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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789279/opportunities-for-enhanced-strategic-use-of-surveys-medical-records-and-program-data-for-hiv-surveillance-of-key-populations-scoping-review
#1
Sharon Stucker Weir, Stefan D Baral, Jessie K Edwards, Sabrina Zadrozny, James Hargreaves, Jinkou Zhao, Keith Sabin
BACKGROUND: Normative guidelines from the World Health Organization recommend tracking strategic information indicators among key populations. Monitoring progress in the global response to the HIV epidemic uses indicators put forward by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. These include the 90-90-90 targets that require a realignment of surveillance data, routinely collected program data, and medical record data, which historically have developed separately. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe current challenges for monitoring HIV-related strategic information indicators among key populations ((men who have sex with men [MSM], people in prisons and other closed settings, people who inject drugs, sex workers, and transgender people) and identify future opportunities to enhance the use of surveillance data, programmatic data, and medical record data to describe the HIV epidemic among key populations and measure the coverage of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs...
May 22, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788705/the-risk-of-microalbuminuria-by-obesity-phenotypes-according-to-metabolic-health-and-obesity-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2011-2014
#2
Inyoung Choi, Heesun Moon, So Young Kang, Hyeonyoung Ko, Jinyoung Shin, Jungkwon Lee
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed at identifying the difference in the risk of microalbuminuria among individuals with various obesity phenotypes in terms of metabolic health and obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 15,268 individuals and used data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted from 2011 to 2014. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m². Metabolically unhealthy was defined as meeting two or more of the following criteria: systolic and diastolic blood pressure ≥130/85 mm Hg or current use of hypertensive drugs; triglyceride level ≥150 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein level <40/50 mg/dL (in both men and women); and fasting blood glucose level ≥100 mg/dL or current use of oral antidiabetic medications...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785168/elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-as-a-public-health-problem-from-the-cook-islands
#3
Charlie Ave, D Ramaiah Kapa, Eric Ottesen
Background: The Cook Islands has a long history of high-endemicity lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmitted by Aedes vector mosquitoes. Though the infection prevalence had declined between 1975 and 1999 following episodic treatment activities, still infection was widespread with pockets of persistent infection. Beginning in 1999, the Cook Islands embarked on a national program, in partnership with Pacific Programme to Eliminate LF (PacELF), to eliminate LF as a public health problem. Methods: All 12 inhabited islands were identified as endemic, and six rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with once-yearly, single-dose albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) were implemented during 2000-2006 to interrupt transmission of LF...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782305/tatami-mats-a-source-of-pitted-keratolysis-in-a-martial-arts-athlete
#4
Anamaria Balić, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Branka Marinović, Daniela Ledić Drvar
Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778489/trends-in-non-medical-prescription-opioids-and-heroin-co-use-among-adults-2003-2014
#5
Sasha Mital, Michael Windle, Hannah L F Cooper, Natalie D Crawford
BACKGROUND: Patterns in non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) and heroin use have recently shifted, with evidence that NMPO-only users transition to NMPO and heroin co-use. Co-use is associated with increased risk of morbidity and overdose, highlighting the need for further investigation. This study aims to quantify, describe, and explore trends in co-use. METHODS: Using data from the 2003-2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we compared co-use to NMPO- and heroin-only use across demographic, substance use and mental health characteristics with chi-squared tests...
May 16, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773232/risk-factors-associated-with-strongylid-egg-count-prevalence-and-abundance-in-the-united-states-equine-population
#6
M K Nielsen, M A Branan, A M Wiedenheft, R Digianantonio, J A Scare, J L Bellaw, L P Garber, C A Kopral, A M Phillippi-Taylor, J L Traub-Dargatz
Equine strongyle parasites are considered ubiquitous in grazing equids across the world, and cyathostomin parasites are known pathogens causing well-described disease complexes in horses. Decades of intensive anthelmintic treatments have led to anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins, and current recommendations are to lower treatment intensity and base control strategies on fecal egg count surveillance. Little is known about risk factors associated with strongyle parasite egg shedding patterns in the United States equine population, as the most recent national survey was conducted 20 years ago...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#7
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767282/the-effect-of-medical-marijuana-laws-on-marijuana-related-attitude-and-perception-among-us-adolescents-and-young-adults
#8
Hefei Wen, Jason M Hockenberry, Benjamin G Druss
Marijuana liberalization policies are gaining momentum in the USA, coupled with limited federal interference and growing dispensary industry. This evolving regulatory landscape underscores the importance of understanding the attitudinal/perceptual pathways from marijuana policy to marijuana use behavior, especially for adolescents and young adults. Our study uses the restricted-access National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2004-2012 data and a difference-in-differences design to compare the pre-policy, post-policy changes in marijuana-related attitude/perception between adolescents and young adults from ten states that implemented medical marijuana laws during the study period and those from the remaining states...
May 16, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764108/factors-that-influence-enrolment-and-retention-in-ghana-national-health-insurance-scheme
#9
Agnes Millicent Kotoh, Genevieve Cecilia Aryeetey, Sjaak Van der Geest
BACKGROUND: The government of Ghana introduced the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2004 with the goal of achieving universal coverage within 5 years. Evidence, however, shows that expanding NHIS coverage and especially retaining members have remained a challenge. A multilevel perspective was employed as a conceptual framework and methodological tool to examine why enrolment and retention in the NHIS remains low. METHODS: A household survey was conducted after 20 months educational and promotional activities aimed at improving enrolment and retention rates in 15 communities in the Central and Eastern Regions (ERs) of Ghana...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759986/trends-in-cannabis-and-cigarette-use-among-parents-with-children-at-home-2002-to-2015
#10
Renee D Goodwin, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Samantha Santoscoy, Nina Bakoyiannis, Deborah S Hasin, Bradley N Collins, Stephen J Lepore, Melanie M Wall
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated trends in cannabis use among parents with children at home in the United States and estimated changes in prevalence of any cannabis use and daily cannabis use among parents who identified as cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with children in the home from 2002 to 2015. METHODS: The National Survey on Drug Use and Health is an annual, nationally representative, cross-sectional study conducted in the United States. Using logistic regression models, associations between cigarette smoking and any past-month and daily past-month cannabis use among parents with children in the home from 2002 to 2015 were estimated...
May 14, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758306/drug-use-among-youth-national-survey-data-support-a-common-liability-of-all-drug-use
#11
Robert L DuPont, Beth Han, Corinne L Shea, Bertha K Madras
The prevalence of substance use disorders in adults is higher if substance use is initiated during adolescence, underscoring the importance of youth substance use prevention. We examined whether the use of one substance by adolescents is associated with increased risk for using any other substance, regardless of use sequences. In 2017 we examined data from 17,000 youth aged 12-17 who participated in the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a sample of nationally representative data on substance use among the U...
May 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751763/harm-reduction-and-viral-hepatitis-c-in-european-prisons-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-25-countries
#12
Rob Bielen, Samya R Stumo, Rachel Halford, Klára Werling, Tatjana Reic, Heino Stöver, Geert Robaeys, Jeffrey V Lazarus
BACKGROUND: Current estimates suggest that 15% of all prisoners worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this number is even higher in regions with high rates of injecting drug use. Although harm reduction services such as opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are effective in preventing the further spread of HCV and HIV, the extent to which these are available in prisons varies significantly across countries. METHODS: The Hep-CORE study surveyed liver patient groups from 25 European countries in 2016 and mid-2017 on national policies related to harm reduction, testing/screening, and treatment for HCV in prison settings...
May 11, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750600/exploring-respiratory-protection-practices-for-prominent-hazards-in-healthcare-settings
#13
Kerri Wizner, Mahiyar Nasarwanji, Edward Fisher, Andrea L Steege, James M Boiano
The use of respiratory protection, an important component of personal protective equipment (PPE) in healthcare, is dependent on the hazard and environmental conditions in the workplace. This requires the employer and healthcare worker (HCW) to be knowledgeable about potential exposures and their respective protective measures. However, the use of respirators is inconsistent in healthcare settings, potentially putting HCWs at risk for illness or injury. To better understand respirator use, barriers, and influences, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers provided an opportunity to examine self-reported use of respirators and surgical masks for targeted hazards...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749877/the-british-association-for-sexual-health-and-hiv-2016-uk-national-audit-and-survey-of-clinic-policies-in-relation-to-risk-assessment-hiv-testing-and-follow-up
#14
S Bhaduri, H Curtis, H McClean, A K Sullivan
This national audit of 142 clinics demonstrated that the majority of clinics surveyed had policies and agreed clinical practice for alcohol and recreational drug enquiry, as well as documentation of HIV test refusal, although this was not the case in 24% of clinics as regards alcohol usage, 21% of clinics as regards recreational drugs use and 43% of clinics as regards chemsex usage. Regarding management of HIV test refusal, there was no policy or agreed practice in 13% of clinics with respect to men having sex with men (MSM) attenders, and in 18% of clinics for heterosexual attenders...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746451/tobacco-cessation-interventions-and-smoke-free-policies-in-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-treatment-facilities-united-states-2016
#15
Kristy Marynak, Brenna VanFrank, Sonia Tetlow, Margaret Mahoney, Elyse Phillips, Ahmed Jamal Mbbs, Anna Schecter, Doug Tipperman, Stephen Babb
Persons with mental or substance use disorders or both are more than twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as persons without such disorders and are more likely to die from smoking-related illness than from their behavioral health conditions (1,2). However, many persons with behavioral health conditions want to and are able to quit smoking, although they might require more intensive treatment (2,3). Smoking cessation reduces smoking-related disease risk and could improve mental health and drug and alcohol recovery outcomes (1,3,4)...
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743005/bashh-2016-uk-national-audit-and-survey-of-hiv-testing-risk-assessment-and-follow-up-case-note-audit
#16
Sumit Bhaduri, Hilary Curtis, Hugo McClean, Ann K Sullivan
This national audit demonstrated discrepancies between actual practice and that indicated by clinic policies following enquiry about alcohol, recreational drugs and chemsex use. Clinics were more likely to enquire about risk behaviour if this was clinic policy or routine practice. Previous testing was the most common reason for refusing HIV testing, although 33% of men who have sex with men had a prior test of more than three months ago. Of the group declining due to recent exposure in the window period, 21/119 cases had an exposure within the four weeks prior to presentation, but had a previous risk not covered by previous testing...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731288/the-impact-of-drug-policy-liberalisation-on-willingness-to-seek-help-for-problem-drug-use-a-comparison-of-20-countries
#17
Isabella Benfer, Renee Zahnow, Monica J Barratt, Larissa Maier, Adam Winstock, Jason Ferris
BACKGROUND: While the impact of changing drug policies on rates of drug use has been investigated, research into how help-seeking behaviour changes as drug policies become more public-health focused is limited. This paper investigates reported changes in confidence to utilise drug services following hypothetical changes in national drug policy among a sample of individuals who report recent illicit drug use. We predict that liberalising national drug policy will increase the propensity for people who take illegal drugs to utilise health services...
May 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716585/clinical-trial-registration-and-reporting-a-survey-of-academic-organizations-in-the-united-states
#18
Evan Mayo-Wilson, James Heyward, Anthony Keyes, Jesse Reynolds, Sarah White, Nidhi Atri, G Caleb Alexander, Audrey Omar, Daniel E Ford
BACKGROUND: Many clinical trials conducted by academic organizations are not published, or are not published completely. Following the US Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007, "The Final Rule" (compliance date April 18, 2017) and a National Institutes of Health policy clarified and expanded trial registration and results reporting requirements. We sought to identify policies, procedures, and resources to support trial registration and reporting at academic organizations...
May 2, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704107/choosing-the-allometric-exponent-in-covariate-model-building
#19
Jaydeep Sinha, Hesham S Al-Sallami, Stephen B Duffull
BACKGROUND: Allometric scaling is often used to describe the covariate model linking total body weight (WT) to clearance (CL); however, there is no consensus on how to select its value. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the influence of between-subject variability (BSV) and study design on (1) the power to correctly select the exponent from a priori choices, and (2) the power to obtain unbiased exponent estimates. METHODS: The influence of WT distribution range (randomly sampled from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994 [NHANES III] database), sample size (N = 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 subjects), and BSV on CL (low 20%, normal 40%, high 60%) were assessed using stochastic simulation estimation...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688777/frequency-of-cannabis-use-and-medical-cannabis-use-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-findings-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#20
Lauren R Pacek, Sheri L Towe, Andrea L Hobkirk, Denis Nash, Renee D Goodwin
Little is known about cannabis use frequency, medical cannabis use, or correlates of use among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in United States nationally representative samples. Data came from 626 PLWH from the 2005-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Logistic regression identified characteristics associated with frequency of cannabis use. Chi-squares identified characteristics associated with medial cannabis use. Non-daily and daily cannabis use was reported by 26.9% and 8.0%. Greater perceived risk of cannabis use was negatively associated with daily and non-daily use...
April 2018: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
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