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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821648/bilingual-language-switching-in-the-lab-vs-in-the-wild-the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-adaptive-language-control
#1
Esti Blanco-Elorrieta, Liina Pylkkänen
For a bilingual human, every utterance requires a choice about which language to use. This choice is commonly regarded as part of general executive control, engaging prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices similarly to many types of effortful task-switching. However, while language control within artificial switching paradigms has been heavily studied, the neurobiology of natural switching within socially cued situations has not been characterized. Additionally, although theoretical models address how language control mechanisms adapt to the distinct demands of different interactional contexts, these predictions have not been empirically tested...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820053/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-stress-resilience-and-implications-for-the-aged-population
#2
Charlène Faye, Josephine C Mcgowan, Christine A Denny, Denis J David
Stress is a common reaction to an environmental adversity, but a dysregulation of the stress response can lead to psychiatric illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Yet, not all individuals exposed to stress will develop psychiatric disorders; those with enhanced stress resilience mechanisms have the ability to adapt successfully to stress without developing persistent psychopathology. Notably, the potential to enhance stress resilience in at-risk populations may prevent the onset of stress-induced psychiatric disorders...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819066/neuroplasticity-of-selective-attention-research-foundations-and-preliminary-evidence-for-a-gene-by-intervention-interaction
#3
Elif Isbell, Courtney Stevens, Eric Pakulak, Amanda Hampton Wray, Theodore A Bell, Helen J Neville
This article reviews the trajectory of our research program on selective attention, which has moved from basic research on the neural processes underlying selective attention to translational studies using selective attention as a neurobiological target for evidence-based interventions. We use this background to present a promising preliminary investigation of how genetic and experiential factors interact during development (i.e., gene × intervention interactions). Our findings provide evidence on how exposure to a family-based training can modify the associations between genotype (5-HTTLPR) and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschool children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds...
August 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819053/novel-neurobiological-properties-of-elements-in-the-escape-circuitry-of-the-shrimp
#4
De Forest Mellon
Escape behaviors in peneid shrimp are mediated by large myelinated medial giant fibers which course from the brain to the last abdominal ganglion in the ventral nerve cord. In each abdominal segment the medial giant axons make synaptic connections with paired myelinated giant motor axons that excite the abdominal deep flexor muscles and drive the tailflips that constitute the escape behavior. I examined 1) anatomical features of the abdominal motor giant fibers and 2) electrical properties of both the medial giants and motor giants in the pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duoarum...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818525/whole-transcriptome-microarray-analysis-reveals-regulation-of-rab4-by-rbm5-in-neurons
#5
Travis C Jackson, Shawn E Kotermanski, Patrick M Kochanek
RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) is a nuclear protein that modulates gene transcription and mRNA splicing in cancer cells. The brain is among the highest RBM5 expressing organ in the body but its mRNA target(s) or functions in the CNS have not been elucidated. Here we knocked down (KO) RBM5 in primary rat cortical neurons and analyzed total RNA extracts by gene microarray vs. neurons transduced with lentivirus to deliver control (non-targeting) shRNA. The mRNA levels of Sec23A (involved in ER-Golgi transport) and the small GTPase Rab4a (involved in endocytosis/protein trafficking) were increased in RBM5 KO neurons relative to controls...
August 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817944/tracking-brain-development-and-dimensional-psychiatric-symptoms-in-children-a-longitudinal-population-based-neuroimaging-study
#6
Ryan L Muetzel, Laura M E Blanken, Jan van der Ende, Hanan El Marroun, Philip Shaw, Gustavo Sudre, Aad van der Lugt, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier, Tonya White
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatric symptomatology during childhood predicts persistent mental illness later in life. While neuroimaging methodologies are routinely applied cross-sectionally to the study of child and adolescent psychopathology, the nature of the relationship between childhood symptoms and the underlying neurodevelopmental processes remains unclear. The authors used a prospective population-based cohort to delineate the longitudinal relationship between childhood psychiatric problems and brain development...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817418/neuromodulation-and-neurofeedback-treatments-in-eating-disorders-and-obesity
#7
Bethan Dalton, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychological interventions are the treatment of choice for most eating disorders; however, significant proportions of patients do not recover with these. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of eating disorders have led to the development of targeted treatments, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and neurofeedback. We review the emerging clinical evidence for the use of these interventions in eating disorders and obesity, together with their theoretical rationale...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815802/prophylactic-effects-of-ellagic-acid-and-rosmarinic-acid-on-doxorubicin-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#8
Hanan A Rizk, Marwa A Masoud, Omar W Maher
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use cause neurobiological side effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prophylactic effect exerted by daily administration of ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) on DOX-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Our data showed that DOX-induced significant elevation of brain malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3, and cholinesterase associated with significant reduction in reduced glutathione, monoamines namely serotonin, dopamine, as well as norepinephrine...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814807/psychological-impact-of-vehicle-exhaust-exposure-insights-from-an-animal-model
#9
Ankita Salvi, Gaurav Patki, Hesong Liu, Samina Salim
Air pollution resulting from exhaust emissions of vehicles has risen in the recent years, reportedly causing major adverse effects on the heart, lungs and the brain. Though respiratory and cardiovascular effects of these emissions are well identified, psychological and neurobiological complications of prolonged exposure to vehicle emissions remain unknown. Pro-oxidants are considered as major constituents of vehicle emissions. This is important considering causal link between oxidative stress and behavioral and cognitive impairments...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814472/neurobiology-of-fear-and-specific-phobias
#10
René Garcia
Fear, which can be expressed innately or after conditioning, is triggered when a danger or a stimulus predicting immediate danger is perceived. Its role is to prepare the body to face this danger. However, dysfunction in fear processing can lead to psychiatric disorders in which fear outweighs the danger or possibility of harm. Although recognized as highly debilitating, pathological fear remains insufficiently treated, indicating the importance of research on fear processing. The neurobiological basis of normal and pathological fear reactions is reviewed in this article...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814463/neurobiological-correlates-of-state-dependent-context-fear
#11
Mariah A A Meyer, Kevin A Corcoran, Helen J Chen, Sonia Gallego, Guanguan Li, Veda V Tiruveedhula, James M Cook, Jelena Radulovic
Retrieval of fear memories can be state-dependent, meaning that they are best retrieved if the brain states at encoding and retrieval are similar. Such states can be induced by activating extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR) with the broad α-subunit activator gaboxadol. However, the circuit mechanisms and specific subunits underlying gaboxadol's effects are not well understood. Here we show that gaboxadol induces profound changes of local and network oscillatory activity, indicative of discoordinated hippocampal-cortical activity, that were accompanied by robust and long-lasting state-dependent conditioned fear...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813325/sleep-in-ptsd-conceptual-model-and-novel-directions-in-brain-based-research-and-interventions
#12
REVIEW
Anne Germain, Ashlee B McKeon, Rebecca L Campbell
Peri-traumatic sleep disturbances are growingly recognized as biologically-relevant and modifiable predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The exponential growth of the literature on sleep in PTSD over the last two decades has stimulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of the relationship between sleep and PTSD. A conceptual framework that captures this paradigm shift is offered. New research on existing and promising sleep-focused treatments for augmenting PTSD treatment outcomes is then summarized...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813324/cannabinoids-as-therapeutic-for-ptsd
#13
REVIEW
Mallory Je Loflin, Kimberly A Babson, Marcel O Bonn-Miller
Limited efficacy for current pharmacotherapy for PTSD indicates that improved pharmacological treatments are needed. Neurobiological research points to cannabinoids as possible therapeutic agents of interest. Moreover, observational reports indicate that there is growing popular interest in therapeutic use of cannabinoids for the alleviation of trauma symptoms. The aim of this review was to present an up-to-date look at current research on the possible therapeutic value of cannabinoids for PTSD. Experimental, preclinical, and clinical findings are discussed...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813318/gender-and-ptsd-different-pathways-to-a-similar-phenotype
#14
REVIEW
Suzanne L Pineles, Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Ann M Rasmusson
Whereas research supports the existence of a single posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) phenotype across women and men, there may be important gender differences in the pathophysiology of, or mechanisms underlying, the disorder. This paper reviews recent literature on gender differences in emotional, cognitive, and neurobiological factors, and their relations with PTSD and relevant comorbidities. Key findings and limitations from both human and animal studies are discussed. Overall, more work is needed that utilizes objective measures in addition to self-report...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813308/pharmacological-management-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Nancy C Bernardy, Matthew J Friedman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been conceptualized as an inability to cope with overwhelming stress that is followed by a distinctive pattern of symptoms. This concept has made it possible to develop therapeutic approaches for PTSD that include medication and psychotherapy options. In this article we summarize research studies on pharmacotherapies for PTSD and review new findings in the neurobiology of PTSD that are promoting the development of targeted treatment options. Research findings that have improved our understanding of psychobiological abnormalities associated with PTSD offer clinicians improved treatment strategies...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813269/parenting-and-addiction-neurobiological-insights
#16
REVIEW
Helena Jv Rutherford, Linda C Mayes
Addiction remains a significant public health concern that affects multiple generations within families, and in particular the early relationship between parents and their developing child. This article will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of parenting and addiction. Specifically, the discussion will focus on the reward-stress dysregulation model of addicted parenting, which proposes that the dysregulation of stress and reward neural circuits by addiction represents a neurobiological pathway through which to understand how caregiving may be compromised in addicted parents...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813267/protective-parenting-neurobiological-and-behavioral-dimensions
#17
REVIEW
Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
The current review focuses on a dimension of parenting that has largely been neglected in studies on human parenting, namely parental protection. Human protective parenting can be observed already during pregnancy, when mothers experiencing morning sickness avoid foods that are likely to carry pathogens and thus could be harmful to the fetus. After the birth of the baby, one of the foremost anxieties of parents is that their child will be abused or killed by strangers. Protective parenting seems to be a species-wide evolutionary-based behavior complementary to the innate bias of each newborn to strive for proximity to a potentially protective attachment figure...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813264/the-neurobiology-of-fatherhood
#18
REVIEW
James K Rilling, Jennifer S Mascaro
Only about 5% of mammalian species exhibit paternal caregiving in nature, and paternal behavior has evolved multiple times independently among mammals. The most parsimonious way to evolve paternal behavior may be to utilize pre-existing neural systems that are in place for maternal behavior. Despite evidence for similarity in the neurobiology of maternal and paternal behavior in rodents, paternal behavior also has its own dedicated neural circuitry in some species. Human fathers engage conserved subcortical systems that motivate caregiving in rodent parents and human mothers, as well as cortical systems involved with empathy that they share with human mothers...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813258/the-added-value-of-rodent-models-in-studying-parental-influence-on-offspring-development-opportunities-limitations-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Jelle Knop, Marian Joëls, Rixt van der Veen
Over the past decades, the influence of parental care on offspring development has been a topic of extensive research in both human and animal models. Rodent models offer several unique advantages over human studies, allowing for higher levels of environmental control, exploration of interventions, genetic control and examination of underlying neurobiological mechanisms in greater spatiotemporal detail. Although exploitation of these opportunities has led to increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying susceptibility to the early-life environment, translation of results to human parenting and child development appears to be challenging...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813257/social-learning-parenting-intervention-research-in-the-era-of-translational-neuroscience
#20
REVIEW
Philip A Fisher, Elizabeth A Skowron
In the decades since social learning parenting interventions emerged, many evidence-based programs have been implemented at scale in community settings, and much research is now focusing on ways to maintain fidelity and impact during the implementation process. Notably, a considerable amount of theoretical confluence has occurred in parenting interventions from social learning, attachment, and other theoretical perspectives, with parent coaching as an example of this new generation of relational interventions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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