarity was associated with either dampened (tolerogenic; e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733579/detection-of-multiple-pathogens-in-serum-using-silica-encapsulated-nanotags-in-a-sers-based-immunoassay
#18
Jing Neng, Yina Li, Ashley J Driscoll, William C Wilson, Patrick Alfred Johnson
A robust immunoassay based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been developed to simultaneously detect trace quantities of multiple pathogenic antigens from West Nile virus, Rift Valley Fever virus and Yersinia pestis in fetal bovine serum. Antigens were detected by capture with silica-encapsulated nanotags and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with polyclonal antibodies. The magnetic pull-down resulted in aggregation of the immune complexes and the silica-encapsulated nanotags provided distinct spectra corresponding to each antigen captured...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727611/improving-the-prediction-of-arbovirus-outbreaks-a-comparison-of-climate-driven-models-for-west-nile-virus-in-an-endemic-region-of-the-united-states
#19
Justin K Davis, Geoffrey P Vincent, Michael B Hildreth, Lon Kightlinger, Michael C Wimberly
Models that forecast the timing and location of human arboviral disease have the potential to make mosquito control and disease prevention more effective. A common approach is to use statistical time series models that predict disease cases as a lagged function of environmental variables. However, the simplifying assumptions required for standard modeling approaches may not capture important aspects of complex, non-linear transmission cycles. Here, we compared a set of alternative models of human West Nile virus (WNV) in 2004-2017 in South Dakota, USA...
May 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723166/vital-signs-trends-in-reported-vectorborne-disease-cases-united-states-and-territories-2004-2016
#20
Ronald Rosenberg, Nicole P Lindsey, Marc Fischer, Christopher J Gregory, Alison F Hinckley, Paul S Mead, Gabriela Paz-Bailey, Stephen H Waterman, Naomi A Drexler, Gilbert J Kersh, Holley Hooks, Susanna K Partridge, Susanna N Visser, Charles B Beard, Lyle R Petersen
INTRODUCTION: Vectorborne diseases are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In the United States, the most common vectorborne pathogens are transmitted by ticks or mosquitoes, including those causing Lyme disease; Rocky Mountain spotted fever; and West Nile, dengue, and Zika virus diseases. This report examines trends in occurrence of nationally reportable vectorborne diseases during 2004-2016. METHODS: Data reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for 16 notifiable vectorborne diseases during 2004-2016 were analyzed; findings were tabulated by disease, vector type, location, and year...
May 4, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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