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Stroke, brain aneurysm, brain tumor

Maruyama Kunitaka, Takuya Akai, Naoki Akioka, Takahiro Tomita, Shoichi Nagai, Satoshi Kuroda
Radiotherapy is a useful modality for the treatment of brain tumors, but may induce brain degeneration, tumor formation, and vasculopathy in the irradiated field. We describe a rare case of a pediatric patient who presented multiple different types of vascular events consecutively in the irradiated field including lacunar stroke because of occlusion of perforating artery, intraventricular hemorrhage from cavernoma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage because of the rupture of fusiform aneurysm, 6 years after radiotherapy against pilocytic astrocytoma...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Paloma Largo Flores, Felix Haglund, Pervinder Bhogal, Leonard Yeo Leong Litt, Michael Södermann
We describe two contrasting patients with multiple cerebral aneurysms and a previous history of resected cardiac myxomas with no cardiac recurrence on follow-up echocardiography. Both patients presented with stroke- like symptoms; one with a left visual defect and the other with right hemiplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of both patients showed the presence of multiple cerebral aneurysms that was later confirmed on conventional angiography. Both patients' aneurysms were managed conservatively...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
Kara A Nerenberg, Alison L Park, Simone N Vigod, Gustavo Saposnik, Howard Berger, Michelle A Hladunewich, Shital Gandhi, Candice K Silversides, Joel G Ray
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence rate and relative risk of a seizure disorder after eclampsia. METHODS: We evaluated 1,565,733 births in a retrospective data linkage cohort study in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2014. We included females aged 15-50 years and excluded patients with epilepsy, conditions predisposing to seizure, and those who died within 30 days of the delivery discharge date. The exposure was defined as a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, namely 1) eclampsia, 2) preeclampsia, or 3) gestational hypertension...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Elna-Marie Larsson, Johan Wikström
Neuroradiology with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the initial evaluation of patients with a clinical suspicion of brain and spine disorders. Morphologic imaging is required to obtain a probable diagnosis to support the treatment decisions in pre- and perinatal disorders, vascular diseases, traumatic injuries, metabolic disorders, epilepsy, infection/inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, degenerative spinal disease, and tumors of the central nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Stephen F Kralik, Gordon A Watson, Chie-Schin Shih, Chang Y Ho, Whitney Finke, Jeffrey Buchsbaum
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence, time to development, imaging patterns, risk factors, and clinical significance of large vessel cerebral vasculopathy in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was performed on 75 consecutive pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with proton radiation therapy. Radiation-induced large vessel cerebral vasculopathy (RLVCV) was defined as intracranial large vessel arterial stenosis or occlusion confirmed on magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, catheter angiography, or a combination of these within an anatomic region with previous exposure to proton beam therapy and not present before radiation therapy...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Hormuzdiyar H Dasenbrock, David J Cote, Yuri Pompeu, Viren S Vasudeva, Timothy R Smith, William B Gormley
BACKGROUND: Although International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD9-CM) coding is the basis of administrative claims data, no study has validated an ICD9-CM algorithm to identify patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy for space-occupying supratentorial infarction. METHODS: Patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy for stroke at our institution were retrospectively identified and their associated ICD9-CM codes were extracted from billing data...
June 26, 2017: BMC Neurology
Pieter Francsois Fouche, Paul Andrew Jennings, Karen Smith, Malcolm Boyle, Gabriel Blecher, Jonathan Knott, Mani Raji, Pamela Rosengarten, Michael Roberto Augello, Stephen Bernard
INTRODUCTION: Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is not only used in traumatic brain injuries in the out-of-hospital setting, but also for non-traumatic brain pathologies (NTBP) such as brain tumors, meningitis, encephalitis, hypoxic/anoxic brain injury, stroke, arteriovenous malformations, tumors, aneurysms, brain hemorrhage, as well as brain injury due to diabetes, seizures and toxicity, metabolic conditions, and alcohol and drug overdose. Previous research suggests that RSI is common in non-traumatic coma, but with an unknown prevalence of NTBP in those that receive RSI...
November 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
Omran Kaskar, Larry B Goldstein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients presenting with an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) generally have an initial noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) of the brain. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) can help identify secondary causes of ICH and detect a "spot sign." We hypothesized that performing an urgent CTA in the setting of a presumed primary ICH has only limited utility and did not alter urgent management. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients presenting with a primary ICH identified from the Duke University Stroke Registry from 2010 to 2013 who had an ICH detected on an initial NCCT...
February 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Ralf G Rempe, Anika Ms Hartz, Björn Bauer
Matrix metalloproteinases are versatile endopeptidases with many different functions in the body in health and disease. In the brain, matrix metalloproteinases are critical for tissue formation, neuronal network remodeling, and blood-brain barrier integrity. Many reviews have been published on matrix metalloproteinases before, most of which focus on the two best studied matrix metalloproteinases, the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their role in one or two diseases. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the role various matrix metalloproteinases play in brain disorders...
September 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
U R Krause-Titz, N Warneke, S Freitag-Wolf, H Barth, H M Mehdorn
After performing a decompressive craniectomy, a cranioplastic surgery is usually warranted. The complications of this reconstructive procedure may differ from the initial operation. The authors of this study report on their experience to define patient-specific and procedural risk factors for possible complications following cranioplasty influencing the outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)), mobility, shunt dependency, and seizures. A retrospective analysis of 263 patients of all ages and both sexes who had undergone cranioplasty after craniectomy for traumatic brain injury (including chronic subdural hematoma), subarachnoidal hemorrhage (including intracerebral hemorrhage), ischemic stroke, and tumor surgery in one single center in 12 years from January 2000 to March 2012 has been carried out...
January 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Apostolos Safouris, Andrei V Alexandrov
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) remains the only approved therapy that may reverse neurological deficit in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). During the past 20 years, accumulating real-word experience have provided additional information regarding its safety and efficacy in various clinical settings that were originally considered as contraindications for systemic thrombolysis. AREAS COVERED: In this narrative review, we address the safety of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in specific conditions: dissection of the aortic arch of extracranial and intracranial arteries, concomitant presence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations and dural fistulas, co-existing brain tumors as well as in conditions mimicking AIS...
June 2015: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Yuki Kamiya, Hiroo Ichikawa, Keita Mizuma, Kazuhiro Itaya, Yuki Shimizu, Mitsuru Kawamura
A 48-year-old woman with no previous neurological diseases was transferred to our hospital because of sudden-onset unconsciousness. On arrival, she showed consciousness disturbance (E1V1M3 on the Glasgow Coma Scale), tetraplegia, right conjugate deviation and bilateral pathological reflexes. These symptoms resulted in a NIH stroke scale score of 32. Brain diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) showed multiple hyper-intense lesions, and MR angiography revealed occlusions of the basilar artery (BA) and superior branch of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA)...
2014: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
A Shaun Rowe, Haley Goodwin, Gretchen M Brophy, Jennifer Bushwitz, Amber Castle, David Deen, Dachelle Johnson, Christine Lesch, Norah Liang, Emily Potter, Christina Roels, Karen Samaan, Denise H Rhoney
Seizures are a well-described complication of acute brain injury and neurosurgery. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are frequently utilized for seizure prophylaxis in neurocritical care patients. In this review, the Neurocritical Care Society Pharmacy Section describes the evidence associated with the use of AEDs for seizure prophylaxis in patients with intracerebral tumors, traumatic brain injury, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, craniotomy, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Clear evidence indicates that the short-term use of AEDs for seizure prophylaxis in patients with traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may be beneficial; however, evidence to support the use of AEDs in other disease states is less clear...
2014: Pharmacotherapy
Abel Po-Hao Huang, Jui-Chang Tsai, Lu-Ting Kuo, Chung-Wei Lee, Hong-Shiee Lai, Li-Kai Tsai, Sheng-Jean Huang, Chien-Min Chen, Yuan-Shen Chen, Hao-Yu Chuang, Max Wintermark
OBJECT: Currently, perfusion CT (PCT) is a valuable imaging technique that has been successfully applied to the clinical management of patients with ischemic stroke and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, recent literature and the authors' experience have shown that PCT has many more important clinical applications in a variety of neurosurgical conditions. Therefore, the authors share their experiences of its application in various diseases of the cerebrovascular, neurotraumatology, and neurooncology fields and review the pertinent literature regarding expanding PCT applications for neurosurgical conditions, including pitfalls and future developments...
February 2014: Journal of Neurosurgery
Peiman Nazerian, Simone Vanni, Claudia Tarocchi, Emilio Portaccio, Nadia Vannucci, Ombretta Para, Giuseppe Giannazzo, Chiara Gigli, Stefano Grifoni
BACKGROUND: Studies on frequency and underlying diseases causing binocular diplopia in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of different diseases causing diplopia and the role of medical history, clinical examination, and unenhanced head computed tomography (UHCT) in the identification of secondary diplopia. METHODS: Diplopic patients presenting to the ED were enrolled prospectively...
April 2014: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
Izlem Izbudak, Majid Chalian, Nancy Hutton, Visveshwar Baskaran, Lori Jordan, George K Siberry, Philippe Gailloud, Allison L Agwu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although HIV infection is decreasing in infants and children, there is a steady cohort of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children that are growing older. Increased risk of acute stroke has been reported in PHIV children. Our goal was to evaluate evolution/progression of neuroimaging findings in PHIV youth initially presenting with acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of PHIV pediatric patients (n = 179) from 1996 to 2010 were reviewed and patients with clinical documentation of acute stroke referred to the neuroradiology service were eligible for the study...
July 2013: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Jeff W Chen, Shana L Rogers, Zoe J Gombart, David E Adler, Sandy Cecil
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microdialysis (MD) provides valuable information about brain metabolism under normal and pathologic conditions. The CMA 600 microdialysis analyzer received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for clinical use in the United States in 2005. Since then, cerebral MD has been increasingly utilized nationally in the multimodal monitoring of traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain tumors. We describe a 5-year, single-institutional experience using cerebral MD at a community-based hospital, Legacy Emanuel Medical Center (LEMC)...
2012: Surgical Neurology International
Akira Yokote, Yoshio Tsuboi, Kousuke Fukuhara, Jun Tsugawa, Hirosato Inoue, Mikiko Aoki, Kazuki Nabeshima, Hitoshi Tsugu, Toru Inoue, Tatsuo Yamada
Bilateral abducens nerve palsy is an unusual clinical presentation, which could be caused by stroke, aneurysm, trauma and malignant neoplasm. We describe here a patient with bilateral abducens nerve palsy caused by large B cell lymphoma originated from clivus. An 83-year-old woman admitted to our hospital because of diplopia and severe posterior neck pain. Her diplopia developed one month before and progressed to her admission. Neurological examination revealed bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Brain MRI with enhancement lesion in the clivus, suggesting that bilateral petroclival segment of the abducens nerves were affected by the lesion...
2012: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Seung-Jae Lee, Jae-Hyun Kim, Chan-Young Na, Sam-Sae Oh
BACKGROUND: Cardiac myxomas are rare but are the most common cardiac tumors. This study is based on our clinical experience with cardiac myxomas over a period of 11 years at Sejong General Hospital. We focused on the embolic complications of patients with cardiac myxoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 59 consecutive patients with cardiac myxoma who were treated between January 2000 and March 2011. The myxomas were divided into two types: type 1, with an irregular or villous surface and a soft consistency, and type 2, with a smooth surface and a compact consistency...
2012: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Wajd N Al-Holou, Adam Khan, Thomas J Wilson, William R Stetler, Gaurang V Shah, Cormac O Maher
OBJECT: The aim of this article was to report on the nature and prevalence of incidental imaging findings in a consecutive series of patients older than 90 years of age who underwent intracranial imaging for any reason. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical and imaging records of consecutive patients who underwent brain MR imaging at a single institution over a 153-month interval and were at least 90 but less than 100 years of age at the time of the imaging study...
December 2011: Neurosurgical Focus
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