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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944987/the-international-society-for-bipolar-disorders-task-force-report-on-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-knowledge-to-date-and-directions-for-future-research
#1
REVIEW
Benjamin I Goldstein, Boris Birmaher, Gabrielle A Carlson, Melissa P DelBello, Robert L Findling, Mary Fristad, Robert A Kowatch, David J Miklowitz, Fabiano G Nery, Guillermo Perez-Algorta, Anna Van Meter, Cristian P Zeni, Christoph U Correll, Hyo-Won Kim, Janet Wozniak, Kiki D Chang, Manon Hillegers, Eric A Youngstrom
OBJECTIVES: Over the past two decades, there has been tremendous growth in research regarding bipolar disorder (BD) among children and adolescents (ie, pediatric BD [PBD]). The primary purpose of this article is to distill the extant literature, dispel myths or exaggerated assertions in the field, and disseminate clinically relevant findings. METHODS: An international group of experts completed a selective review of the literature, emphasizing areas of consensus, identifying limitations and gaps in the literature, and highlighting future directions to mitigate these gaps...
September 25, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944401/molecular-and-cellular-effects-of-traumatic-stress-implications-for-ptsd
#2
REVIEW
Matthew J Girgenti, Brendan D Hare, Sriparna Ghosal, Ronald S Duman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal and recurrent stressful memories after an emotionally traumatic event. Extensive research has been conducted to identify the neurobiological determinants that underlie the pathophysiology of PTSD. In this review, we examine evidence regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of PTSD focusing on two primary brain regions: the vmPFC and the amygdala. RECENT FINDINGS: This discussion includes a review of the molecular alterations related to PTSD, focusing mainly on changes to glucocorticoid receptor signaling...
September 25, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944257/affective-correlates-of-psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Stewart A Factor, Michael K Scullin, Alan Freeman, Donald L Bliwise, William M McDonald, Felicia C Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: To examine the nature of the association between affective disorders and psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). BACKGROUND: In PD, psychosis and affective disorders are common and independently impact quality of life and mortality. Both depression and psychosis are correlated with the occurrence of cognitive dysfunction, suggesting that they may share neurobiological substrates. Anxiety has not been examined as a correlate of psychosis. METHODS: 144 PD subjects were evaluated with the Schedule for Assessment of Positive Symptoms to assess psychotic features, while depression and anxiety were examined by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID) and self-assessment scales Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)...
March 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942748/nutritional-psychiatry-the-present-state-of-the-evidence
#4
Wolfgang Marx, Genevieve Moseley, Michael Berk, Felice Jacka
Mental illness, including depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, accounts for a significant proportion of global disability and poses a substantial social, economic and heath burden. Treatment is presently dominated by pharmacotherapy, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy; however, such treatments avert less than half of the disease burden, suggesting that additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat mental disorders. There are now consistent mechanistic, observational and interventional data to suggest diet quality may be a modifiable risk factor for mental illness...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942466/assessing-the-clinical-outcome-of-vim-radiosurgery-with-voxel-based-morphometry-visual-areas-are-linked-with-tremor-arrest
#5
Constantin Tuleasca, Tatiana Witjas, Elena Najdenovska, Antoine Verger, Nadine Girard, Jerome Champoudry, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Dimitri Van de Ville, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Eric Guedj, Jean Régis
INTRODUCTION: Radiosurgery (RS) is an alternative to open standard stereotactic procedures (deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy) for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), aiming at the same target (ventro-intermediate nucleus, Vim). We investigated the Vim RS outcome using voxel-based morphometry by evaluating the interaction between clinical response and time. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with right-sided ET benefited from left unilateral Vim RS...
September 23, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942354/the-priming-of-basic-combinatory-responses-in-meg
#6
Esti Blanco-Elorrieta, Victor S Ferreira, Paul Del Prato, Liina Pylkkänen
Priming has been a powerful tool for the study of human memory and especially the memory representations relevant for language. However, although it is well established that lexical access can be primed, we do not know exactly what types of computations can be primed above the word level. This work took a neurobiological approach and assessed the ways in which the complex representation of a minimal combinatory phrase, such as red boat, can be primed, as evidenced by the spatiotemporal profiles of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals...
September 21, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941767/a-proton-mr-spectroscopy-study-of-the-thalamus-in-twins-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
John P Hegarty, Meng Gu, Daniel M Spielman, Sue C Cleveland, Joachim F Hallmayer, Laura C Lazzeroni, Mira M Raman, Thomas W Frazier, Jennifer M Phillips, Allan L Reiss, Antonio Y Hardan
Multiple lines of research have reported thalamic abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that are associated with social communication impairments (SCI), restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB), or sensory processing abnormalities (SPA). Thus, the thalamus may represent a common neurobiological structure that is shared across symptom domains in ASD. Same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs with and without ASD underwent cognitive/behavioral evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging to assess the thalamus...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941093/staging-in-bipolar-disorder-from-theoretical-framework-to-clinical-utility
#8
Michael Berk, Robert Post, Aswin Ratheesh, Emma Gliddon, Ajeet Singh, Eduard Vieta, Andre F Carvalho, Melanie M Ashton, Lesley Berk, Susan M Cotton, Patrick D McGorry, Brisa S Fernandes, Lakshmi N Yatham, Seetal Dodd
Illness staging is widely utilized in several medical disciplines to help predict course or prognosis, and optimize treatment. Staging models in psychiatry in general, and bipolar disorder in particular, depend on the premise that psychopathology moves along a predictable path: an at-risk or latency stage, a prodrome progressing to a first clinical threshold episode, and one or more recurrences with the potential to revert or progress to late or end-stage manifestations. The utility and validity of a staging model for bipolar disorder depend on its linking to clinical outcome, treatment response and neurobiological measures...
October 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941032/are-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-comorbid-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-more-neurocognitively-impaired
#9
Imma Torres, Brisa Sole, Montse Corrales, Esther Jiménez, Sofia Rotger, Juan Francisco Serra-Pla, Irene Forcada, Vanesa Richarte, Ester Mora, Carlos Jacas, Nuria Gómez, Maria Mur, Francesc Colom, Eduard Vieta, Miquel Casas, Anabel Martinez-Aran, Jose M Goikolea, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga
OBJECTIVE: Research on neurocognitive impairment in adult patients with comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very scarce. This study assessed the neurocognitive profile of a comorbid group (BD+ADHD) compared with that of pure BD (pBD) group, pure ADHD (pADHD) group and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: This was a three-site study comprising 229 subjects: 70 patients with pBD, 23 with BD+ADHD, 50 with pADHD, and 86 HCs...
September 21, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938182/the-genetic-epidemiology-of-substance-use-disorder-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Jane Ebejer, Danielle M Dick, M Scott Bowers
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) remains a significant public health issue. A greater understanding of how genes and environment interact to regulate phenotypes comprising SUD will facilitate directed treatments and prevention. METHODS: The literature studying the neurobiological correlates of SUD with a focus on the genetic and environmental influences underlying these mechanisms was reviewed. Results from twin/family, human genetic association, gene-environment interaction, epigenetic literature, phenome-wide association studies are summarized for alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937707/meta-analysis-of-the-antidepressant-effects-of-acute-sleep-deprivation
#11
Elaine M Boland, Hengyi Rao, David F Dinges, Rachel V Smith, Namni Goel, John A Detre, Mathias Basner, Yvette I Sheline, Michael E Thase, Philip R Gehrman
OBJECTIVE: To provide a quantitative meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation to complement qualitative reviews addressing response rates. DATA SOURCES: English-language studies from 1974 to 2016 using the keywords sleep deprivation and depression searched through PubMed and PsycINFO databases. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 66 independent studies met criteria for inclusion: conducted experimental sleep deprivation, reported the percentage of the sample that responded to sleep deprivation, provided a priori definition of antidepressant response, and did not seamlessly combine sleep deprivation with other therapies (eg, chronotherapeutics, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937693/genome-wide-association-study-of-alcohol-consumption-and-genetic-overlap-with-other-health-related-traits-in-uk-biobank-n-112%C3%A2-117
#12
T-K Clarke, M J Adams, G Davies, D M Howard, L S Hall, S Padmanabhan, A D Murray, B H Smith, A Campbell, C Hayward, D J Porteous, I J Deary, A M McIntosh
Alcohol consumption has been linked to over 200 diseases and is responsible for over 5% of the global disease burden. Well-known genetic variants in alcohol metabolizing genes, for example, ALDH2 and ADH1B, are strongly associated with alcohol consumption but have limited impact in European populations where they are found at low frequency. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of self-reported alcohol consumption in 112 117 individuals in the UK Biobank (UKB) sample of white British individuals...
October 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936792/alpha-theta-neurofeedback-increases-mentalization-and-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#13
Claudio Imperatori, Giacomo Della Marca, Noemi Amoroso, Giulia Maestoso, Enrico Maria Valenti, Chiara Massullo, Giuseppe Alessio Carbone, Anna Contardi, Benedetto Farina
Several studies showed the effectiveness of alpha/theta (A/T) neurofeedback training in treating some psychiatric conditions. Despite the evidence of A/T effectiveness, the psychological and neurobiological bases of its effects is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of the A/T training in increasing mentalization in a non-clinical sample. The modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity in Default Mode Network (DMN) associated with A/T training were also investigated...
September 21, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936231/promoting-healthy-child-development-via-a-two-generation-translational-neuroscience-framework-the-filming-interactions-to-nurture-development-video-coaching-program
#14
Philip A Fisher, Tahl I Frenkel, Laura K Noll, Melanie Berry, Melissa Yockelson
In this article, we focus on applying methods of translational neuroscience to two-generation, family-based interventions. In recent years, a small but growing body of evidence has documented the reversibility of some of the neurobiological effects of early adversity in the context of environmental early interventions. Some of these interventions are now being implemented at scale, which may help reduce disparities in the face of early life stress. Further progress may occur by extending these efforts to two-generation models that target caregivers' capabilities to improve children's outcomes...
December 2016: Child Development Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935171/a-new-scale-for-assessing-wisdom-based-on-common-domains-and-a-neurobiological-model-the-san-diego-wisdom-scale-sd-wise
#15
Michael L Thomas, Katherine J Bangen, Barton W Palmer, Averria Sirkin Martin, Julie A Avanzino, Colin A Depp, Danielle Glorioso, Rebecca E Daly, Dilip V Jeste
Wisdom is an ancient concept that has gained new interest among clinical researchers as a complex trait relevant to well-being and healthy aging. As the empirical data regarding wisdom have grown, several measures have been used to assess an individual's level of wisdom. However, none of these measures has been based on a construct of wisdom with neurobiological underpinnings. We sought to develop a new scale, the San Diego Wisdom Scale (SD-WISE), which builds upon recent gains in the understanding of psychological and neurobiological models of the trait...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935098/your-system-has-been-hijacked-the-neurobiology-of-chronic-pain
#16
Erica B Baller, David A Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934193/oxidative-stress-prefrontal-cortex-hypomyelination-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#17
REVIEW
D A Maas, A Vallès, G J M Martens
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and myelin abnormalities in SZ patients. Myelin is produced by mature OLs, and OL precursor cells (OPCs) are exceptionally susceptible to oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933068/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity-research
#18
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931490/gpcrs-emerging-anti-cancer-drug-targets
#19
REVIEW
Ainhoa Nieto Gutierrez, Patricia H McDonald
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest and most diverse protein family in the human genome with over 800 members identified to date. They play critical roles in numerous cellular and physiological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, neurotransmission, development and apoptosis. Consequently, aberrant receptor activity has been demonstrated in numerous disorders/diseases, and as a result GPCRs have become the most successful drug target class in pharmaceuticals treating a wide variety of indications such as pain, inflammation, neurobiological and metabolic disorders...
September 17, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930574/food-addiction-a-common-neurobiological-mechanism-with-drug-abuse
#20
Elsa Lindgren, Kyle Gray, Gregg Miller, Ryan Tyler, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Drugs and food both exert a rewarding effect through the firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, resulting in the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens and effects on the mesolimbic pathway. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature to consider the validity of food addiction and the common neurobiological mechanisms that overlap in food and drug addiction. This review paper focuses on findings from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and structural imaging studies, as well as evidence from neuroimaging studies of bariatric surgery and pharmacological interventions on obese individuals...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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