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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918229/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-trachoma-in-southern-nations-nationalities-and-peoples-region-ethiopia-results-of-40-population-based-prevalence-surveys-carried-out-with-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#1
Tesfaye Haileselassie Adera, Colin Macleod, Misganu Endriyas, Michael Dejene, Rebecca Willis, Brian K Chu, Yohannes Letamo, Tebeje Misganaw, Tamiru Mesele, Emebet Mekonnen, Alemayehu Sisay, Yeneneh Mulugeta, Wondu Alemayehu, Khumbo Kalua, Tezera Kifle Destu, Yilikal Adamu, Jennifer L Smith, Abu Beyene, Addisu Tadesse, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to estimate the prevalence of trachoma at sufficiently fine resolution to allow elimination interventions to begin, where required, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. METHODS: We carried out cross-sectional population-based surveys in 14 rural zones. A 2-stage cluster randomized sampling technique was used. A total of 40 evaluation units (EUs) covering 110 districts ("woredas") were surveyed from February 2013 to May 2014 as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP), using the standardized GTMP training package and methodology...
December 5, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915082/the-heart-failure-pandemic-the-clinical-and-economic-burden-in-greece
#2
P Stafylas, D Farmakis, G Kourlaba, G Giamouzis, K Tsarouhas, N Maniadakis, J Parissis
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of heart failure (HF) patients in Greece as well as the economic burden and the distribution of costs for the management of the disease. METHODS: Eight Greek secondary and tertiary cardiology centres from different cities have participated in a prospective, observational survey, the ESC HF Pilot Survey. 307 patients with HF, 177 hospitalised and 130 outpatients, have been recruited and monitored for 12months...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907114/rates-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-kenya-results-from-the-second-kenya-aids-indicator-survey-2012
#3
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907009/moderate-levels-of-pre-treatment-hiv-1-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-detected-in-the-first-south-african-national-survey
#4
Kim Steegen, Sergio Carmona, Michelle Bronze, Maria A Papathanasopoulos, Gert van Zyl, Dominique Goedhals, William MacLeod, Ian Sanne, Wendy S Stevens
BACKGROUND: In order to assess the level of transmitted and/or pre-treatment antiretroviral drug resistance to HIV-1, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that regular surveys are conducted. This study's objective was to assess the frequency of HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance in patients initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the public sector throughout South Africa. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted using probability proportional to size sampling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906995/assessment-of-the-world-health-organization-s-hiv-drug-resistance-early-warning-indicators-in-main-and-decentralized-outreach-antiretroviral-therapy-sites-in-namibia
#5
Nicholus Mutenda, Alexandra Bukowski, Anne-Marie Nitschke, Tuli Nakanyala, Ndapewa Hamunime, Tadesse Mekonen, Francina Tjituka, Greatjoy Mazibuko, Samson Mwinga, David Mabirizi, Evans Sagwa, Rosalia Indongo, Natalie Dean, Michael R Jordan, Steven Y Hong
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) early warning indicators (EWIs) of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR. METHODS: In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites): On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903036/cannabis-use-and-its-associated-disorders-clinical-care
#6
Jan Copeland
BACKGROUND: Globally, cannabis is the most widely used and variably regulated illicit drug. The rates of use appeared to be stable in Australia at the time of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, but levels of cannabis use disorder are rising and treatment seeking is increasing internationally. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the prevalence of cannabis use, associated disorders (eg harms with early and frequent use), and information on assessment and management...
December 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900640/statistical-effects-of-religious-participation-and-marriage-on-substance-use-and-abuse-in-racial-and-ethnic-minorities
#7
Kristine Ria Hearld, Amy Badham, Henna Budhwani
Substance use and abuse, which includes alcohol use, alcohol dependence, drug use, and drug dependence, inflicts a substantial toll on Americans. Although studies have demonstrated the protective effect of social support, such as religious participation and via marriage, understanding their influence on racial and ethnic minorities is limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of social support on substance use and abuse in racial and ethnic minorities. The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, a repository of race, ethnicity, and mental health data, was leveraged to develop four models using multivariate analysis, specifically logistic regression to estimate the probability of meeting the criteria for substance use and abuse...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894275/perceived-stress-as-a-risk-factor-for-peptic-ulcers-a-register-based-cohort-study
#8
Ulrik Deding, Linda Ejlskov, Mads Phillip Kofoed Grabas, Berit Jamie Nielsen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Henrik Bøggild
BACKGROUND: The association between stress and peptic ulcers has been questioned since the discovery of helicobacter pylori. This study examined whether high perceived everyday life stress was associated with an increased risk of either receiving a triple treatment or being diagnosed with a peptic ulcer. METHODS: Cohen's perceived stress scale measured the level of stress in a general health survey in 2010 of 17,525 residents of northern Jutland, Denmark, and was linked with National Danish registers on prescription drugs and hospital diagnoses...
November 28, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893669/cost-of-glaucoma-treatment-in-a-developing-country-over-a-5-year-period
#9
Gabriel Lazcano-Gomez, María de Los Angeles Ramos-Cadena, Margarita Torres-Tamayo, Alejandra Hernandez de Oteyza, Mauricio Turati-Acosta, Jesús Jimenez-Román
The aim of the study was to disclose a realistic estimate of primary open-angle glaucoma treatment, follow-up costs, and patients' monthly glaucoma-economic burden in an ophthalmology hospital in Mexico City.Prospective survey of 462 primary open-angle glaucoma patients from 2007 to 2012 was carried out. Costs from visits, glaucoma follow-up studies, laser, and glaucoma surgical procedures were obtained from hospital pricings. Education, employment, and monthly income were interrogated. Total cost was divided into hypotensive treatment cost, nonpharmacologic treatment cost (laser and surgeries), and follow-up studies and consults...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893297/population-based-trachoma-mapping-in-six-evaluation-units-of-papua-new-guinea
#10
Robert Ko, Colin Macleod, David Pahau, Oliver Sokana, Drew Keys, Anthea Burnett, Rebecca Willis, Geoffrey Wabulembo, Jambi Garap, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years, and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in those aged ≥15 years, in suspected trachoma-endemic areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG). METHODS: We carried out six population-based prevalence surveys using the protocol developed as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project. RESULTS: A total of 19,013 individuals were sampled for inclusion, with 15,641 (82...
November 28, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892827/rationale-procedures-and-response-rates-for-the-2015-administration-of-nci-s-health-information-national-trends-survey-hints-fda-2015
#11
Kelly D Blake, David B Portnoy, Annette R Kaufman, Chung-Tung Jordan Lin, Serena C Lo, Eric Backlund, David Cantor, Lloyd Hicks, Amy Lin, Andrew Caporaso, Terisa Davis, Richard P Moser, Bradford W Hesse
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to monitor population trends in cancer communication practices, information preferences, health risk behaviors, attitudes, and cancer knowledge. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized HINTS as a unique data resource for informing its health communication endeavors and partnered with NCI to field HINTS-FDA 2015. HINTS-FDA 2015 was a self-administered paper instrument sent by mail May 29 to September 8, 2015, using a random probability-based sample of U...
December 2016: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890720/the-lawa-model-a-sustainable-integrated-opisthorchiasis-control-program-using-the-ecohealth-approach-in-the-lawa-lake-region-of-thailand
#12
Banchob Sripa, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Thinnakorn Sangnikul
Opisthorchiasis caused by the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a major foodborne parasitic zoonotic disease in Thailand and neighboring Mekong countries. The infection is associated with several hepatobiliary diseases including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The rates of CCA in regions where the parasite is endemic are unprecedented. Extensive research on various aspects of opisthorchiasis has been conducted in recent decades. However, the current status of O. viverrini infection in the country is approaching 85% prevalence in certain endemic areas even after more than 30years of control programs in Thailand...
November 24, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890516/trends-in-e-cigarette-awareness-and-perceived-harmfulness-in-the-u-s
#13
Timothy R Huerta, Daniel M Walker, Deborah Mullen, Tyler J Johnson, Eric W Ford
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are gaining in popularity as an alternative to regular cigarettes, as they are viewed as potentially less harmful. However, it remains unclear how awareness about e-cigarettes is permeating through the general U.S. POPULATION: This study seeks to extend previous research and examine trends in e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness, and their association with smoking-cessation efforts. METHODS: Data from three cycles (2012, 2013, and 2014) of the Health Information National Trends Survey were combined into a single data set...
November 24, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886138/time-trend-in-psychotropic-medication-use-in-spain-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#14
Pilar Carrasco-Garrido, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Isabel Jiménez-Trujillo, Jesús Esteban-Hernández, Alejandro Álvaro-Meca, Ana López-de Andrés, José Luis DelBarrio-Fernández, Rodrigo Jiménez-García
Background: We performed an epidemiologic study to analyze nationwide time trends in adult psychotropic drug use over a period from 2006 to 2012, and to identify those factors associated with the likelihood of consumption of these drugs during the study period; Methods: Cross-sectional study on psychotropic medication in the Spanish adult population. We used secondary individualized data drawn from the 2006 and 2012 Spanish National Health Surveys (SNHS). The dependent variable was the use of psychotropic drugs in the previous two weeks...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883946/pattern-and-risk-of-developing-alcohol-use-disorders-illegal-substance-use-and-psychiatric-disorders-after-early-onset-of-alcohol-use-results-of-the-thai-national-mental-health-survey-2013
#15
Athip Tanaree, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon
INTRODUCTION: Although underage drinking is a global concern, little is known about the relationship between age at first drink and development of various psychiatric comorbidities. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was done among 2928 lifetime drinkers from the Thai National Mental Health Survey 2013. Age at first drink, and onset of related psychiatric outcomes were inquired. Survival analysis using Cox regression was performed to estimate the risk over time for psychiatric problems across age ranges at first drink...
November 10, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875801/the-widening-gender-gap-in-marijuana-use-prevalence-in-the-u-s-during-a-period-of-economic-change-2002-2014
#16
Hannah Carliner, Pia M Mauro, Qiana L Brown, Dvora Shmulewitz, Reanne Rahim-Juwel, Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie M Wall, Silvia S Martins, Geoffrey Carliner, Deborah S Hasin
AIM: Concurrently with increasingly permissive attitudes towards marijuana use and its legalization, the prevalence of marijuana use has increased in recent years in the U.S. Substance use is generally more prevalent in men than women, although for alcohol, the gender gap is narrowing. However, information is lacking on whether time trends in marijuana use differ by gender, or whether socioeconomic status in the context of the Great Recession may affect these changes. METHODS: Using repeated cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002-2014), we examined changes over time in prevalence of past-year marijuana use by gender, and whether gender differences varied across income levels...
November 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870547/prescribers-perceptions-of-medication-discontinuation-survey-instrument-development-and-validation
#17
Amy Linsky, Steven R Simon, Kelly Stolzmann, Barbara G Bokhour, Mark Meterko
OBJECTIVES: Primary care providers (PCPs) and clinical pharmacists have concerns about the adverse consequences of using medications inappropriately and generally support the notion of reducing unnecessary drugs. Despite this attitude, many factors impede clinicians' ability to discontinue medication in clinical settings. We sought to develop a survey instrument that assesses PCPs' and pharmacists' experiences, attitudes, and beliefs toward medication discontinuation. STUDY DESIGN: Survey development and psychometric assessment...
November 2016: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869241/new-market-labor-and-obesity-a-nation-wide-italian-cross-sectional-study
#18
Pamela Barbadoro, Elisa Ponzio, Carlos Juan Chiatti, Francesco Di Stanislao, Marcello Mario D'Errico, Emilia Prospero
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of obesity among different types of employment status in the Italian working population, and to examine associated risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 36 814 people that declared to have been occupied with the same type of contract for at least 5 years was analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models were built considering workers' sex, age, education, family body mass index (BMI) category, leisure time and occupational physical activity, weight control habits, smoking habit, use of drugs, number of working hours per week, and type of working contract...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863921/unhealthy-weight-management-practices-and-non-medical-use-of-prescription-drugs
#19
Heather B Clayton, Zewditu Demissie, Richard Lowry, Elizabeth A Lundeen, Andrea J Sharma, Michele K Bohm
INTRODUCTION: Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. With approximately one in five high school students engaging in NMUPD, it is important to understand behavioral correlates. METHODS: Data were combined from the 2011 and 2013 cycles of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. After restricting the analytic sample to students who reported a weight loss goal of either staying the same weight or losing weight, logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CIs for associations between unhealthy weight management practices (UWMPs) and lifetime NMUPD...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863827/-assessment-of-physicians-and-nurses-knowledge-and-practices-of-aerosol-therapy
#20
N Eychenne, A Jaouadi, D Macquart de Terline, A Fratta, S Laribe-Caget, O Steichen, C Fernandez, M Antignac
INTRODUCTION: Aerosol therapy is an efficient, but complex procedure. National and international practice guidelines are regularly updated. However, only a few studies have assessed the application of guidelines by users. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and practices of physicians and nurses regarding these guidelines. METHODS: Two self-administered questionnaires were designed by a working team and presented to physicians and nurses of four university hospitals in Paris...
November 15, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
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