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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816022/assessing-human-risk-of-illness-with-west-nile-virus-mosquito-surveillance-data-to-improve-public-health-preparedness
#1
S Karki, N E Westcott, E J Muturi, W M Brown, M O Ruiz
Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other mosquito-borne pathogens involves costly and time-consuming collection and testing of mosquito samples. One difficulty faced by public health personnel is how to interpret mosquito data relative to human risk, thus leading to a failure to fully exploit the information from mosquito testing. The objective of our study was to use the information gained from historic West Nile virus mosquito testing to determine human risk relative to mosquito infection and to assess the usefulness of our mosquito infection forecasting models to give advance warning...
August 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815931/organization-of-the-flavivirus-rna-replicase-complex
#2
REVIEW
Carolin Brand, Martin Bisaillon, Brian J Geiss
Flaviviruses, such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever, and Zika viruses, are serious human pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality globally each year. Flaviviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, and encode two multidomain proteins, NS3 and NS5, that possess all enzymatic activities required for genome replication and capping. NS3 and NS5 interact within virus-induced replication compartments to form the RNA genome replicase complex. Although the individual enzymatic activities of both proteins have been extensively studied and are well characterized, there are still gaps in our understanding of how they interact to efficiently coordinate their respective activities during positive-strand RNA synthesis and capping...
August 16, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815404/neurological-presentation-of-zika-virus-infection-beyond-the-perinatal-period
#3
REVIEW
Thomas De Broucker, Alexandra Mailles, Jean-Paul Stahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose was to summarize the current knowledge about the neurological presentation of Zika virus infection after the perinatal period. Other Flaviviruses infections, such as West Nile virus (WNV) or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), can result in neuro-invasive disease such as myelitis, encephalitis, or meningitis. We aimed at describing the specificities of ZV neurological infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent outbreaks demonstrated clearly the neurotropism of ZV...
August 16, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813740/west-nile-review-15-years-of-human-disease-in-south-dakota-2002-2016
#4
Lon Kightlinger
During the past 15 years, 2002-2016, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged in South Dakota resulting in 509 neuroinvasive disease (NID) cases, 745 hospitalizations and 38 deaths. Culex tarsalis is the state's primary mosquito vector. South Dakota's average annual incidence of WNV-NID and death rate are the highest of any state in the U.S. WNV cases have been reported from all counties in the state. All age groups have been infected with cases peaking in the 40-44 year age group, but deaths peaking in cases 70 years and older...
August 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811681/osteopontin-impacts-west-nile-virus-pathogenesis-and-resistance-by-regulating-inflammasome-components-and-cell-death-in-the-central-nervous-system-at-early-time-points
#5
Nikki Bortell, Claudia Flynn, Bruno Conti, Howard S Fox, Maria Cecilia G Marcondes
Osteopontin (OPN) is a molecule that is common in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, which participates in the activation, migration, and survival of inflammatory cells. However, the mechanisms by which OPN modulates inflammatory pathways are not clear. To understand the role of OPN in CNS viral infections, we used a lethal mouse model of West Nile virus (WNV), characterized by the injection of high doses of the Eg101 strain of WNV, causing the increase of OPN levels in the brain since early time points...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810044/swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-west-nile-virus-chorioretinitis-and-associated-occlusive-retinal-vasculitis
#6
Moncef Khairallah, Rim Kahloun, Salma Gargouri, Bechir Jelliti, Dorra Sellami, Salim Ben Yahia, Jamel Feki
A 65-year-old man with diabetes and a history of fever of unknown origin 2 weeks earlier complained of sudden decreased vision in the left eye. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral West Nile virus (WNV) chorioretinitis associated with occlusive retinal vasculitis in the left eye. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) of the left eye showed extensive, well-delineated, hypointense non-perfusion areas and perifoveal capillary arcade disruption in the superficial capillary plexus, as well as larger non-perfusion areas, capillary rarefaction, and diffuse capillary network attenuation and disorganization in the deep capillary plexus...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806629/aseptic-meningitis-in-adults-and-children-diagnostic-and-management-challenges
#7
Bhavarth Shukla, Elizabeth A Aguilera, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat, Rodrigo Hasbun
BACKGROUND: Aseptic meningitis represents a common diagnostic and management dilemma to clinicians. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical epidemiology, diagnostic evaluations, management, and outcomes between adults and children with aseptic meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 through September 2010 at 9 Memorial Hermann Hospitals in Houston, TX. Patients age≥2months who presented with community-acquired aseptic meningitis with a CSF white blood cell count >5cells/mm(3) and a negative Gram stain and cultures were enrolled...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805637/wolbachia-mediated-virus-blocking-in-the-mosquito-vector-aedes-aegypti
#8
REVIEW
Gerard Terradas, Elizabeth A McGraw
Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes such as dengue, Zika and West Nile cause a threat to global health due to increased geographical range and frequency of outbreaks. The bacterium Wolbachia pipientis may be the solution reducing disease transmission. Though commonly missing in vector species, the bacterium was artificially and stably introduced into Aedes aegypti to assess its potential for biocontrol. When infected with Wolbachia, mosquitoes become refractory to infection by a range of pathogens, including the aforementioned viruses...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805636/west-nile-virus-and-its-vectors
#9
REVIEW
Alexander T Ciota
West Nile virus (WNV Flaviviridae; Flavivrus) is the most geographically widespread arbovirus in the world and the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis globally. Worldwide, WNV is maintained in an enzootic cycle between primarily Culex spp. mosquitoes and birds, with human infection and disease resulting from enzootic spillover. Dynamic and complex intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the temporal and spatial variability in WNV transmission. The most current information on the relative contribution of each of these factors is reviewed and a case to incorporate detailed and localized environmental and genetic data into predictive models is presented...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803560/evidence-of-exposure-of-laughing-doves-spilopelia-senegalensis-to-west-nile-and-usutu-viruses-in-southern-tunisian-oases
#10
T Ayadi, A Hammouda, A Poux, T Boulinier, S Lecollinet, S Selmi
It has previously been suggested that southern Tunisian oases may be suitable areas for the circulation of flaviviruses. In order to anticipate and prevent possible epidemiological spread of flaviviruses in humans and domestic animals, the ecology of their transmission in the oasis system needs to be better understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of anti-flavivirus antibodies in the laughing dove (Spilopelia senegalensis), an abundant resident bird in Tunisian oases. Anti-flavivirus antibodies were detected in 17% of sampled doves...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774315/global-research-trends-in-west-nile-virus-from-1943-to-2016-a-bibliometric-analysis
#11
Samah W Al-Jabi
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging infectious disease which is most commonly transmitted to humans through mosquito, and is considered a major public-health problem worldwide. The aim of the current study is to bibliometrically analyze the quantity and quality of publications indexed in Scopus from different countries to reveal the characteristics of global research output regarding WNV. METHODS: This study is a bibliometric analysis based on the Scopus database...
August 3, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761113/cell-fusing-agent-virus-and-dengue-virus-mutually-interact-in-aedes-aegypti-cell-lines
#12
Guangmei Zhang, Sultan Asad, Alexander A Khromykh, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains more than 70 single-stranded, positive-sense arthropod-borne RNA viruses. Some flaviviruses are particularly medically important to humans and other vertebrates including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. These viruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropod species. Mosquitoes are also infected by insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that do not appear to be infective to vertebrates. Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was discovered in an Aedes aegypti cell culture...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758854/3d-qsar-pharmacophore-based-virtual-screening-molecular-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-toward-identifying-lead-compounds-for-ns2b-ns3-protease-inhibitors
#13
Pei H Luo, Xuan R Zhang, Lan Huang, Lun Yuan, Xang Z Zhou, X Gao, Ling S Li
NS2B-NS3 protease has been identified to serve as lead drug design target due to its significant role in West Nile viral (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) reproduction and replication. There are currently no approved chemotherapeutic drugs and effective vaccines to inhibit DENV and WNV infections. In this work, 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model has been developed to discover potential inhibitory candidates. Validation through Fischer's model and decoy test indicate that the developed 3D pharmacophore model is highly predictive for DENV inhibitors, which was then employed to screen ZINC chemical library to obtain reasonable hits...
October 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756236/accuracy-estimation-of-an-indirect-elisa-for-the-detection-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-wild-birds-using-a-latent-class-model
#14
Marco Tamba, Antonino Caminiti, Alice Prosperi, Philippe Desprès, Davide Lelli, Giorgio Galletti, Ana Moreno, Giulia Paternoster, Annalisa Santi, Elio Licata, Sylvie Lecollinet, Luca Gelmini, Gianluca Rugna, Anna Procopio, Antonio Lavazza
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), genus Flavivirus, are members of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic complex, and are maintained primarily in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. WNV is zoonotic, and poses a threat to public health, especially in relation to blood transfusion. Serosurveillance of wild birds is suitable for early detection of WNV circulation, although concerns remain to be addressed as regards i) the type of test used, whether ELISA, virus neutralization test (VNT), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), ii) the reagents (antigens, revealing antibodies), iii) the different bird species involved, and iv) potential cross-reactions with other Flaviviruses, such as USUV...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755145/mosquito-control-with-green-nanopesticides-towards-the-one-health-approach-a-review-of-non-target-effects
#15
Giovanni Benelli, Filippo Maggi, Roman Pavela, Kadarkarai Murugan, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Riccardo Petrelli, Loredana Cappellacci, Suresh Kumar, Anders Hofer, Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Akon Higuchi
The rapid spread of highly aggressive arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria along with the development of resistance in the pathogens and parasites, as well as in their arthropod vectors, represents a huge challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Eco-friendly vector control programs are crucial to fight, besides malaria, the spread of dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika virus, as well as other arboviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. However, research efforts on the control of mosquito vectors are experiencing a serious lack of eco-friendly and highly effective pesticides, as well as the limited success of most biocontrol tools currently applied...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754422/state-of-the-art-vest-nile-virus-circulation-surveillance-in-italy-and-transfusion-risk-early-prevention-methods
#16
C Velati, P Angelini, S Pupella
After the Chikungunya outbreak in 2007 in Italy, a national Plan for the surveillance of human vector-borne diseases has been implemented and annually updated on the basis of the epidemiological changes based-evidences. The transfusion Authorities cooperates, since 2008, with public health services and veterinary (entomological and ornithological) surveillance systems. In some Italian regions, a common protocol for exchanging data is in place to identify the West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in birds and mosquitoes: the goal is to anticipate the introduction of WNV-NAT screening in blood donors and, on the other hand, to limit testing only in geographic areas where the virus circulation is actual...
July 25, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754252/detection-of-selected-arboviral-infections-in-patients-with-history-of-persistent-fever-in-pakistan
#17
Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Nadia Mukhtar, Zarfishan Tahir, Tariq Abbas, Ehab Amir, Gabriel Defang
Surveillance is a valuable tool for understanding prevailing and previously undiagnosed infections in a geographic area. We examined 480 archived serum samples from patients with history of persistent fever (>40°C, 60-72h) who were referred to hospitals in Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Lahore, and Faisalabad districts for dengue antibody detection in 2014-15. Each sample was processed for detection of antigens and seroconversion, using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, against dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) virus serotypes 1-4, West Nile virus fever (WNVF), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), and Chikungunya virus (CGV)...
July 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754189/progress-and-works-in-progress-update-on-flavivirus-vaccine-development
#18
REVIEW
Matthew H Collins, Stefan W Metz
Most areas of the globe are endemic for at least one flavivirus, putting billions at risk for infection. This diverse group of viral pathogens causes a range of manifestations in humans from asymptomatic infection to hemorrhagic fever to encephalitis to birth defects and even death. Many flaviviruses are transmitted by mosquitos and have expanded in geographic distribution in recent years, with dengue virus being the most prevalent, infecting approximately 400 million people each year. The explosive emergence of Zika virus in Latin America in 2014 refocused international attention on this medically important group of viruses...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752627/vector-competence-of-northern-and-southern-european-culex-pipiens-pipiens-mosquitoes-for-west-nile-virus-across-a-gradient-of-temperatures
#19
C B F Vogels, G P Göertz, G P Pijlman, C J M Koenraadt
In Europe, West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks have been limited to southern and central European countries. However, competent mosquito vectors and susceptible bird hosts are present in northern Europe. Differences in temperature and vector competence of mosquito populations may explain the absence of WNV outbreaks in northern Europe. The aim of the present study was to directly compare vector competence of northern and southern European Culex pipiens (Cx. p.) pipiens mosquitoes for WNV across a gradient of temperatures...
July 28, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750867/west-nile-virus-infection-in-horses-indian-ocean
#20
E Cardinale, C Bernard, S Lecollinet, V M Rakotoharinome, J Ravaomanana, M Roger, M M Olive, D Meenowa, M R Jaumally, J Melanie, J M Héraud, S Zientara, C Cêtre-Sossah
The circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in horses was investigated in the Southwest Indian ocean. In 2010, blood samples were collected from a total of 303 horses originating from Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Seychelles and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. An overall seroprevalence of 27.39% was detected in the Indian Ocean with the highest WNV antibody prevalence of 46.22% (95% CI: [37.4-55.2%]) in Madagascar. The age and origin of the horses were found to be associated with the WNV infection risk...
August 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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