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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109444/monitoring-protein-synthesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-using-silac
#1
M Miyagi
The static levels of proteins are the net results of their production and clearance regulated by the activities of proteins involved in their synthesis, degradation, and transportation. Therefore, the information on the rates of protein synthesis and clearance is needed to understand the underlying dynamic nature of a proteome. In this chapter, the experimental technique, we use in our laboratory for monitoring the synthesis of individual proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is described. The technique utilizes a preisotopically labeled amino acid ((13)C6-Lys) as a precursor for protein synthesis and monitors the kinetics of the precursor incorporation into the newly synthesized proteins...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108778/combining-epidemiological-and-neurobiological-perspectives-to-characterize-the-lifetime-trajectories-of-adhd
#2
EDITORIAL
Philip Shaw, Guilherme V Polanczyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108291/neuroendocrine-signaling-modulates-specific-neural-networks-relevant-to-migraine
#3
Margarida Martins-Oliveira, Simon Akerman, Philip R Holland, Jan R Hoffmann, Isaura Tavares, Peter J Goadsby
Migraine is a disabling brain disorder involving abnormal trigeminovascular activation and sensitization. Fasting or skipping meals is considered a migraine trigger and altered fasting glucose and insulin levels have been observed in migraineurs. Therefore peptides involved in appetite and glucose regulation including insulin, glucagon and leptin could potentially influence migraine neurobiology. We aimed to determine the effect of insulin (10U·kg(-1)), glucagon (100μg·200μl(-1)) and leptin (0.3, 1 and 3mg·kg(-1)) signaling on trigeminovascular nociceptive processing at the level of the trigeminocervical-complex and hypothalamus...
January 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108021/phenomenology-and-epidemiology-of-impulsive-compulsive-behaviours-in-parkinson-s-disease-atypical-parkinsonian-disorders-and-non-parkinsonian-populations
#4
REVIEW
Eimer M Maloney, Atbin Djamshidian, Sean S O'Sullivan
Impulsive-compulsive behaviours are common, quality of life affecting consequences of dopamine replacement therapy which are well recognized in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Details of the occurrence and nature of these disorders in the atypical parkinsonian neurodegenerative disorders, and in non-Parkinson's patients prescribed dopaminergic stimulation for other disease processes, are slowly emerging. Here we review what is known about the phenomenology, epidemiology and risk factors for impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease and in other, less well studied, patient groups...
December 28, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107176/integrating-neurobiology-of-emotion-regulation-and-trauma-therapy-reflections-on-emdr-therapy
#5
Anabel González, Lucía Del Río-Casanova, Ania Justo-Alonso
Emotion dysregulation is a frequent feature in trauma-related disorders. Different kinds of emotion dysregulation seem to be linked to particular psychiatric conditions, and there is growing evidence of the association between neurobiological correlates and those dysregulation patterns. Nevertheless, many of the recent findings from the field of the neurobiology have not been translated into clinical practice and are insufficiently contemplated in trauma-oriented therapies. The aim of this article is to review recent developments in the field of emotion regulation connecting these issues with the practical implementation of psychotherapeutic procedures...
January 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104573/anomalous-subcortical-morphology-in-boys-but-not-girls-with-adhd-compared-to-typically-developing-controls-and-correlates-with-emotion-dysregulation
#6
Karen E Seymour, Xiaoying Tang, Deana Crocetti, Stewart H Mostofsky, Michael I Miller, Keri S Rosch
There has been limited investigation of volume and shape difference in subcortical structures in children with ADHD and a paucity of examination of the influence of sex on these findings. The objective of this study was to examine morphology (volume and shape) of subcortical structures and their association with emotion dysregulation (ED) in girls and boys with ADHD as compared to their typically-developing (TD) counterparts. Participants included 218 children ages 8-12 years old with and without DSM-IV ADHD...
January 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102229/the-neurosteroidogenic-enzyme-5%C3%AE-reductase-mediates-psychotic-like-complications-of-sleep-deprivation
#7
Roberto Frau, Valentina Bini, Alessio Soggiu, Simona Scheggi, Alessandra Pardu, Silvia Fanni, Paola Roncada, Monica Puligheddu, Francesco Marrosu, Donatella Caruso, Paola Devoto, Marco Bortolato
Acute sleep deprivation (SD) can trigger or exacerbate psychosis- and mania-related symptoms; the neurobiological basis of these complications, however, remains elusive. Given the extensive involvement of neuroactive steroids in psychopathology, we hypothesized that the behavioral complications of SD may be contributed by 5α-reductase (5αR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of progesterone into the neurosteroid allopregnanolone. We first tested whether rats exposed to SD may exhibit brain-regional alterations in 5αR isoenzymes and neuroactive steroid levels; then, we assessed whether the behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations induced by SD may be differentially modulated by the administration of the 5αR inhibitor finasteride, as well as progesterone and allopregnanolone...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102227/singular-location-and-signaling-profile-of-adenosine-a2a-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-heteromers-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#8
Estefanía Moreno, Anna Chiarlone, Mireia Medrano, Mar Puigdellívol, Lucka Bibic, Lesley A Howell, Eva Resel, Nagore Puente, María J Casarejos, Juan Perucho, Joaquín Botta, Nuria Suelves, Francisco Ciruela, Silvia Ginés, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Vicent Casadó, Pedro Grandes, Beat Lutz, Krisztina Monory, Enric I Canela, Carmen Lluís, Peter J McCormick, Manuel Guzmán
The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A2AR and CB1R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A2AR-CB1R heteromeric complexes...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100276/realising-stratified-psychiatry-using-multidimensional-signatures-and-trajectories
#9
Dan W Joyce, Angie A Kehagia, Derek K Tracy, Jessica Proctor, Sukhwinder S Shergill
BACKGROUND: Stratified or personalised medicine targets treatments for groups of individuals with a disorder based on individual heterogeneity and shared factors that influence the likelihood of response. Psychiatry has traditionally defined diagnoses by constellations of co-occurring signs and symptoms that are assigned a categorical label (e.g. schizophrenia). Trial methodology in psychiatry has evaluated interventions targeted at these categorical entities, with diagnoses being equated to disorders...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#10
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#11
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095616/using-xenopus-to-understand-human-disease-and-developmental-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Amy Sater, Sally A Moody
Model animals are crucial to biomedical research. Among the commonly used model animals, the amphibian, Xenopus, has had tremendous impact because of its unique experimental advantages, cost effectiveness, and close evolutionary relationship with mammals as a tetrapod. Over the past 50 years the use of Xenopus has made possible many fundamental contributions to biomedicine, and it is a cornerstone of research in cell biology, developmental biology, evolutionary biology, immunology, molecular biology, neurobiology, and physiology...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095198/effects-of-small-world-rewiring-probability-and-noisy-synaptic-conductivity-on-slow-waves-cortical-network
#13
Ramazan Tekin, Mehmet Emin Tagluk
Physiological rhythms play a critical role in the functional development of living beings. Many biological functions are executed with an interaction of rhythms produced by internal characteristics of scores of cells. While synchronized oscillations may be associated with normal brain functions, anomalies in these oscillations may cause or relate the emergence of some neurological or neuropsychological pathologies. This study was designed to investigate the effects of topological structure and synaptic conductivity noise on the spatial synchronization and temporal rhythmicity of the waves generated by cells in the network...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095111/increased-numb-protein-expression-predicts-poor-clinical-outcomes-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#14
Zhenguo Liu, Canqiao Luo, Weixiong Yang, Kefeng Wang, Chuang Hu, Jianyong Zou, Hua Zhu, Liwu Fu, Jing Nie, Chao Cheng
Numb is a protein whose asymmetric segregation during cell division determines cell fate and has numerous functions relevant to multiple fields of study, including developmental neurobiology and cancer biology. Little is known about the role of Numb in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the predominant histological esophageal carcinoma in Asian populations. In this study, we focused on the expression and biological functions of Numb in the context of ESCC. From analysis of tissue microarrays with 212 patients, it was found that Numb was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues compared to corresponding non-cancerous tissues...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095003/cocaine-addiction-as-a-homeostatic-reinforcement-learning-disorder
#15
Mehdi Keramati, Audrey Durand, Paul Girardeau, Boris Gutkin, Serge H Ahmed
Drug addiction implicates both reward learning and homeostatic regulation mechanisms of the brain. This has stimulated 2 partially successful theoretical perspectives on addiction. Many important aspects of addiction, however, remain to be explained within a single, unified framework that integrates the 2 mechanisms. Building upon a recently developed homeostatic reinforcement learning theory, the authors focus on a key transition stage of addiction that is well modeled in animals, escalation of drug use, and propose a computational theory of cocaine addiction where cocaine reinforces behavior due to its rapid homeostatic corrective effect, whereas its chronic use induces slow and long-lasting changes in homeostatic setpoint...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#16
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
January 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093021/altering-ethanol-pharmacokinetics-to-treat-alcohol-use-disorder-can-you-teach-an-old-dog-new-tricks
#17
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio
Disulfiram was the first pharmacotherapy approved to treat alcohol use disorder in the 1950s. Disulfiram alters ethanol pharmacokinetics and causes uncomfortable reactions (e.g. headache, tachycardia, nausea, flushing and hypotension) when alcohol is consumed. Subsequently, a better understanding of the neurobiological pathways involved in alcohol use disorder led to the development of other medications (e.g. naltrexone and acamprosate). These neurobiological-based medications act on alcohol use disorder-related phenotypes including craving, stress, and/or withdrawal...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092199/book-reviewsreviews
#18
Márta Virág, Kollár Tamás
Michael S. Gazzaniga, Richard B. Ivry and George R. Mangun Cognitive neuroscience: The biology of the mind (International student edition) (4th ed.) Trevor W. Robbins, Barry J. Everitt and David J. Nutt The neurobiology of addiction Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010, 318 pp. ISBN: 978-0-1995-6215-2.
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092195/serum-bdnf-levels-in-patients-with-gambling-disorder-are-associated-with-the-severity-of-gambling-disorder-and-iowa-gambling-task-indices
#19
Sam-Wook Choi, Young-Chul Shin, Jung Yeon Mok, Dai-Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi, Samuel Suk-Hyun Hwang
Background and aims Gambling disorder (GD) shares many similarities with substance use disorders (SUDs) in clinical, neurobiological, and neurocognitive features, including decision-making. We evaluated the relationships among, GD, decision-making, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as measured by serum BDNF levels. Methods Twenty-one male patients with GD and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were evaluated for associations between serum BDNF levels and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), as well as between serum BDNF levels and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) indices...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090374/neurophysiological-measures-and-alcohol-use-disorder-aud-hypothesizing-links-between-clinical-severity-index-and-molecular-neurobiological-patterns
#20
Mario Vitali, Carmen Napolitano, Marlene Oscar Berman, Simona Flamminii Minuto, Gemma Battagliese, Maria Luisa Attilia, Eric R Braverman, Marina Romeo, Kenneth Blum, Mauro Ceccanti
BACKGROUND: In 1987, Cloninger proposed a clinical description and classification of different personality traits genetically defined and independent from each other. Moreover, he elaborated a specific test the TCI to investigate these traits/states. The study of craving in Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) assumed a greater significance, since ever more data seems to suggest a direct correlation between high levels of craving and a higher risk of relapse in alcoholics. Thus, our study aim is to explore the possible correlations among TCI linked molecular neurobiological pattern (s), craving and alcohol addiction severity measures in a sample of Italian alcoholics...
April 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
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